PC-461-class submarine chaser

Summary

The PC-461-class submarine chasers were a class of 343 submarine chasers constructed mainly for the US Navy and built from 1941 to 1944. The PC-461s were based primarily on two experimental submarine chasers, PC-451 and PC-452. While PC-461 began the series, the first of the class to enter service was PC-471. As part of the Lend-Lease program, 46 ships of this class were transferred to allies of the United States. Fifty-nine PC-461s were converted to other types of patrol vessels. Eight vessels of this class were lost, and one vessel was lost after conversion to a PGM-9-class motor gunboat. Only one of the class, USS PC-566 commanded by Lieutenant Commander (later Captain) Herbert G. Claudius, actually sank a submarine, U-166, during World War II;[1] however, the website 'Patrol Craft Sailors Association' cites PC-461-class ships sinking or assisting sinking up to 6 German and Japanese subs.[2]

Uss pc-815 1.jpg
USS PC-815, a US PC-461-class submarine chaser that served in World War II
Class overview
Builders(13 companies in 11 states)
Operators
Preceded byUSS SC-451 and USS SC-452
Succeeded byPC-1610 class
Built1941-1944
Planned403
Completed343
Cancelled60
Active0
Lost8
General characteristics
TypeSubmarine chaser
Displacement450 tons
Length173 ft 8 in (53 m)
Beam23 ft 0 in (7 m)
Draft6 ft 2.5 in (2 m)
Propulsion2 × 1,440 bhp (1,070 kW) diesel engines (various models) 2 × shafts
Speed20.2 knots (37.4 km/h; 23.2 mph)
Range3000 nautical miles at 12 knots
Complement65
ArmamentVaries over time. Typically 1 3”/50 gun forward , 1 3"/50 or 40mm Bofors aft, 3 or 5 20mm single mount cannons bridge/amidships. 2 or 4 K-guns, 2 depth charge racks.
Aircraft carriedNone
Aviation facilitiesNone

PC-461 submarine chasers were used in the Pacific, Atlantic, Caribbean, and Mediterranean. Numerous PC-461 class vessels were used to aid in amphibious assaults, including the Normandy invasion.[3][4]

One member of this class, USS PC-1264, was one of only two ships in the US Navy during World War II that had a mostly African-American crew.[5]

Lend-Lease programEdit

As part of the Lend-Lease program enacted by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, a total of 46 PC-461s were lent to allies of the United States. Thirty-two were sent to France, 10+ (3 to cannibalized for spare parts and 1 to private owner -George Simmonuti- as yacht in 1967) to Venezuela,[6] 8 to Brazil,[7] 1 to Uruguay, 1 to Norway, 1 to the Netherlands, and 1 to Greece.

Post-WWII importanceEdit

Following the end of World War II, many PC-461-class ships were placed into reserve squadrons or brought out of active service. Many more however were furnished to American allies around the world, most notably the Republic of Korea.

The first vessel to join the new ROK Navy was former USS PC-823, transferred to the Republic of Korea Navy and renamed ROKS Baekdusan (PC-701). The vessel played a major part in the Battle of Korea Strait, the small naval battle fought on the first day of the Korean War in June 1950.

Six transferred to the Portuguese Navy in 1949 under the MDAP (Mutual Defense and Assistance Program) PC-812 as NRP Maio, PC-811 as NRP Madeira, PC-1257 as NRP Santiago, PC-809 as NRP Sal, PC-1256 as NRP São Tomé and PC-1259 as NRP São Vicente.

Five were transferred to the Indonesian Navy in 1958 and 1960 under the Mutual Assistance Program. PC-1141 as KRI Tjakalang, PC-1183 as KRI Tenggiri, PC-581 as KRI Torani, PC-580 as KRI Hiu, and PC-787 as KRI Alu-Alu.[8][9]

ConversionsEdit

Twenty-four PC-461s were converted to patrol gunboats, motor (PGM) and 35 were converted into amphibious control craft (PCC).

ConstructionEdit

EnginesEdit

  • 2 x 1,440bhp Fairbanks Morse 38D8 1/8 diesel engines, Westinghouse reduction gear (63)
    • 461 ... 470, 483 ... 487, 563 ... 572, 578 ... 582, 600 ... 603, 616 ... 619
    • 1077 ... 1082, 1176 ... 1180, 1231 ... 1236, 1251 .. 1254, 1260 ... 1263
    • (serial numbers listed in navsource.org reference)
  • 2 x 1,440bhp General Motors 16-258S diesel engines, Farrel-Birmingham single reduction gear (88)
    • 471 ... 482, 496, 542 ... 562, 583 ... 591, 596 ... 599, 604 ... 607, 620 ... 627
    • 1119 ... 1139, 1225 ... 1230, 1241, 1242
    • serial numbers listed
  • 2 x 1,440bhp Hooven-Owen-Rentschler R-99DA diesel engines, Westinghouse single reduction gear (111)
    • 488 ... 495, 573 ... 577, 592 ... 595, 608 ... 615, 776 ... 789, 791 ... 795
    • 799 ... 804, 807, 810, 813 ... 822, 825, 1181 ... 1184, 1186, 1187, 1190 .. 1217
    • 1219 ... 1224, 1237 ... 1240, 1256 ... 1259, 1265
    • 1201, 1211, 1213, 1216 listed as having no reduction gear
    • serial numbers in reference
  • 2 x 1,280bhp Hooven-Owen-Rentschler RB-99DA diesel engines, Westinghouse single reduction gear (18)
    • 790, 796 ... 798, 805, 806, 808, 809, 811, 812, 823, 824, 1185, 1188, 1189, 1218, 1255, 1264
  • 4 x 1,440bhp 6-cylinder ALCO 540 diesel engines, Westinghouse single reduction gear (3)
    • 1083 ... 1085
    • obviously a mistake has been made there. Conway's All the worlds fighting ships even lists 1084 as a representative member and gives it only 2 engines
  • 2 x 1,440bhp General Motors 16-278A diesel engines, Farrel-Birmingham single reduction gear (57)
    • 1086 ... 1091, 1140 ... 1149, 1167 ... 1175, 1243 ... 1250, 1546 ... 1569
    • listed as having Westinghouse gears: 1165

See alsoEdit

CitationsEdit

  1. ^ Brian Clark Howard. "72 Years Later, Snubbed Captain Credited With Downing German U-Boat". National Geographic.
  2. ^ "WWII PCs - World War 2 Patrol Crafts - PCSA". www.ww2pcsa.org.
  3. ^ Gary Hyde. "Louis Hyde: Crew Member on PC 1225 During WW2". Historynet.com.
  4. ^ Barry Svrluga. "My Grandfather's Secret D-Day Journal". The Washington Post.
  5. ^ Jonathan Sutherland. African Americans at War: An Encyclopedia, Vol. 1. p. 301.
  6. ^ "Submarine Chaser Photo Index".
  7. ^ "The Other World War II Battle of the Atlantic Everyone Forgets About". 14 May 2017.
  8. ^ Jalesveva Jayamahe (PDF). 1960. pp. 101–102 – via Wikimedia Commons.
  9. ^ " TJAKALANG submarine chasers (1942-1943/1958-1960)" Archived 11 April 2020 at the Wayback Machine Navypedia.org. Retrieved: 20 November 2020.

ReferencesEdit

  • Friedman, Norman (1987). US Small Combatants, Including PT-Boats, Subchasers, and the Brown-Water Navy: An Illustrated Design History