Pansori

Summary

Pansori (Korean: 판소리) is a Korean genre of musical storytelling performed by a singer and a drummer.

Pansori
Korea-Busan 3404-06 Pansori.JPG
Pansori performance at the Busan Cultural Center in Busan, South Korea
Korean name
Hangul
판소리
Revised RomanizationPansori
McCune–ReischauerP'ansori

The term pansori is derived from the Korean words pan (Hangul: 판) and sori (Hangul: 소리), the latter of which means "sound." However, pan has multiple meanings, and scholars disagree on which was the intended meaning when the term was coined. One meaning is "a situation where many people are gathered." Another meaning is "a song composed of varying tones."[1] In music, Gugwangdae describes a long story that takes as little as three hours and as much as eight hours (or more than that). It is one of the traditional forms of Korean music that mixes body movements and songs to the accompaniment of a buk drum played by a gosu. The dramatic content of the drama is changed according to various rhythms based on the melody of Korea's local music. Pansori was originally called the "sori", and it was called Taryeong, Japga (잡가), Clown Song, and Geokga (극가; 劇歌). It was also commonly used in terms such as Changgeukjo (창극조; 唱劇調).[2]

In the late 20th century, the sorrowful "Western style" of pansori overtook the vigorous "Eastern style" of pansori, and pansori began being called the "sound of han". All surviving pansori epics end happily, but contemporary pansori focuses on the trials and tribulations of the characters, commonly without reaching the happy ending because of the contemporary popularity of excerpt performances. The history of pansori in the late 20th century, including the recent canonization of han, has led to great concern in the pansori community.[3]

Pansori has been designated as Korea's National Intangible Cultural Heritage No. 5 since 1964. On November 7, 2003, pansori was registered as the UNESCO's Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity of Korea.[4] In 2011, the pansori practiced by the ethnic Koreans in China was also nominated as the UNESCO's intangible cultural heritage by the governments of Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture and Tieling.[5]

Originally a form of folk entertainment for the lower classes, pansori was embraced by the Korean elite during the 19th century.[6] While public interest in the genre temporarily declined in the mid-20th century, today's South Korean publics and government are passionate in registering and recognizing many pansori singers as "living national treasures of Korea."[7][8] North Korea, on comparison, is yet to implement the systematic support of pansori at the government level, as Kim Jong-il believed that pansori's performance voice was too hoarse and did not distinguish between male and female to suit the taste of today's people.[9]: 17 

OriginEdit

Pansori is a form of music entertainment that has been inherited from the 18th century to the present, especially in Korea. Pansori is a combination of pansori and sounds, originally referring to the sounds sung in pansori.

"Pannoreum" also refers to Sandae-do Gamgeuk(산대도감극; 山臺都監劇), and to the entire play of geondu(근두; 筋斗) and tightrope walking. The pansori of the Joseon Dynasty included a sijo(시조) and a basic song along with a tune by a new side. Therefore, it is not appropriate to refer to pansori as Changgeuk(창극;唱劇)· or Changgeukjo(창극조;唱劇調). Changgeuk is based on the name after Pansori was dramatized after Wongaksa Temple(원각사;圓覺社) , but it is not suitable for pure Pansori. Therefore, Changgeukjo is appropriate for the musical term of the song sung in such Changgeuk, but it is also not appropriate for the form of pansori. [1]

Through this ideal, pansori, which means the sound of a plate, is a musical term that originated independently from the term "pannol". Meanwhile, the literary form of this pansori is called pansori or pansori. It is therefore necessary to distinguish between pansori as a musical term and pansori as a literary term, but it would be safe to use it as a "pansori" as in sijo(시조).[2]

The relationship between Shaman Song and PansoriEdit

If Pansori comes from a shaman's husband, a clown, the musical wish should be saved in their connection. The rhythm of the unearned value shared by "Lee Bo-hyung" is as follows:

1. Sinawi-Gwon: This is called the "Yukja-baegi-jo" and belongs to the southern part of the Han River in Gyeonggi-do and Chungcheong-do and Jeolla-do provinces.

2. Menarizo : This is called an "Sanyuhwa-garak", and "Gyeongsang-do" and "Gangwon-do" provinces belong to it.

3. Susimga·Sanyeombuljo: "Pyeongan-do" and "Hwanghae-do" provinces

4. Changbu Taryeong ·Noraegarakjo: belong to Muga in northern Gyeonggi Province, Kaesong, Seoul, Cheorwon, and Yangju.

In addition, there is a theory that "Gyeong-dereum" is similar to the rhythm of the northern Gyeonggi Muga's Changbu Taryeong.

Again, the rhythm of Pansori has a tempo from the slow beat of Jinyangjo, Jungmori, Jungjungmori, Jajinmori, Hwimori, Ujungmori, etc. It is necessary to value the term "Mori" that appears here. In other words, if you compare Salpuri Gut in Jeolla-do Province, which is called Sinai Gijo, and Do Salmori, Balae in Gyeonggi-do and Chungcheong-do provinces, the sound of goso sung by clowns is Jungmori, especially in old Hongpagosa and Antaek.

Therefore, it is the Muga of Hongpae Gosa, Seongjo, and Antaek, which are called by this southern clown, that is, the theory that pansori was produced in the clowns of Chungcheong-do. This is a problem that needs to be further clarified in the future, but even from this, it can be seen that the reasoning that pansori came from the reading voice that some argue is vain. Since clowns are folk intestines, it would be right to say that they ate various folk intestines based on the rhythm of these mugas and completed them. However, even if the song was originally adopted at the time of its establishment, it would have refined it in the process of transmission and developed a new style as a pansori, which seems to be the result of this effort. [3]

The type of pansoriEdit

It is generally believed that Pansori reached the stage of completion with its contents and forms as a folk music from King Sukjong of the Joseon Dynasty to King Yeongjo. It is also a common view that Pansori's heyday is usually the annual period of King Cheoljong from King Jeongjo. In other words, from the late 18th century to the early 19th century, the golden age is evidenced by the fact that Shin Jae-hyo, a famous pansori writer and theorist, and eight master singers were produced during this period.

There are twelve sounds in Pansori, also called twelve yards. The headquarters of Song Man-jae's <Kwanwoohee> published around 1810 records the twelve yards of Pansori as <춘향가(春香歌)> <화용도타령(華容道打令)> <박타령> <강릉매화타령(江陵梅花打令)> <변강쇠타령> <왈자타령(曰字打令)> <심청가(沈淸歌)> <배비장타령(裵裨將打令)> <옹고집타령(甕固執打令)> <가짜신선타령> <토끼타령> <장끼타령>. [4][5] [6][7][8][9]

In addition, <Gwanghanluakbu> of Yundalseon (1852) produced during the reign of King Cheoljong (1852) recorded that there were 12 Gangs in Pansori, and "Joseon Changgeuksa" by Jeong No-sik also described 12 Pan in Pansori. Among them, the ten yards are the same as those of Guan Yu-hee, but there is only one difference in that Guan Yu-hee's <Waljataryeong? is called <Moosooki Taryeong> and <Fake Singseon Taryeong> is called <Sukyeongnangjajeon.>

Based on this evidence, it can be seen that there were at least 12 pansori plates before 1810. However, most of them were not called during the reign of Shin Jae-hyo, and since then, they have been gradually reduced, and only five yards are being called. Currently, among the 12 Pansori yards, <Chunhyangga>, <Shimcheonga>, <Hwayong (Jeokbyeokga)>, <Park Taryeong (Heungbu)> and others are actually called, while only the editorials, such as <Byun Gangsoe Taryeong>, <Baebi Taryeong>, <Janggi Taryeong>, and <Onggojip Taryeong>, have been called. <Gangneung Maehwa Taryeong> and <Waljataryeong> are things that are not known and are not called. Among them, <Sukyeongnangjajeon> is called Jeong Jeong-ryul, a modern master singer, and it is said to be composed by Jeong Jeong-ryul, so the relationship between this song and Jeon Hae-jong's <Sukyeongnangjajeon> by King Cheoljong and Gojong is ambiguous.

Rather than the fact that Pansori had only 12 yards by the previous list of records, it is right to say that Pansori's repertoire may be twelve, or more, or less, from the folk preference of Pansori to the twelve yards.

Five Courts of PansoriEdit

Among the twelve Pansori yards, Chunhyangga, Heungbo, Simcheongga, Jeokbyeokga, and Sugungga are called Pansori Five Madang, and they are called independent in twelve yards, where the "duneum" of famous singers of all time is said. "Sukyeongnangjajeon" was sung by Jeong Jeong-ryul, "Jangkijeon" by Kim Yeon-soo, and "Byeon Gangsoejeon" was restored by Park Dong-jin, but it was not a transmission of the twelve-yard period, but a new arrangement.

Pansori repertoireEdit

During the 18th century, 12 song cycles, or madang (Hangul: 마당), were established as the repertoire of pansori stories.[10][11] Those stories were compiled in Song Man-jae's Gwanuhi (Hangul: 관우희) and Jeong No-sik's Joseon Changgeuksa (Hangul: 조선창극사).[1]

Of the 12 original madang, only five are currently performed. They are as follows.[10]

Contemporary performances of the madang differ greatly from the originals. Rather than performing an entire madang, which can take up to 10 hours, musicians may only perform certain sections, highlighting the most popular parts of a madang.[10]

HistoryEdit

Origins: 17th centuryEdit

Pansori is thought to have originated in the late 17th century during the Joseon Dynasty. The earliest performers of pansori were most likely shamans and street performers, and their audiences were lower-class people.[12] It is unclear where in the Korean peninsula pansori originated, but the Honam region eventually became the site of its development.[11]

Expansion: 18th centuryEdit

It is believed that pansori was embraced by the upper classes around the mid-18th century. One piece of evidence that supports this belief is that Yu Jin-han, a member of the yangban upper class, recorded the text of Chunhyangga, a famous pansori he saw performed in Honam in 1754, indicating that the elite attended pansori performances by this time.[13][14]

Golden age: 19th centuryEdit

The golden age of pansori is considered to be the 19th century when the genre's popularity increased and its musical techniques became more advanced. During the first half of the 19th century, pansori singers incorporated folk songs into the genre, while using vocal techniques and melodies intended to appeal to the upper class.[10] Purely humorous pansori also became less popular than pansori that combined humorous and tragic elements.[15]

Major developments in this period were made by pansori researcher and patron Shin Jae-hyo. He reinterpreted and compiled songs to fit the tastes of the upper class and also trained the first notable female singers, including Jin Chae-seon, who is considered to be the first female master of pansori.[16][17]

Decline: early 20th centuryEdit

In the early 20th century, pansori experienced several notable changes. It was more frequently performed indoors and staged similarly to Western operas. It was recorded and sold on vinyl records for the first time. The number of female singers grew rapidly, supported by organizations of kisaeng. And the tragic tone of pansori was intensified, due to the influence of the Japanese occupation of Korea on the Korean public and performers.[18] In an attempt to suppress Korean culture, the Japanese government often censored pansori that referred to the monarchy or to Korean nationalism.[19]

Preservation: late 20th centuryEdit

In addition to Japanese censorship, the rise of cinema and changgeuk, and the turmoil of the Korean War all contributed to pansori's decreasing popularity by the mid-20th century.[10][19] To help preserve the tradition of pansori, the South Korean government declared it an Intangible Cultural Property in 1964. Additionally, performers of pansori began to be officially recognized as "living national treasures." This contributed to a resurgence of interest in the genre beginning in the late 1960s.[20]

Resurgence: 21st centuryEdit

UNESCO proclaimed the pansori tradition a Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity on November 7, 2003.[4]

The number of pansori performers has increased substantially in the 21st century, though the genre has struggled to find wide public appeal, and pansori audiences are composed mostly of older people, scholars or students of traditional music, and the elite.[20][21][7] However, pansori fusion music, a trend that began in the 1990s, has continued in the 21st century, with musicians creating combinations including pansori-reggae,[22][23] pansori-classical music,[24] and pansori-rap.[25]

School of PansoriEdit

Pansori's school originated from the division of relations and regions of origin, with the establishment of the flow, singing and theory of each song over a long period of time, leading to the formation of several small branches that diverged from the great stem. Pansori's school was largely classified as the two major mountains of East and West Pyeonje, and expressing School in Pansori was in line with the classification of Yupa in Sijo, Yeongje, Wanje, and Naepoje.

Pansori can be divided into Junggoje, in addition to Dongpyeonje and Seopyeonje, depending on the region. [10]

DongpyeonjeEdit

Dongpyeonje was based on Unbong, Gurye, Sunchang, and Heungdeok areas, which are east of the Seomjingang River, and it is magnificent and vigorous, and features a simple display of natural volume without any finesse. Aniri has not developed for a long time, has little application, and is a sound material that is carried out by relying on the voice of the neck. Instead of "the Great Leader," they stick together to the rhythm. [11]

SeopyeonjeEdit

Seopyeonje refers to the sound of Confucian scholars in Naju, Haenam, and Boseong, west of the Seomjingang River, and is the standard of Park Yu-jeon's legislation. The musical characteristics are mainly used to portray sad and resentful feelings, and to portray sophisticated, colorful, and tantalizing sounds. [12]

JunggojeEdit

The sound style is medium and starts flat at a relatively low voice when the window is opened, increases the middle, and lowers the voice when the limit is reached. It is clear that the sound is high and low, so you can hear it clearly, and the tune is monotonous and simple. [13]

Musical styleEdit

There are five elements for the musical style of pansori: jo (조; 調); jangdan (장단; 長短); buchimsae (붙임새); je (제; 制); and vocal production.[26]

JoEdit

Jo (조; 調; also spelled cho) refers mostly to the melodic framework of a performance.[10] In terms of music in Western culture, it comparable to the mode and key, though jo also includes the vocal timbre and emotions expressed through singing. Types of jos include: chucheonmok (추천목; 鞦韆-); Gyemyeonjo (계면조; 界面調; also called seoreumjo 서름조, aewonseong 애원성); seokhwaje (석화제); and seolleongje (설렁제).[26]

JangdanEdit

Jangdan (장단; 長短) is the rhythmic structure used.[26] Jangdan is used to show emotional states[10] corresponding to the narration of the singer.[26] Jangdan is also used with the appearances of certain characters.[10] Some types include: jinyang (진양); jungjungmori (중중모리); jajinmori (자진모리); and hwimori (휘모리)[26]

BuchimsaeEdit

Buchimsae (붙임새) refers to the method in which words in pansori are combined with the melodies. The meaning refers more specifically to combinations of words with irregular rhythms. The word is a combination of two Korean words, buchida (붙이다 "to combine") and sae (새 "appearance, form"). The two types of buchimsae are: daemadi daejangdan (대마디 대장단) and eotbuchim (엇붙임).[26]

JeEdit

Je (제; 制) refers to a school of pansori.[26]

ConfigurationEdit

Pansori performances are performed by "Clown", "Gosu", and "Audience".

ClownEdit

A clown (sounder) sings with a fan in his right hand, and the singing part and the speaking part intersect. The singing part is called "aniri" or "broader" in terms of sound and speech, which is called "applied" or "spacious."[27]

GosuEdit

“Gosu” is another important offender who plays drums to the clown's sound. As the expression "one Gosu two master singers" is often used, in the soundboard, a singer and a clown lead the game together. The drummer beats the emotional circuit of the song and adds more charm to the performance.[6]

Audience[28]Edit

Rather than listening quietly, the audience adds a “Chu-imsae”.[6]

Application and MusicEdit

Pansori is directed by a long editorial, with one person's voice standing up and mixing "sound" and "applying," and one person's northern accompanist sits down, plays the drum rhythm, accompanied by the sound, and stimulates the excitement with "Chu-imsae." Pansori singers used to be called singers and clowns, but there are no widely used words today.

The singer wore a “gat”, leather shoes, and held a fan and a handkerchief in his hand. “Gosu” wears a “durumagi”, and a “gat”.

Pansori is produced by one person's sounder and one person's drumming, so the music of Pansori is formed from the sound of the speaker and drumming of the drummers. The pansori rhythm is composed of a certain rhythm according to the passage, and the coriander plays the rhythm according to this pansori rhythm. The pansori rhythm is called a certain rhythm depending on the part, but it is also called a so-called “Big word big rhythm,” which is called a basic rhythm, or a so-called “angle,” which is called a modified rhythm. Pansori tunes are also used in various tunes depending on the musical composition, melody, and musical expression.[6]

SoundEdit

It means calling out editorials to a certain rhythm, such as Jinyangjo,[29] Jungmori,[30] and Jajinmori. Sometimes the sound is 'tone', but most of them sing tunes with a certain pitch. The speed of the rhythm indicates urgency and relaxation, and the change of tone indicates feelings of joy and sorrow. According to the dramatic situation shown in the Pansori editorial, the vocalists sing the rhythm and the rhythm accordingly.

Playing GatEdit

This is a kind of 'Balim' performed by Pansori's singer with 'gat’. The head nods cleverly, giving an accent according to the soundtrack. Today, the tradition of ‘Playing Gat’ has been cut off because of the lack of wearing a gat.

Kosanbangsuk (Putting stones on a high mountain)Edit

When a pansori singer changes the rhythm and makes a sound, he rolls up a fan and beats the rhythm at the end to instruct the Gosu. A singer doesn't do this every time.

RhythmEdit

Rhythm refers to the rhythm type of the drum's repeated speed, and depending on the speed and beat of pansori, Jinyang, Jungmori, Jungjungmori, Jajinmori, Hwimori, Ummori, Eojungmori, Semachi, etc. are used. In addition, there are Hwijungmori, Danjungmori, Pyeongjungmori, and Dotmori, but they are not treated separately because they are variations of the above rhythm. Pansori is characterized by the fact that rhythm such as Gutgeori, Taryeong, Dungdeokgung, and Salpuri, which are used in dance, japga, or shamanism, is not used. The characteristic of pansori rhythm is that it is clear how to push, hang, make, and solve according to the soundtrack, and to express this clearly, the ‘janggu’ rhythm is not used in folk music or instrumental music.

Music[31]Edit

Pansori tunes are appropriately combined according to the contents of the Pansori editorial to give musical changes according to dramatic situations. These are characterized by the musical composition, rhythm, vocalization, and musical expression used in pansori tunes.

Pansori's Mok and SungEdit

In Pansori, a person's voice quality, singing style, and the type of tune is called by a certain ‘Mok’ and ‘Sung’. Usually, the ‘Mok’ is deeply related to the type of tune and singing, and the ’Sung’ is deeply related to the quality of sound.[32]

Norang Mok[33]Edit

It means to lightly vocalize and dye the tune, which means to use the decoration or singing method. But master singers are reluctant to do so.

Waega-jip MokEdit

It means to the use of a tone or temporary listening rather than the general composition of that tone.

Soori sung [34]Edit

It refers to the sound quality of a master singer who is a bit rough and hoarse. Examples include Song Man-gap and Jeong Jeong-ryul.

Soi-ok sungEdit

It means a clear sound like rolling gold or jade.

TermEdit

  • Changja: Also known as a singer, it means a person who sings in pansori.
  • Gosu: It means a person who beats the drum near the intestines and adds Chuimse.
  • Gui-myeongchang: Pansori means a person who enjoys a spear properly.
  • Balim: It means to take action according to the rhythm or editorial content. Some people use a fan.
  • Chuimse: It means that the audience or master speaks "Ulssu" or "good" to create an atmosphere and entertain the audience.
  • Aniri: The Changja talk as usual, not to the beat.
  • Noereum sae: Pansori refers to the acting ability to make the audience laugh and cry.* Duneum: It refers to a characteristic part or musical style that is inherited according to Pansori's Confucianism.
  • Doseop: Pansori to the middle form of a sing and an aniri.
  • Duek-eum :Set the voice: The musical competence of the pansori intestines refers to the completed state.

Pansori masterpiece SingerEdit

Pansori masterpiece refers to a person who sings exceptionally well in the intestines of Pansori.

The best literature of Pansori is "Chunhyangga,[35]" which was published in "The Cartoon House" by Yu Jin (1711-1791).

The best singers of Pansori were Uchundae, Kwon Sam-deuk, and Moheung-gap, which appeared in "Guanwoohee[36]" of Song Man-jae, and Hahandam, which appeared in "Gapsin Wanmun[37]", and were from the reign of King Yeongjo and King Jeongjo of modern Joseon. There must have been a masterpiece of pansori even before Uchundae and Haundam, but it remains only in the literature or is not oralized.

During the reign of King Sunjo, outstanding masters came out to form various groups in pansori, including Kwon Sam-deuk, Hwanghaecheon, Songheungrok, Bangmanchun, Yeom Gye-dal, Moheunggap, Kim Gye-cheol, Gosogwan, Sin Man-yeop, Song Gwang-rok, and Judeokgi. Eight of these are called eight people. The names of these master singers are also seen in Shin Jae-hyo's "The Clown." From this time on, a "sori clown" focusing on sound appeared, distinguishing it from a traditional "aniri clown" focusing on "aniri.[38]"

The early days of King Cheoljong and King Gojong corresponded to the heyday of pansori. Famous singers such as Park Yu-jeon, Park Man-soon, Lee Il-chi, Kim Se-jong, Song Woo-ryong, Jeong Start-up, Jung Chun-pung, Kim Chang-rok, Jang Ja-baek, Kim Chan-up, and Lee Chang-yoon came out to lead Pansori to a highly artistic level. They formed various factions based on the relationship between private affairs and regional delay, and eight of them were selected as the late eight singers.

At the end of King Gojong's reign and at the beginning of his schedule, Pansori was the fruit of Pansori. On the other hand, after Wonggeuk became popular after Wongaksa Temple, Pansori began to sprout. As the master singers of each region moved in and out of each other, pansori's yupa gradually lost its distinctiveness. The famous singers who were active during this period include Park Ki-hong, Kim Chang-hwan, Kim Chae-man, Song Man-gap, Lee Dong-baek, Yu Gong-ryul, Jeon Do-seong, Kim Chang-ryong, Yoo Seong-jun, and Jeong-ryul. Five of these master singers are called five master singers.

Right behind the five singers were Jang Pan-gae,[39] Yi Sun-yu, Kim Jeong-moon, Park Jung-geun, Gong Chang-sik, Yi Hwa Jung-sun, Im Bo-le, and Gang Jang-won. They played a major role in the Joseon Vocal Research Society, but were swept away by Changgeuk[40] and pushed by Western music, and Pansori began to retreat.

Later master singers include Park Nok-ju, Kim Yeon-soo, Jeong Gwang-soo, Kim Yeo-ran, Park Cho-wol, Kim So-hee, Park Bong-sul, Park Dong-jin, Jung Kwon-jin, Han Seung-ho, Han Ae-soon, and Jang Young-chan. They are trying to revive the disappearing pansori, but they are in danger of disappearing without proper measures from the government and society. Among them, Kim So-hee,[41] Park Cho-wol, Park Bong-sul, Park Nok-ju,[42] Kim Yeon-soo, Jeong Gwang-soo, Kim Yeo-ran, Jeong Gwon-jin, and Han Seung-ho were designated as intangible cultural assets.

After the death of the first generation of national intangible cultural assets, Jo Sang-hyeon, Park Song-hee, Song Soon-seop, Seongwuhyang, Sung Chang-soon, Oh Jeong-sook, Han Nong-seon, Namhae-seong, Shin Yeong-hee, and Kim Il-gu were designated as second generation intangible cultural assets. Following them, Jeong Soon-im, Kim Soo-yeon, Kim Young-ja, Inancho, Jeong Hoe-seok, and Yoon Jin-cheol were designated as third-generation national intangible cultural assets. In addition, there are numerous master singers such as Yoo Soo-jeong, Wang Ki-chul, Chae Soo-jeong, Yoo Mi-ri, Lee Ju-eun, Yeom Kyung-ae, and Jang Moon-hee.

The meaning of Pansori in Korean lifeEdit

Pansori delivers the feelings of the artists to the audience most accurately. From anger, joy, sadness, pain are all portrayed via stories and plays. The stories described in Pansori all link to a distinct moral issue of people: Chunhyangga, Simcheongga, and Heungboga. Each tale teaches a valuable lesson and illustrates the ancient Koreans' believe in karma in their own unique way.[6]

Chunhyang relates the tale of a girl who was born into a humble household but transformed herself after marrying the governor's son. She subsequently rejected and resisted another governor's pressure. The narrative concludes with her husband rescuing her when she demonstrates the purity, love, and unity of individuals from many social classes.[6]

Simcheongga emphasizes filial piety, chastity, and fortitude. Simcheong was freed by the King of the Sea as a compassion act, and she met and married the king of her realm, whom she had sacrificed herself to restore his sight. When she organizes a blind party, she stumbles across his father. Her father's sight is restored as a result of her tremendous love and devotion. The song underlines the significance of parents and children developing a solid bond.[6]

Heungboga's lessons underscore the pitfalls of human avarice. Heungbo's aid to a swallow with a broken leg pays off. His wicked brother, too, breaks a swallow's leg and does lovely things, but he pays for his actions. In this song, morality and goodness are praised, while wickedness is punished. This song teaches people this.[6]

Preservation of PansoriEdit

Compared to the 19th century, the number of Pansori performances and singers has drastically decreased. The fall is reflected in the quantity of audiences and the number of student performers interested in studying Pansori.

Orthodox Pansori performances in well-known places and on traditional theater stages are commonplace. Tradition-based theater and full-length performances in one of the many recognized specialty sectors of Orthodox Pansori are all included within the government of Korea's cultural conservation program, which includes Orthodox Pansori. The performances take place on well-known theater stages, recalling the excitement of older times of court and market entertainment. On the other side, dramatic platforms raise the performers above the audience. In the past, Pansori gave equal importance to the performers and the audience.

Touristic Pansori is a term that refers to renowned Pansori singers doing short acts of the traditional Pansori performance with other kinds of music, such as religious music. Often, the many short performances have nothing in common, like when court music or religious dances are combined with Pansori. International visitors and visitors from other regions of Korea make up the bulk of the audience. The objective is to make Pansori accessible to a broad audience that is unfamiliar with its norms or with the significance of the tradition to the Korean people.[6]

Pansori ChangbonEdit

"Pansori" is one of Korea's unique art forms that convey theatrical effects to those who see it as a sound in line with Gosu's drumming while clowns holding Hapjukseon in one hand beautifully and mixing all kinds of broadness. Just as there must be a script for the play to be staged, there must be a Pansori editorial before that to make Pansori sound by clowns, and the document that records the Pansori editorial is called the Pansori Changbon. In other words, in pansori, Changbon has the characteristics of a play in a play.[43]

However, there is a great feature in the Pansori version that plays do not have, which is that plays can be performed by anyone, while there is a specific version of the Pansori version for clowns. These windows are called "famous" and are distinguished from "unknown" versions without specific clowns. For example, "Song Man-gap Changbon" refers to the Pansori document sung by Song Man-gap. However, Song Man-gap is not his own creative work. Of course, it may be the work of a clown himself, but it is usually built by an outstanding scholar or supporter. Because most clowns had no writing skills. Thus, the established versions are usually oral transcriptions, which have been inherited from later generations, or were built by civil servants for certain clowns.

The original version of Pansori is sometimes produced in various ways during the transmission process. In other words, there is a slight (sometimes significant) variation in the content of the book, which has been handed down for hundreds of years to this day. For example, the early "Chunhyangga" could have been sung in three hours, but today, the content was greatly added enough to sing eight and a half hours.

Even if the original version of Pansori is the original copy of Dongil genealogy, many versions are gradually derived. As the first literature on the twelve yards of pansori, Song Man-jae's "Gwanwoohee" is currently cited, and there is no way to know which clown it belonged to before the 1810s because there is no technology on the original version. This does not mean that there is a clear record in the post-1810 literature. However, there are several copies or copies of the transcripts held by individuals because they are based on the oral tradition.

Similar culturesEdit

Musical storytelling of literatures like pansori was a concept that was prevalent in both the East and the West during the ancient times.

In Vietnam, the ca tru singing (Vietnamese: [kaː ʈû], 歌籌, "tally card songs"), also known as hát cô đầu or hát nói, is a Vietnamese genre of musical storytelling performed by a featuring female vocalist, with origins in northern Vietnam.[44] For much of its history, it was associated with a pansori-like form of entertainment, which combined entertaining wealthy people as well as performing religious songs for the royal court.

In Europe, there was also a group of minstrel poets after the Middle Ages. In France, the matrimonial poem "changson de geste" was sung by monks in non-Latin slang (lingua romana) for pilgrims, and romance was also developed in the form of singing for several people in squares and salons. This form of epic poetry created by the collaboration of literature and music was of any people. This is a common medieval literary form from the 10th century to the 14th and 5th centuries, and Korean pansori is characterized by novels formed by letters first, and this pansori form was characterized by the 18th century.[45]

Pansori and influences by western cultureEdit

Western performing arts first made their way to Korea in the late nineteenth century. Jeong Du-won brought Western music concept to Korea for the first time in 1632. He became familiar with Western music via the teachings of Chinese Catholic priests. Lee Eun-Dol, the first Korean to study western music at the Japanese Army's staff sergeant school, began coaching bugle bands in Seoul in 1882. Seo Sang's 1884 presentation of Yun's religious music, notably protestant songs, also had a considerable effect.[6]

Popular cultureEdit

There are Pansori-themed films such as "Seopyeonje[46] (1993), "Hwimori (1994)[47]" and "The Millennium Studies (2007)".

Kim Hyun-jung, who was famous as the best singer of her time, showed off her singing skills by combining her experience of learning pansori with her singing style.

GalleryEdit

Notable pansori singersEdit

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b "판소리" [Pansori]. Encyclopedia of Korean Culture (in Korean). The Academy of Korean Studies. Retrieved 2018-02-28.
  2. ^ 판소리. "국가문화유산포탈 | 한국의 인류무형문화유산". www.heritage.go.kr. Retrieved 2021-06-15.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  3. ^ Pilzer 2016, p. 171.
  4. ^ a b "Pansori Epic Chant". UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage. UNESCO. 2008. Retrieved 2018-02-28.
  5. ^ ""80后"夫妻情系中国朝鲜族盘索里". 延边新闻网. 2013-12-19. Archived from the original on 2018-03-22. Retrieved 2018-03-22.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Kang, Bomi (2016). "Pansori". Unlv Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones. doi:10.34917/9302946.
  7. ^ a b Jang (2013), p. 3-4.
  8. ^ Jang (2013), p. 126-129.
  9. ^ 赵杨 (December 2012). 《朝鲜民间文学》 (in Chinese). 银川: 宁夏人民教育出版社. ISBN 978-7-5544-0134-7.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h Gorlinski, Virginia (2013). "P'ansori". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2018-03-01.
  11. ^ a b Kim (2008), p. 3-4.
  12. ^ Um (2013), p. 33-39.
  13. ^ Um (2013), p. 40.
  14. ^ Kim (2008), p. 5.
  15. ^ Kim (2008), p. 6-7.
  16. ^ "Jin Chae-seon, Joseon's First Female Pansori Singer". KBS Word Radio. 2013-02-28. Retrieved 2018-03-01.
  17. ^ "신재효(申在孝)" [Shin Jae-hyo]. Encyclopedia of Korean Culture (in Korean). The Academy of Korean Studies. Retrieved 2018-03-01.
  18. ^ Kim (2008), pp. 14–16.
  19. ^ a b Um (2013), pp. 47–52.
  20. ^ a b Kim (2008), pp. 19–26.
  21. ^ Um (2013), p. 12.
  22. ^ Dunbar, Jon (2018-01-31). "Kim Yul-hee blends pansori, reggae". The Korea Times. Retrieved 2018-03-01.
  23. ^ Yun, Suh-young (2017-06-14). "Kim Tae-yong to direct gugak performance". The Korea Times. Retrieved 2018-03-01.
  24. ^ Sohn, Ji-young (2014-06-10). "Traditional Korean music with a modern twist". The Korea Herald. Retrieved 2018-03-01.
  25. ^ Choi, Mun-hee (2018-02-06). "Fantastic Concert in Ancient Cave in Jeju". Business Korea. Retrieved 2018-03-01.
  26. ^ a b c d e f g "Musical structure and expression of Pansori" (PDF). National Gugak Center. Retrieved January 14, 2014.
  27. ^ Kim, Hyunju; Mastnak, Wolfgang (2016-02-29). "Creative Pansori: A New Korean Approach in Music Therapy". Voices: A World Forum for Music Therapy. 15 (3). doi:10.15845/voices.v16i1.816. ISSN 1504-1611.
  28. ^ "판소리의 관중과 후원자 : 시민극장". m.post.naver.com (in Korean). Retrieved 2021-06-19.
  29. ^ "Excerpt from"Jinyangjo"".{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  30. ^ "Jungmori of <Chusan Danso Sanjo>".{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  31. ^ "P'ansori | Korean music". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2021-06-19.
  32. ^ "UNESCO - Pansori epic chant". ich.unesco.org. Retrieved 2021-06-19.
  33. ^ "문화재청". CULTURAL HERITAGE ADMINISTRATION (in Korean). Retrieved 2021-06-19.
  34. ^ "판소리 소리꾼이 내는 '목' 종류는 37 가지". www.koya-culture.com (in Korean). Retrieved 2021-06-19.
  35. ^ "춘향가(春香歌) - 한국민족문화대백과사전". encykorea.aks.ac.kr. Retrieved 2021-06-19.
  36. ^ "관우희(觀優戱) - 한국민족문화대백과사전". encykorea.aks.ac.kr. Retrieved 2021-06-19.
  37. ^ "갑신완문(甲申完文) - 한국민족대백과사전".{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  38. ^ "아니리 - 한국민족문화대백과사전". encykorea.aks.ac.kr. Retrieved 2021-06-19.
  39. ^ "장판개(張判盖) - 한국민족문화대백과사전". encykorea.aks.ac.kr. Retrieved 2021-06-19.
  40. ^ "창극(唱劇) - 한국민족문화대백과사전". encykorea.aks.ac.kr. Retrieved 2021-06-19.
  41. ^ "김소희(金素姬) - 한국민족문화대백과사전". encykorea.aks.ac.kr. Retrieved 2021-06-19.
  42. ^ "박녹주 - 한국민족문화대백과사전".{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  43. ^ 지면보기, 입력 1974 02 25 00:00 | 종합 4면 (1974-02-25). "판소리」창본 간행". 중앙일보 (in Korean). Retrieved 2021-06-19.
  44. ^ Norton, Barley. Ca Trù: A Vietnamese Chamber Music Genre. International Association for Research in Vietnamese Music.
  45. ^ "판소리".
  46. ^ "서편제(西便制) - 한국민족문화대백과사전". encykorea.aks.ac.kr. Retrieved 2021-06-19.
  47. ^ 지면보기, 입력 1993 10 29 00:00 | 종합 30면 (1993-10-29). "판소리물 휘모리 주연에 신인 김정민씨". 중앙일보 (in Korean). Retrieved 2021-06-19.

ReferencesEdit

  • Jang, Yeonok (2013). Korean P'ansori Singing Tradition: Development, Authenticity, and Performance History. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 978-0810884625.
  • Kim, Kee Hyung (2008). "History of Pansori". In Yi, Yong-shik (ed.). Pansori. The National Center for Korean Traditional Performing Arts. ISBN 9788985952101.
  • Um, Haekyung (2013). Korean Musical Drama: P'ansori and the Making of Tradition in Modernity. Ashgate Publishing. ISBN 978-0754662761.
  • Pilzer, Joshua D. (2016), "Musics of East Asia II: Korea", Excursions in World Music, Seventh Edition, Taylor & Francis, ISBN 978-1-317-21375-8

External linksEdit

  •   Media related to Pansori at Wikimedia Commons
  • "The Pansori Epic Chant" on YouTube
  • https://docs.google.com/document/d/1XoOc-96N-RMIZI38wHHUH5jDYZDXin0MuVMR3tk8eY4/edit