we conclude that . The functions are in the closure of a relatively compact set, so they are themselves relatively compact. Thus there is a subsequence converging uniformly to a continuous function . Taking limit in we conclude that , using the fact that are equicontinuous by the Arzelà–Ascoli theorem. By the fundamental theorem of calculus, in .
The Peano theorem can be compared with another existence result in the same context, the Picard–Lindelöf theorem. The Picard–Lindelöf theorem both assumes more and concludes more. It requires Lipschitz continuity, while the Peano theorem requires only continuity; but it proves both existence and uniqueness where the Peano theorem proves only the existence of solutions. To illustrate, consider the ordinary differential equation
on the domain
According to the Peano theorem, this equation has solutions, but the Picard–Lindelöf theorem does not apply since the right hand side is not Lipschitz continuous in any neighbourhood containing 0. Thus we can conclude existence but not uniqueness. It turns out that this ordinary differential equation has two kinds of solutions when starting at , either or . The transition between and can happen at any .
Osgood, W. F. (1898). "Beweis der Existenz einer Lösung der Differentialgleichung dy/dx = f(x, y) ohne Hinzunahme der Cauchy-Lipschitzchen Bedingung". Monatshefte für Mathematik. 9: 331–345. doi:10.1007/BF01707876. S2CID 122312261.
Coddington, Earl A.; Levinson, Norman (1955). Theory of Ordinary Differential Equations. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Murray, Francis J.; Miller, Kenneth S. (1976) . Existence Theorems for Ordinary Differential Equations (Reprint ed.). New York: Krieger.