P-120 Malakhit

Summary

P-120/P-50 Malakhit
(NATO reporting name: SS-N-9 'Siren')
P-120 Malakhit.svg
P-120 Malakhit medium range cruise missile
TypeAnti-shipping missile
Place of originSoviet Union
Service history
In service1972–current
Used byRussia
Production history
DesignerZvezda
ManufacturerOKB-52 MAP (later NPO Mashinostroyeniye)
Specifications
Mass3,180 kg (7,010 lb)
Length8.84 m (29.0 ft)
Diameter76.2 cm (30.0 in)
WarheadHE-SAP or 200 kt nuclear
Warhead weighttotal 840 kg (1,850 lb) HE 500 kg/1102 lb

Wingspan2.1 m (6.9 ft)
PropellantTurbojet, solid fuel
Operational
range
Sub launched conventional warhead: 70 km nuclear warhead: 110 km Ship launched conventional warhead 120 km nuclear warhead: 150(160) km
Maximum speed Mach 0.9
Launch
platform
Nanuchka and Sarancha, Charlie-II

The P-120 Malakhit (Russian: П-120 «Малахит» 'Malachite'; NATO reporting name: SS-N-9 Siren, GRAU designation: 4K85[1]) is a Russian medium range anti-ship missile used by corvettes and submarines. Introduced in 1972, it remains in service but has been superseded by the P-270 Moskit.

Development

The Echo-class submarine was required to spend 30 minutes or more on the surface when firing its P-5 Pyatyorka (SS-N-3A 'Shaddock') missiles. This made the submarines very vulnerable to enemy attack, so in 1963 the Soviets started work on a new missile that could be fired whilst submerged, and a submarine to carry it. These became the P-50 Malakhit and Charlie-class submarine. The P-50 was replaced by the P-120 design during development.

However, problems in development meant that the twelve Charlie I submarines were built with the shorter-ranged P-70 Ametist (SS-N-7 'Starbright', an evolution of the SS-N-2C 'Styx') as a stopgap before the introduction of the P-120 Malakhit on the Charlie II.

The P-120 missile was later used as the basis for the SS-N-14 Silex rocket-propelled torpedo.

Design

The L band seeker and radar altimeter originally designed for the 'Siren' were first used on the 'Starbright' whilst the Soviets sorted out the P-120's troublesome engines. However the 'Siren' has space for datalink equipment, allowing mid-course guidance from the launch platform or something else. When fired from a submarine, the missile can be launched at a maximum depth of 50 meters.

Operational history

The 'Siren' entered service on corvettes of the Soviet Navy on March 17, 1972.[2] It would be installed on Nanuchka-class corvettes.[3] About 500 missiles were produced.

It was not until November 1977 that it was accepted for use on submarines. The Charlie-II submarine carried eight missiles (of which two usually carried thermonuclear warheads).

It saw action in 2008 in the hands of the Black Sea Fleet of the Russian Navy during the action off Abkhazia, where it was used without success, mistakenly against MV Lotos-1 from Moldova.[4][5]

Operators

 Russia
 Soviet Union

References

  1. ^ "SS-N-9 Siren". Radar and Missile Analysis Group, wonderland.org.nz. Archived from the original on October 14, 2008. Retrieved 2009-01-28.
  2. ^ "P-120 Malakhit" (in Russian). Archived from the original on 2013-10-02. Retrieved 2016-07-26.
  3. ^ "P-120 Malakhit 4K-85 SSN-9 Siren". John Pike, GlobalSecurity.org. Retrieved 2009-01-28.
  4. ^ "Бій Російського МРК «МІРАЖ» з Молдавським теплоходом «ЛОТОС-1» – Військово-Морські Сили ЗС України". Navy.mil.gov.ua. Retrieved 2021-11-20.
  5. ^ "Ship LOTOS 1 (General Cargo) Registered in Moldova - Vessel details, Current position and Voyage information - IMO 8031457, MMSI -8031457, Radijski pozivni znak ERBW". Marinetraffic.com. Retrieved 25 November 2021.

External links

  • MARITIME STRIKE The Soviet Perspective
  • www.dtig.org Russian/Sovjet Sea-based Anti-Ship Missiles (pdf)