Panicoideae is the second-largest subfamily of the grasses with over 3,500 species, mainly distributed in warm temperate and tropical regions. It comprises some important agricultural crops, including sugarcane, maize (or corn), sorghum, and switchgrass.
|Miscanthus sinensis in Tonomine Highlands, Japan|
12 tribes, see text
Within the PACMAD clade of grasses, the Panicoideae are sister to a clade made of the four subfamilies Arundinoideae, Chloridoideae, Danthonioideae, and Micrairoideae. A modern phylogenetic classification divides the Panicoideae in twelve tribes corresponding to monophyletic clades; two genera, Chandrasekharania and Jansenella, are unplaced (incertae sedis) but probably belong to tribe Tristachyideae. The three largest tribes, Paniceae, Paspaleae, and Andropogoneae, together with the small Arundinelleae, form the core of the subfamily. The Gynerieae were formerly placed in Arundinoideae, and the basal lineage, the "centothecoid clade" with seven tribes, was formerly seen as separate subfamily, Centothecoideae.
Spikelets of Loudetiopsis chrysothrix (Tristachyideae)