Paraffin wax (or petroleum wax) is a soft colorless solid derived from petroleum, coal, or oil shale that consists of a mixture of hydrocarbon molecules containing between 20 and 40 carbon atoms. It is solid at room temperature and begins to melt above approximately 37 °C (99 °F), and its boiling point is above 370 °C (698 °F). Common applications for paraffin wax include lubrication, electrical insulation, and candles; dyed paraffin wax can be made into crayons. It is distinct from kerosene and other petroleum products that are sometimes called paraffin.
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Un-dyed, unscented paraffin candles are odorless and bluish-white. Paraffin wax was first created by Carl Reichenbach in Germany in 1830 and marked a major advancement in candlemaking technology, as it burned more cleanly and reliably than tallow candles and was cheaper to produce.
In chemistry, paraffin is used synonymously with alkane, indicating hydrocarbons with the general formula CnH2n+2. The name is derived from Latinparum ("very little") + affinis, meaning "lacking affinity" or "lacking reactivity", referring to paraffin's unreactive nature.
Paraffin wax is mostly found as a white, odorless, tasteless, waxy solid, with a typical melting point between about 46 and 68 °C (115 and 154 °F), and a density of around 900 kg/m3. It is insoluble in water, but soluble in ether, benzene, and certain esters. Paraffin is unaffected by most common chemical reagents but burns readily. Its heat of combustion is 42 MJ/kg.
The hydrocarbon C31H64 is a typical component of paraffin wax.
Paraffin wax was first created in 1830 by German chemist Karl von Reichenbach when he attempted to develop a method to efficiently separate and refine waxy substances naturally occurring in petroleum. Paraffin represented a major advance in the candlemaking industry, because it burned cleanly and was cheaper to manufacture than other candle fuels. Paraffin wax initially suffered from a low melting point. This was remedied by adding stearic acid. The production of paraffin wax enjoyed a boom in the early 20th century due to the growth of the oil and meatpacking industries, which created paraffin and stearic acid as byproducts.
The feedstock for paraffin is slack wax, which is a mixture of oil and wax, a byproduct from the refining of lubricating oil.
The first step in making paraffin wax is to remove the oil (de-oiling or de-waxing) from the slack wax. The oil is separated by crystallization. Most commonly, the slack wax is heated, mixed with one or more solvents such as a ketone and then cooled. As it cools, wax crystallizes out of the solution, leaving only oil. This mixture is filtered into two streams: solid (wax plus some solvent) and liquid (oil and solvent). After the solvent is recovered by distillation, the resulting products are called "product wax" (or "press wax") and "foots oil". The lower the percentage of oil in the wax, the more refined it is considered (semi-refined versus fully refined). The product wax may be further processed to remove colors and odors. The wax may finally be blended together to give certain desired properties such as melt point and penetration. Paraffin wax is sold in either liquid or solid form.
In industrial applications, it is often useful to modify the crystal properties of the paraffin wax, typically by adding branching to the existing carbon backbone chain. The modification is usually done with additives, such as EVA copolymers, microcrystalline wax, or forms of polyethylene. The branched properties result in a modified paraffin with a higher viscosity, smaller crystalline structure, and modified functional properties. Pure paraffin wax is rarely used for carving original models for casting metal and other materials in the lost wax process, as it is relatively brittle at room temperature and presents the risks of chipping and breakage when worked. Soft and pliable waxes, like beeswax, may be preferred for such sculpture, but "investment casting waxes," often paraffin-based, are expressly formulated for the purpose.
In a histology or pathology laboratory, paraffin wax is used to impregnate tissue prior to sectioning thin samples. Water is removed from the tissue through ascending strengths of alcohol (75% to absolute), and the tissue is cleared in an organic solvent such as xylene. The tissue is then placed in paraffin wax for several hours, then set in a mold with wax to cool and solidify. Sections are then cut on a microtome.
Forensic investigations: the nitrate test uses paraffin wax to detect nitrates and nitrites on the hand of a shooting suspect
Antiozonant agents: blends of paraffin and micro waxes are used in rubber compounds to prevent cracking of the rubber; the admixture of wax migrates to the surface of the product and forms a protective layer. The layer can also act as a release agent, helping the product separate from its mould.
^Nasser, William E (1999). "Waxes, Natural and Synthetic". In McKetta, John J (ed.). Encyclopedia of Chemical Processing and Design. Vol. 67. New York: Marcel Dekker. p. 17. ISBN 978-0-8247-2618-8. This can vary widely, even outside the quoted range, according to such factors as oil content and crystalline structure.
^Kaye, George William Clarkson; Laby,Thomas Howell. "Mechanical properties of materials". Kaye and Laby Tables of Physical and Chemical Constants. National Physical Laboratory. Archived from the original on 11 March 2008. Retrieved 25 October 2013.
^Seager, Spencer L.; Slabaugh, Michael (19 January 2010). "Alkane reactions". Chemistry for Today: General, Organic, and Biochemistry. Belmont, California: Cengage. p. 364. ISBN 978-0-538-73332-8.
^Wiener, Harry (January 1947). "Structural Determination of Paraffin Boiling Points". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 69 (1): 17–20. doi:10.1021/ja01193a005. ISSN 0002-7863. PMID20291038.
^"Electrical insulating materials". Kaye and Laby Tables of Physical and Chemical Constants. National Physical Laboratory. 1995. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 25 October 2013.
^"Attenuation of fast neutrons: neutron moderation and diffusion". Kaye and Laby Tables of Physical and Chemical Constants. National Physical Laboratory. Archived from the original on 29 September 2007. Retrieved 25 October 2013.
^Rhodes, Richard (1981). The Making of the Atomic Bomb. New York: Simon and Schuster. p. 163. ISBN 978-0-671-44133-3.
^"Specific Heat Capacity". Diracdelta.co.uk Science and Engineering Encyclopedia. Dirac Delta Consultants Ltd, Warwick, England. Archived from the original on 4 August 2007. Retrieved 25 October 2013.
^Dean, W. G.; Karu, Z. S. (February 1993). "Space Station thermal storage/refrigeration system research and development". Final Report Lockheed Missiles and Space Co. Bibcode:1993lock.rept.....D.
^Wax-pellet thermostat United States Patent 4948043
^ abBodén, Roger. "Paraffin Microactuator" (PDF). Materials Science Sensors and Actuators. University of Uppsala. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 February 2012. Retrieved 25 October 2013.
^"Paraffin Wax (Fully Refined)". Barasat Wax Refiner. Archived from the original on 20 July 2013. Retrieved 21 December 2012.
^"Wax Refining". The International Group, Inc. Retrieved 21 December 2012.
^"Paraffin wax". Bitumen Engineering. Archived from the original on 30 June 2012. Retrieved 21 December 2012.
^"Manufacturing Process". Barasat Wax Refiner. Archived from the original on 20 July 2013. Retrieved 21 December 2012.
^Staff (Fall 2004). "Rocket motor uses common household product for fuel" (PDF). OASIS Ocean Air Space Industry Site. 1 (3): 6. Retrieved 28 November 2008.
^Tabor, Abigail (18 April 2017). "From Pedicures to the Peregrine Rocket, Paraffin Wax Proves Its Worth". NASA.gov. Retrieved 26 March 2019.