|City of Oxnard|
Gateway to the Channel Islands
Location in the United States
Oxnard (the United States)
|Incorporated||June 30, 1903|
|Named for||Henry T. Oxnard|
|• City council|
|• City treasurer||Phil Molina|
|• City clerk||Rose Chaparro|
|• City manager||Alexander Nguyen|
|• Total||39.14 sq mi (101.38 km2)|
|• Land||26.53 sq mi (68.70 km2)|
|• Water||12.62 sq mi (32.68 km2) 31.41%|
|Elevation||52 ft (16 m)|
|• Rank||1st in Ventura County|
22nd in California
110th in the United States
|• Density||7,616.40/sq mi (2,940.71/km2)|
|Time zone||UTC−8 (Pacific)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC−7 (PDT)|
|Area codes||805 and 820|
|GNIS feature IDs||1652766, 2411347|
Oxnard (Listen) is a city in Ventura County, California, United States. On California's South Coast, it is the most populous city in Ventura County and the 22nd most populous city in California. Incorporated in 1903, Oxnard lies approximately 60 miles (97 km) west of downtown Los Angeles and is part of the larger Greater Los Angeles area.
It is at the western edge of the fertile Oxnard Plain, adjacent to agricultural fields with strawberries, lima beans and other vegetable crops. Oxnard is also a major transportation hub in Southern California, with Amtrak, Union Pacific, Metrolink, Greyhound, and Intercalifornias stopping there. It also has a small regional airport, Oxnard Airport (OXR).
Oxnard's population was 202,063 as of 2020. It is the most populous city in the Oxnard-Thousand Oaks-Ventura, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area.
Before the arrival of Europeans, the area was inhabited by Chumash Native Americans. The first European to encounter the area was explorer João Rodrigues Cabrilho, who claimed it for Spain in 1542. During the mission period, Mission San Buenaventura, established in 1782, used the area for raising cattle.
Ranching began to take hold among Californio settlers, who lost their regional influence when California became a US state in 1850. At about the same time, the area was settled by American farmers, who cultivated barley and lima beans.
The Gottfried Maulhardt/Albert Pfeiler Farm site is now an historic farm park.
Henry T. Oxnard, founder of Moorhead, Minnesota-based American Crystal Sugar Company who operated a successful sugar beet factory with his three brothers (Benjamin, James, and Robert) in Chino, California, was enticed to build a $2 million factory on the plain inland from Port Hueneme. Shortly after the 1897 beet campaign, a new town emerged, now commemorated on the National Register of Historic Places as the Henry T. Oxnard Historic District. Oxnard intended to name the settlement after the Greek word for "sugar", zachari, but frustrated by bureaucracy, named it after himself. Given the potential growth of the town of Oxnard, in the spring of 1898, a railroad station was built to service the plant, which attracted a population of Chinese, Japanese, and Mexican laborers and enough commerce to merit the designation of a town. The Oxnard brothers, who never lived in their namesake city, sold both the Chino and the giant red-brick Oxnard factory in 1899 for nearly $4 million. The Oxnard factory with its landmark twin smokestacks operated from August 19, 1899 until October 26, 1959. Factory operations were interrupted in the Oxnard Strike of 1903.
Oxnard was incorporated as a California city on June 30, 1903, and the public library was opened in 1907. Prior to and during World War II, the naval bases of Point Mugu and Port Hueneme were established in the area to take advantage of the only major navigable port on California's coast between the Port of Los Angeles and San Francisco Bay, and the bases in turn encouraged the development of the defense-based aerospace and communications industries.
In the mid-20th century Oxnard grew and developed the areas outside the downtown with homes, industry, retail, and a new harbor named Channel Islands Harbor. Martin V. ("Bud") Smith (1916–2001) became an influential developer. Smith's first enterprise in 1941 was the Colonial House Restaurant (demolished 1988) and then the Wagon Wheel Junction in 1947, (demolished 2011). He was also involved in the development of the high-rise towers at the Topa Financial Plaza, the Channel Islands Harbor, Casa Sirena Resort, the Esplanade Shopping Mall, Fisherman's Wharf, the Carriage Square Shopping Center, the Maritime Museum, and many other hotel, restaurant and retail projects.
In June 2004, the Oxnard Police Department and the Ventura County Sheriff imposed a gang injunction over a 6.6-square-mile (17 km2) area of the central district of the city, in order to restrict gang activity. The injunction was upheld in the Ventura County Superior Court and made a permanent law in 2005. A similar injunction was imposed in September 2006 over a 4.26-square-mile (11.0 km2) area of the south side of the city. Prohibited activities include associating with other known gang members, witness intimidation, possessing firearms or using gang gestures. Since then, court decisions have made adding people to the civil orders more stringent, stemming from lawsuits in Los Angeles and Orange counties. Judges determined that it was unconstitutional for people to be added to a gang injunction without a due-process hearing. As a result of budget cuts due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the Oxnard police stopped maintaining and enforcing the injunction in 2020.
Oxnard is located on the Oxnard Plain, an area with fertile soil. With its beaches, dunes, wetlands, creeks and the Santa Clara River, the area contains a number of important biological communities. Native plant communities include: coastal sage scrub, California Annual Grassland, and Coastal Dune Scrub species; however, most native plants have been eliminated from within the city limits to make way for agriculture and urban and industrial development. Also native to the region is the endangered Ventura Marsh Milkvetch, and the last self-sustaining population is in Oxnard in the center of an approved housing development.
The Santa Clara River separates Oxnard and Ventura. Tributaries to this river include Sespe Creek, Piru Creek, and Castaic Creek.
Oxnard is on a tectonically active plate, since most of Coastal California is near the boundaries between the Pacific and North American Plates. The San Andreas Fault, which demarcates this boundary, is about 40 miles away.
One active fault that transverses Oxnard is the Oak Ridge Fault, which straddles the Santa Clara River Valley westward from the Santa Susana Mountains, crosses the Oxnard Plain through Oxnard, and extends into the Santa Barbara Channel. The coastline is subject to inundation by a tsunami up to 23 feet in height.
The fault has proven to be a significant contributor to seismic activity in the Oxnard region and beyond. The 6.7 Mw Northridge earthquake that occurred on January 17, 1994 is believed to have occurred in the Santa Clarita extension of the Oak Ridge Fault. Landslides and ridge-top shattering resulting from the Northridge earthquake were observed above Moorpark, a city 19.6 mi (31.5 km) east of Oxnard.
Oxnard is the location of the National Weather Service forecast office that serves the Los Angeles area. The city is situated in a Mediterranean (dry subtropical) climate zone, experiencing mild and relatively wet winters, and warm, dry summers, in a climate called the warm-summer Mediterranean climate. Onshore breezes keep the communities of Oxnard cooler in summer and warmer in winter than those further inland. The average mean temperature is 61 °F (16 °C). The average minimum temperature is 52 °F (11 °C) and the average maximum temperature is 69 °F (21 °C). Generally the weather is mild and dry, with around 300 days of sunshine annually. The average annual precipitation is 15.62 in (397 mm).
|Climate data for Oxnard, California (Oxnard Airport), 1991–2020 normals|
|Record high °F (°C)||97
|Average high °F (°C)||65.9
|Average low °F (°C)||46.1
|Record low °F (°C)||20
|Average precipitation inches (mm)||2.92
The area contains a number of important biological communities. Native plant communities include coastal sage scrub, California Annual Grassland, and Coastal Dune Scrub species; however, most native plants have been eliminated from within the city limits to make way for development. Also native to the region is the endangered Ventura Marsh Milkvetch, with the last self-sustaining population in Oxnard being at the center of a housing development.
The balance of wildlife in Oxnard is similar to that of most places in southern California, with small mammals being common in urbanized areas, like squirrels, raccoons, and skunks. Coyotes prey on these smaller mammals. Small birds and mammals can be food for stray, feral, and pet dogs and cats.
Oxnard has more coastal power plants than any other city in California, with three fossil-fuel power plants providing energy for cities in both Ventura and Santa Barbara Counties. The California Environmental Protection Agency (CalEPA) has identified Oxnard as a city excessively burdened by multiple sources of pollution. Two of the power plants use ocean water cooling. The Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment has categorized much of Oxnard in the top 10 percent of ZIP codes most negatively impacted by pollution in the state.  In May 2015, the Oxnard City Council unanimously voted to extend the city moratorium on power plant construction. This moratorium extension occurred due to NRG/Southern California Edison's proposal, also referred to as the Puente Power Project, to construct a new fossil-fuel power plant. The next morning, a NRG representative stated their case to replace the old power generation plant at Mandalay beach with a new, hi-tech, much cleaner and more efficient plant.
Pesticides are used in the agricultural fields surrounding Oxnard, as the area is one of the nation's leading strawberry producers, with agriculture being one of the top contributors to Oxnard's economy. Strawberries depend on large applications of fumigants containing pesticides. The Center for Health Journalism reported four ZIP codes with the highest pesticide use in the state clustered around Oxnard.
Rio Mesa High School, surrounded by agricultural fields of the Oxnard Plain, has been at the center of a Title VI Civil Rights Act complaint since 1999, covering three generations. Title VI prohibits recipients of federal funding from discriminating on the basis of race, color or national origin. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) routinely awards California pesticide regulators millions of dollars in grants. The EPA is required to ensure the recipients of its funding to be in compliance with Title VI. The plaintiffs argue that California pesticide regulators violated Title VI, by approving permits for toxins that disproportionately impacted Latino schoolchildren, who attended schools adjacent to fields with the highest methyl bromide levels in the state.
The historical architectural styles of Oxnard ranch family homes are Victorian era, Italian style, and Carpenter Gothic. In the Henry T. Oxnard Historic District, there are five Prairie School and eight Tudor Revival homes. The district includes Mission/Spanish Revival, Bungalow/craftsman, Colonial Revival, and other architecture.
Oxnard is a combination of neighborhoods, and urban development focused on the downtown, coastline, and harbor areas. The city's main land uses are industrial, residential, commercial, and open space. The city is characterized by one and two-story buildings, the only exception being several high rises in the northern part of the city. The city is surrounded by agricultural land and the Pacific Ocean, as well as the Santa Clara River. The city's primary development lies along Highway 101 and the other main roads.
The Henry T. Oxnard Historic District is a 70-acre (28 ha) historic district that was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in Oxnard. Covering approximately F and G Sts., between Palm and 5th Sts., in the city, the district includes 139 contributing buildings and includes homes mostly built before 1925. It contains Craftsman and Revival architecture in abundance.
Ormond Beach is a beach along the Oxnard coast. The beach, which stretches for two miles, adjoins the Ormond Wetlands, some farmland, and power plant remains. It covers the area in between Points Hueneme and Mugu, and is a well-known birding area. The beach historically contained marshes, salt flat, sloughs, and lagoons, but surrounding agriculture and industry have drained, filled, and degraded the beach and wetlands. However, there is still a dune-transition zone-marsh system along much of the beach.
|U.S. Decennial Census|
The 2010 United States Census reported that Oxnard had a population of 197,899. The population density was 7358 people per square mile (2,841/km2). The racial makeup of Oxnard included 95,346 (48.2%) White, 5,771 (2.9%) African American, 2,953 (1.5%) Native American, 14,550 (7.4%) Asian, 658 (0.3%) Pacific Islander, 69,527 (35.1%) from other races, and 9,094 (4.6%) from two or more races. In addition, 145,551 people (73.5%) were Hispanic or Latino, of any race. Non-Hispanic Whites were 14.9% of the population in 2010, compared to 42.6% in 1980.
The Census reported that 196,465 people (99.3% of the population) lived in households, 932 (0.5%) lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, and 502 (0.3%) were institutionalized.
There were 49,797 households, out of which 25,794 (51.8%) had children under the age of 18 living in them, 28,319 (56.9%) were opposite-sex married couples living together, 7,634 (15.3%) had a female householder with no husband present, 4,043 (8.1%) had a male householder with no wife present. There were 3,316 (6.7%) unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 395 (0.8%) same-sex married couples or partnerships. 7,090 households (14.2%) were made up of individuals, and 2,665 (5.4%) had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.95. There were 39,996 families (80.3% of all households); the average family size was 4.20.
The population was spread out, with 59,018 people (29.8%) under the age of 18, 23,913 people (12.1%) aged 18 to 24, 57,966 people (29.3%) aged 25 to 44, 40,584 people (20.5%) aged 45 to 64, and 16,418 people (8.3%) who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 29.9 years. For every 100 females, there were 103.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 102.4 males.
There were 52,772 housing units at an average density of 1,962 per square mile (757.6/km2), of which 27,760 (55.7%) were owner-occupied, and 22,037 (44.3%) were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 1.8%; the rental vacancy rate was 3.7%. 107,482 people (54.3% of the population) lived in owner-occupied housing units and 88,983 people (45.0%) lived in rental housing units.
As of the census of 2000, there were 170,358 people, 43,576 households, and 34,947 families residing in the city. The population density was 6,729.7 inhabitants per square mile (2,598.8/km2). There were 45,166 housing units at an average density of 1,784.2 per square mile (689.0/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 42.1% White, 3.8% African American, 1.3% Native American, 7.4% Asian, 0.4% Pacific Islander, 40.4% from other races, and 4.7% from two or more races. Two-thirds of the population (66.2%) was Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There were 43,576 households, out of which 46.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.4% were married couples living together, 14.1% had a female householder with no husband present, and 19.8% were non-families. 14.6% of all households were made up of individuals, and 5.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.85 and the average family size was 4.16
In the city, the population was spread out, with 31.8% under the age of 18, 11.8% from 18 to 24, 31.0% from 25 to 44, 17.3% from 45 to 64, and 8.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 29 years. For every 100 females, there were 104.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 104.0 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $48,603, and the median income for a family was $49,150. Males had a median income of $30,643 versus $25,381 for females. The per capita income for the city was $15,288. About 11.4% of families and 15.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.4% of those under age 18 and 8.8% of those age 65 or over.
The economy of Oxnard includes defense, international trade, agriculture, manufacturing, and tourism. Oxnard is a manufacturing center in the Greater Los Angeles Area. The Port of Hueneme is the only deep-harbor commercial port between Los Angeles and San Francisco and moves trade within the Pacific Rim economies. Companies utilizing the Port include Del Monte Foods, Chiquita, BMW, Land Rover, and Jaguar. Other industries include finance, transportation, the high tech industry, and energy, particularly petroleum. Two large active oil fields underlie the city and adjacent areas: the Oxnard Oil Field, east of the city along 5th Street, and the West Montalvo Oil Field along the coast to the west of town. Tenby Inc.'s Oxnard Refinery, on 5th Street east of Del Norte Avenue, processes oil from both fields.
According to the city's 2021 Annual Comprehensive Financial Report, the top employers in the city are:
|#||Employer||# of Employees|
|1||Oxnard School District||3,870|
|3||City of Oxnard||1,960|
|5||Procter & Gamble||1,898|
|6||St. John's Regional Medical Center||1,500|
|8||Oxnard Union High School District||1,203|
Some of the major companies headquartered in Oxnard are Haas Automation, Seminis, Raypak, Drum Workshop, Borla Performance, Boss Audio, Seed Beauty, and Robbins Auto Tops Procter & Gamble and Sysco maintain their West Coast operations in Oxnard.
In October 2020, city officials announced that once a large swath of agricultural land is fully developed into an business park by late 2021, it estimates that up to 8,700 jobs will be created in the area. The area will include an Amazon fulfillment center.
According to the Camarillo General Plan: "The areas studied showed a high percentage of Group I soils, primarily located on the relatively flat Oxnard Plain. The Oxnard Plain, because of these high-quality agricultural soils, coupled with a favorable climate, is considered one of the most fertile areas in the world."
In 1995, SOAR (Save Open Space and Agricultural Resources) was initiated by farmers, ranchers and citizens of Ventura County to keep land in the Oxnard Plain from development.
The Oxnard Plain is well known for its strawberries. According to the USDA, Oxnard is California's largest strawberry producer, supplying about one-third of the State's annual strawberry volume. From the end of September through the end of October, strawberries are planted and harvesting occurs from mid-December through mid-July in Oxnard. The peak harvesting season in California runs from April through June, when up to 10 million pint baskets of strawberries are shipped daily. The state of California supplies over 85 percent of U.S. strawberries, with the U.S. supplying a quarter of total world production of strawberries.
Each year Oxnard hosts the California Strawberry Festival during the summer at College Park next to Oxnard College, featuring vendors as well as food items based on the fruit such as strawberry nachos, strawberry pizza, strawberry funnel cake, strawberry sundaes, and strawberry champagne.
In 2018, 80% of the voters approved a cannabis tax. The city council adopted a "go slow" approach upon the legalization of recreational cannabis in California. Companies must be licensed by the local agency and the state to grow, test, or sell cannabis and the city may authorize none or only some of these activities. Local governments may not prohibit adults, who are in compliance with state laws, from growing, using, or transporting marijuana for personal use. After an initial ban, businesses that focus on manufacturing, testing and distributing cannabis were allowed to apply for a permit to operate in July 2019. An initial process in May 2020 to select retail proposals was challenged by unsuccessful applicants. After revising the city ordinance, the council decided in September 2020 to allow 10 retail licences to be issued. A social equity component to maximize the ability for communities of color to benefit from the new industry as owners and investors and managers and employees as allowed by state law was not included. The city requires dispensaries to be a minimum of 600 feet (180 m) from schools or daycare centers.
Oxnard cultural institutions include the Carnegie Art Museum, founded in 1907 as the Oxnard Public Library by philanthropist Andrew Carnegie; the Chandler Vintage Museum of Transportation and Wildlife, founded by the late Los Angeles Times publisher Otis Chandler, the Murphy Auto Museum, and the Channel Islands Maritime Museum. The Henry T. Oxnard Historic District is adjacent to the commercial downtown area and dates back to the founding of the city. Heritage Square in downtown is a collection of restored Victorian and Craftsman houses that were once owned by Oxnard's pioneer ranching families. Heritage Square is home to the Petit Playhouse and the Elite Theatre Company. The Oxnard Performing Arts and Convention Center is home to the New West Symphony. Oxnard also has the Oxnard Independent Film Festival and the annual Channel Islands Tall Ships Festival. The Herzog Winery is based in Oxnard along with other wine tasting rooms. During late July, the annual Salsa Festival is held in downtown Oxnard, featuring a salsa tasting tent, local bands, a large dance floor, local vendors, as well as many salsa based food vendors.
The Dallas Cowboys held their pre-season training camp at River Ridge Field in Oxnard in 2001, 2004–06, 2008–10 and 2012-16 (the Cowboys trained at California Lutheran University in nearby Thousand Oaks in 1963–89). The New Orleans Saints trained in Oxnard in 2011. The Los Angeles Raiders trained at River Ridge in the 1980s and 90s.
On February 4, 2016, the Los Angeles Rams (an NFL team) selected Oxnard to be the site of their Official Team Activities and mini camp. On February 19, 2016, the city of Oxnard and the Rams reached a tentative agreement to host official team activities or OTAs and minicamp at River Ridge Playing Fields and on February 23, 2016, the Oxnard City Council voted unanimously 5-0 to allow the Los Angeles Rams to use the River Ridge Playing Fields facility from April 18 to June 17 and the locker room space from March 28 until June 24.
River Ridge Golf Course has two 18-hole courses flanked by housing developments.
The city of Oxnard is served by 54 public school campuses which provide education to more than 53,000 students in grades K–12.
On February 12, 2008, a shooting involving students occurred at E.O. Green Junior High School in Oxnard. Larry King was shot in one of the classrooms where he was later taken to St. John's Hospital and died.
There are a number of private K–8 schools in Oxnard. These include several Catholic schools which are administered by the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Los Angeles and the non-denominational Mary Law Private School.
All public high schools in Oxnard are operated by the Oxnard Union High School District (OUHSD), which provides high school education to 20,000 students at 10 campuses in three cities (Oxnard, Camarillo and Port Hueneme) as well as the unincorporated areas of El Rio, Somis, Silver Strand, and Hollywood Beach. OUHSD campuses in and around Oxnard include Channel Islands High School, Hueneme High School, Oxnard High School, Pacifica High School, Oxnard Middle College High School, and Rio Mesa High School, as well as Oxnard Adult School. Additionally, construction of a new high school has been begun, Del Sol High School.
Santa Clara High School is a private Catholic high school.
Oxnard is served on the collegiate level by Oxnard College and nearby California State University Channel Islands. Additionally, California Lutheran University, California State University, Northridge, University of Phoenix, University of California, Santa Barbara, National University, and Azusa Pacific University have satellite campuses in Oxnard.
A free public library system is operated by the city with three locations: the Downtown Main Library, the Colonia Branch Library, and the South Oxnard Branch Library. Some library sites include a Homework Center and an adjacent daycare center.
Oxnard collects and processes trash, recyclables, and green waste for its citizens and businesses. The city also has a large treatment plant for the collection of wastewater through the sanitary sewer.
The Ventura Freeway (US 101) is the major highway running through Oxnard, connecting Ventura and Santa Barbara to the northwest, and Los Angeles to the southeast. The Pacific Coast Highway (State Route 1) heads down the coast south to Malibu. Highway 34 (Fifth Street) connects downtown Oxnard with Camarillo by running east parallel with the Southern Pacific Coast Line, which carries Coast Starlight, Pacific Surfliner and Metrolink Ventura County Line passenger trains. Highway 232 (Vineyard Avenue), heads northeast, providing connections to California State Route 118 to Saticoy and the junction with California State Route 126 which goes to Santa Paula, Fillmore and Santa Clarita.
The Port of Hueneme is located south of Oxnard in the city of Port Hueneme and is jointly operated by the United States Navy and the Oxnard Harbor District. The port is the only deep water port between the Port of Long Beach and the Port of San Francisco as well as the only military deep water port between San Diego Bay and Puget Sound.
The Port of Hueneme is a shipping and receiving point for a wide variety of resources with destinations in the larger population centers of the Los Angeles Basin. Resources include automobiles, pineapples, and bananas. Agricultural products such as onions, strawberries, and flowers are shipped.
The United States Navy maintains a facility at Port Hueneme, in support of the naval air station at Point Mugu to the south, with which it comprises Naval Base Ventura County. Port Hueneme is the West Coast home of the Naval Construction Force, the "Seabees", as well as a link in the coastal radar system.
Channel Islands Harbor provides moorings for both recreational boating and commercial fishing. It shares the nickname "Gateway to the Channel Islands" with Ventura Harbor seven miles (11 km) to the north because operations that sail to the islands out of the harbors. Both harbors are vital fishing industry harbors.
Oxnard Airport is a general aviation airport within the city that is owned and operated by the County of Ventura. While commercial service was offered in the past, no airlines currently provide service.
The Oxnard Transit Center serves as a major transit hub for the city, as well as the west county.
A smaller transfer center sits at the Centerpoint Mall on C Street, which Gold Coast Transit sends most of their South Oxnard and Port Hueneme routes out from. VCTC also operates the Oxnard-CSUCI route that goes to California State University, Channel Islands and Oxnard College from this transfer center.