The Parkes 64m Radio Telescope
|Location||Parkes, New South Wales, Australia|
|Telescopes||Parkes 18-metre telescope|
Parkes Radio Telescope
|Related media on Wikimedia Commons|
The Parkes Observatory (also known informally as "The Dish") is a radio telescope observatory, located 20 kilometres north of the town of Parkes, New South Wales, Australia. It was one of several radio antennae used to receive live, televised images of the Apollo 11 moon landing on 20 July 1969. Its scientific contributions over the decades led the ABC to describe it as "the most successful scientific instrument ever built in Australia" after 50 years of operation.
The Parkes Observatory is run by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) as part of the Australia Telescope National Facility (ATNF) network of radio telescopes. It is frequently operated together with other CSIRO radio telescopes, principally the array of six 22-metre (72 ft) dishes at the Australia Telescope Compact Array near Narrabri, and a single 22-metre (72 ft) dish at Mopra (near Coonabarabran), to form a very long baseline interferometry array.
The Parkes Observatory Visitors Centre allows visitors to view the dish as it moves. There are exhibits about the history of the telescope, astronomy, and space science, and a 3-D movie theatre.
The Parkes Radio Telescope, completed in 1961, was the brainchild of E. G. "Taffy" Bowen, chief of the CSIRO's Radiophysics Laboratory. During the Second World War, he had worked on radar development in the United States and had made some powerful friends in the scientific community. Calling on this old boy network, he persuaded two philanthropic organisations, the Carnegie Corporation and the Rockefeller Foundation, to fund half the cost of the telescope. It was this recognition and key financial support from the United States that persuaded then prime minister Robert Menzies to agree to fund the rest of the project.
The primary observing instrument is the 64-metre (210 ft) movable dish telescope, second largest in the Southern Hemisphere, and one of the first large movable dishes in the world (DSS-43 'Deep Space Station'-43 at Tidbinbilla was extended from 64-metre (210 ft) to 70-metre (230 ft) in 1987, surpassing Parkes). Since its completion it has operated almost continuously to the present day. The dish surface was physically upgraded by adding smooth metal plates to the central part to provide focusing capability for centimetre and millimetre length microwaves. The outer part of the dish remains a fine metal mesh, creating its distinctive two-tone appearance.
The 18-metre (59 ft) dish antenna was transferred from the Fleurs Observatory (Mills Cross) in 1963. Mounted on rails and powered by a tractor engine to allow the distance between it and the main dish to be easily varied, it was used as an interferometer with the main dish, and as a transmit uplink antenna in the Apollo program. It has been abandoned since the early 1980s.
The telescope has an altazimuth mount. It is guided by a small mock-telescope placed within the structure at the same rotational axes as the dish, but with an equatorial mount. The two are dynamically locked when tracking an astronomical object by a laser guiding system. This primary-secondary approach was designed by Barnes Wallis.
In 1998 Parkes telescope began detecting fast radio bursts and related signals named perytons. At the time it was theorised that these might have been signals from another galaxy, emissions from neutron stars becoming black holes, or interference from lightning strikes. In 2015 it was determined that perytons were caused by staff members opening the door of the facility's microwave oven during its cycle. When the microwave oven door was opened, 1.4 GHz microwaves from the magnetron shutdown phase were able to escape. ″Subsequent tests revealed that a peryton can be generated at 1.4 GHz when a microwave oven door is opened prematurely and the telescope is at an appropriate relative angle″. ″It is still not clear if microwave ovens can be blamed for all instances of peryton reception″.
The receiving cabin is located at the focus of the parabolic dish, supported by three struts 27 metres (89 ft) above the dish. The cabin contains multiple radio and microwave detectors, which can be switched into the focus beam for different science observations.
The observatory is a part of the Australia Telescope National Facility network of radio telescopes. The 64 m dish is frequently operated together with the Australia Telescope Compact Array at Narrabri and a single dish at Mopra, to form a very-long-baseline interferometry array.
Historical non-astronomy research
During the Apollo missions to the Moon, the Parkes Observatory was used to relay communication and telemetry signals to NASA, providing coverage for when the Moon was on the Australian side of the Earth.
The telescope also played a role in relaying data from the NASA Galileo mission to Jupiter that required radio-telescope support due to the use of its backup telemetry subsystem as the principal means to relay science data.
The observatory has remained involved in tracking numerous space missions up to the present day, including:
- Mariner 2
- Mariner 4
- Voyager missions (but no longer due to distance of the probes, only the 70 m dish at the CDSCC can still communicate with the two Voyager probes, Voyager 1 and Voyager 2.)
The CSIRO has made several documentaries on this observatory, with some of these documentaries being posted to YouTube.
Apollo 11 broadcast
When Buzz Aldrin switched on the TV camera on the Lunar Module, three tracking antennas received the signals simultaneously. They were the 64-metre Goldstone antenna in California, the 26-metre antenna at Honeysuckle Creek near Canberra in Australia, and the 64-metre dish at Parkes.
In the first few minutes of the broadcast, NASA alternated between the signals being received from its two stations at Goldstone and Honeysuckle Creek, searching for the best quality picture.
A little under nine minutes into the broadcast, the TV was switched to the Parkes signal. The quality of the TV pictures from Parkes was so superior that NASA stayed with Parkes as the source of the TV for the remainder of the 2.5-hour broadcast. For a comprehensive explanation of the TV reception of the Apollo 11 broadcast, see "The Television Broadcasts" from the report "On Eagles Wings".
In 2012 the observatory received special signals from the Mars rover Opportunity (MER-B), to simulate the Curiosity rover UHF radio. This helped prepare for the then upcoming Curiosity (MSL) landing in early August—it successfully touched down on 6 August 2012.
Astronomy research timeline
- Built in 1961 and was fully operational by 1963.
- Support for the NASA Apollo missions in late 1960s.
- Receiver upgrades and detailed observations begin.
- Upgrade to 64 metres (210 ft) from previously smaller aperture.
- Between 1997 and 2002 it conducted the HIPASS neutral hydrogen survey, the largest blind survey for galaxies in the neutral hydrogen line to date.
- More than half of currently known pulsars were discovered by the Parkes Observatory.
- Vital component of the Parkes Pulsar Timing Array programme to detect gravity waves as part of the broader International Pulsar Timing Array (IPTA).
In popular culture
- The observatory and telescope were featured in the 2000 film The Dish, a fictionalised account of the observatory's involvement with the Apollo 11 moon landing.
- The telescope is featured on the cover of Steve Hillage's 1977 album Motivation Radio.
Relation to Breakthrough Listen
The telescope has been contracted to be used in a search for radio signals from extraterrestrial technologies for the heavily funded project Breakthrough Listen. The principal role of the Parkes Telescope in the program will be to conduct a survey of the Milky Way galactic plane over 1.2 to 1.5 GHz and a targeted search of approximately 1000 nearby stars over the frequency range 0.7 to 4 GHz.
- Robertson, Peter (9 February 2010). "40 Years of The Dish". ABC Science. ABC. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
- "40 Years of The Dish". ABC.net.au.
- "Radio Telescope, Parkes, 1961-". Engineers Australia. Retrieved 9 September 2016.
- Canberra Deep Space Communication Complex - exploring the Solar System and beyond Archived 7 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine
- "Strange 'outer space' signal that baffled Australian scientists turns out to be microwave oven". Telegraph.co.uk. 5 May 2015.
- Monica Tan. "Microwave oven to blame for mystery signal that left astronomers stumped". the Guardian.
- Yoni Heisler. "Parkes Telescope's mysterious radio signals didn't come from aliens, but from a microwave - BGR". BGR.
- George, Honey (6 May 2015). "Parkes Telescope Scientists Found That The Outer Space Signals Were Not From Aliens But From Their Microwave Oven". International Business Times. Retrieved 7 May 2015.[permanent dead link]
- "Parkes telescope scientists discover 'strange signals' from kitchen microwave". ABC News.
- "Microwave oven baffled astronomers for decades". Wired UK.
- "Parkes telescope scientists discover strange 'space signals' actually came from kitchen microwave". msn.com.
- "Astronomy mystery solved: They're space pings, but not as we know them". The Sydney Morning Herald.
- Petroff, E.; Keane, E. F.; Barr, E. D.; Reynolds, J. E.; Sarkissian, J.; Edwards, P. G.; Stevens, J.; Brem, C.; Jameson, A.; Burke-Spolaor, S.; Johnston, S.; Bhat, N. D. R.; Chandra, P.; Kudale, S.; Bhandari, S. (2015). "Identifying the source of perytons at the Parkes radio telescope". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 451 (4): 3933. arXiv:1504.02165. Bibcode:2015MNRAS.451.3933P. doi:10.1093/mnras/stv1242.
- Bob Yirka (13 April 2015). "Mystery of peryton reception at Australian observatory solved: It's from microwave ovens". Archived from the original on 8 June 2015.
- "On Eagle's Wings: The Story of the Parkes Apollo 11 Support". csiro.au.
- "Life of a Universe". Australian Broadcasting Corporation.
- "The Television Broadcasts"
- "On Eagles Wings"
- "Google Doodle Celebrates Parkes Observatory". gizmodo.com.au. 31 October 2011. Retrieved 13 November 2011.
- "Mars Exploration Rover Mission: All Opportunity Updates". nasa.gov.
- Parkes Pulsar Timing Array www.atnf.csiro.au, Retrieved 10 August 2016
- The Dish on IMDb
- Zhang, Sarah (20 July 2015). "A Russian Tycoon Is Spending $100 Million to Hunt for Aliens". WIRED.
- "Stephen Hawking's $135m search for alien life: Parkes telescope in NSW to lead way". NewsComAu. 12 August 2015.
- Official website
- Parkes Observatory Visitors Centre
- A Tour of the Parkes Radio Telescope (1979)
- ABC Science, 2001: 40 years of the Dish
- View the dish in action
- Observation of Mariner IV with the Parkes 210-ft Radio Telescope
- The sound of the Universe singing - ABC Radio National radio documentary on the story of 'the dish' since its construction
- Parkes Pulsar Timing Array