|OS grid reference|
|• Edinburgh||120 mi (193 km)|
|• London||420 mi (676 km)|
|Sovereign state||United Kingdom|
Peterhead (listen (help·info); Scottish Gaelic: Ceann Phàdraig, Scots: Peterheid listen (help·info)) is a town in Aberdeenshire, Scotland. It is Aberdeenshire's biggest settlement (the city of Aberdeen itself not being a part of the district), with a population of 18,537 at the 2011 Census.
Peterhead sits at the easternmost point in mainland Scotland. It is often referred to as The Blue Toun (locally spelt as "The Bloo Toon") and people who were born there as Blue Touners (locally spelt as "Bloo Tooners"). More correctly they are called blue mogginers (locally spelt as "Bloomogganners"), supposedly from the blue worsted moggins or stockings that the fishermen originally wore.
Peterhead was founded by fishermen and was developed as a planned settlement. In 1593 the construction of Peterhead's first harbour, Port Henry, encouraged the growth of Peterhead as a fishing port and established a base for trade.
Peterhead was a Jacobite supporting town in the Jacobite risings of 1715 and 1745. In particular, it was one of the Episcopalian north-eastern ports where reinforcements, plus money and equipment, were periodically landed from France during the Forty-Five.
A lifeboat station was first established in 1865. Since early times Peterhead has received a portion of its water supply from Morris Wells. Peterhead convict prison was opened in 1888, gaining a reputation as one of Scotland's toughest prisons.
The present harbour has two massive breakwaters, enclosing an area of approximately 300 acres (120 ha) in Peterhead bay. The south breakwater, about 2,700 ft (820 m) long, was constructed in 1892–1912 using convict labour from the prison. The north breakwater, constructed 1912–56, is approximately 1,500 ft (460 m) long.
A new phase of growth was initiated in the 1970s with Peterhead becoming a major oil industry service centre, and the completion of the nearby St Fergus gas terminal. At this time, considerable land holdings were allocated for industrial development.
In recent times, the town has suffered from several high-profile company closures and is facing a number of pressures, including Common Fisheries Policy reforms. However, it retains a relatively diverse economy, including food processing, textiles, service industries and, still importantly, fishing. (Over 163,000 tonnes of fish and shellfish, with a value of around £179m, were landed at Peterhead in 2017,  employing around 700 fishermen.) The Peterhead Port Authority plans to extend the northern breakwater as a stimulus to the town's economic development. In addition, to assist with business diversification and town centre environmental improvements, the 'Peterhead Project' initiative under the Aberdeenshire Towns Partnership brings together the Council, Scottish Enterprise Grampian, Communities Scotland, commerce and community representatives.
Between 1952 and 2004 the Royal Air Force station RAF Buchan was located near the town. The radar unit ceased to be a RAF station on 1 September 2004 and was downgraded to a Remote Radar Head named RRH Buchan.
The town was a burgh in the historic county of Aberdeenshire. In 1930 it became a small burgh under the Local Government (Scotland) Act 1929, but in 1975 small burghs were abolished and Peterhead became part of the district of Banff and Buchan within the new Grampian Region. When districts and regions were abolished in 1996, Peterhead became part of the new unitary authority of Aberdeenshire.
Since 1975 Peterhead has had a community council, with limited powers.
Peterhead Academy houses around 1,300 pupils and the school is split into six houses (Arbuthnot, Buchan, Craigewan, Grange, Marischal and Slains), with all the names associated with areas of the town. The school has pupils coming from surrounding villages such as Boddam, Cruden Bay, Hatton, Inverugie, Rora, St Fergus and Crimond. The academy's motto is "Domus Super Petram Aedificata" (A House Built on a Rock). The academy is Scotland's largest school at over 22,920 m2 (246,700 sq ft) of gross internal floor area. The school has multiple subjects such as ICT, English, French/German, Technical, Engineering, Art, Home Economics, and many more.
The building is split in two distinct designs. The older section of the school was built before the Second World War, whilst the newer section of the school with hexagonal designs came after. The latter section of the school shares space with the town's community centre, theatre and sports facilities.
Primary and specialist schools
Peterhead has six primary schools (Clerkhill, Buchanhaven, Meethill, Dales Park, Central, Burnhaven).
There is one special school, Anna Ritchie, which caters for most specific learning difficulties, autism and other disabilities.
Peterhead has a number of in-town and out-of-town bus services.
Peterhead is further from a railway station (at 32 miles or 51 km from Aberdeen) than any other town of its size in Great Britain. The town once had two stations, namely Peterhead railway station and Peterhead Docks railway station. Passenger trains on the Formartine and Buchan Railway stopped in 1965 under the Beeching Axe, and freight in 1970. The start of reconstruction of the Borders Railway to Galashiels (early 2013) has begun a local political debate into the possibility of reopening the line from Aberdeen to Fraserburgh and Peterhead.
The nearest airport with scheduled services is Aberdeen Airport. A heliport has been set up at the Eastern end of the former RAF Buchan air base. Recreational aviation also takes place from a part of a former runway.
Blueprint for Growth
In 2008, a Blueprint for Growth was published[by whom?] – a plan to extend the town beyond its bypass. The plan involved 4,500 homes, 4 new primary schools, a new secondary school and a new hospital to be built in the next 20–25 years – hoping to bring 9,000 people to the town.
The harbours, maritime and built heritage are the town's principal tourism assets. Recent initiatives include investments in the Peterhead Bay area, which have included the berthing of cruise ships in the harbour. A number of projects are planned under the auspices of the Peterhead Project initiative, including tourism strategy development, enhancement of existing attractions, measures to improve the town's physical attractiveness, and improved marketing and promotion.
Peterhead also has a successful amateur boxing club, and in 2008 was the most successful boxing club in Northern Scotland. And currently has two reigning Scottish champions. The boxing gym is open to all and located in Ellis Street.
Peterhead has a thriving port, serving the fishing, oil and gas and other commercial industries. It also receives many visiting seafarers arriving on ships that ply these trades. Seafarers' welfare organisation Apostleship of the Sea has a port chaplain at Peterhead to provide pastoral and practical support to them.
- Ålesund, Norway
- Thomas Abernethy, Arctic and Antarctic explorer
- William Aitken, Scottish League footballer
- Eric Temple Bell, mathematician and science fiction author
- Peter Buchan, editor
- Stevenson Buchan FRSE FGS (1907-1996), geologist
- Charles Creighton, physician and medical author
- William Gibson, politician
- Alexander Hall, Scottish League footballer
- Arthur D. Hay, judge
- William Hay, architect
- Margaret Jope, biochemist
- George Keith, missionary
- James Francis Edward Keith, soldier
- Marino Keith, Scottish League footballer
- William Keith, colonial governor of Pennsylvania
- George Kynoch, engineering businessesman
- Jim Lovie, footballer
- Dugald McTavish Lumsden, soldier
- Donald Manson, 19th-century whaler and harbourmaster of Peterhead
- John Buchan McLean , R.N.L.I. Coxswain Awarded Gold Medal For Gallantry during war years
- Jamie McLeary, golfer
- Stuart MacLeod, magician
- Gilbert Mair, sailor and merchant trader
- Frederick Martin, politician
- Peter Mullan, actor and film maker
- James Niven, physician
- James Wales, artist
- Estelle Maskame, author
- List of Provosts of Peterhead
- Buchanhaven – Village within Peterhead
- Peterhead power station
- Scotland-Norway interconnector
- Waves Radio
- Whaling in Scotland
- Ainmean-Àite na h-Alba ~ Gaelic Place-names of Scotland
- "Area Profiles". Scotland's Census 2011. Retrieved 30 December 2013.
- According to Iain Mac an Tàilleir's list of placenames, "The name Ceann Phàdraig ["Peter's headland"] is a fairly recent translation from English. The town was known as Inbhir Ùigidh, "mouth of the Ugie" or Inverugie, in the eastern Gaelic speaking areas."
- "Scotslanguage.com - Names in Scots - Places in Scotland".
- C. Duffy, The 45 (2003), p. 352
- Brief History of Peterhead Lifeboat Station www.peterheadlifeboat.co.uk, accessed 15 July 2008
- C. Michael Hogan. 2008. Catto Long Barrow fieldnotes, The Modern Antiquarian
- R. Paxton and J. Shipway, (2007) Civil Engineering heritage: Scotland – Highlands and Islands, London: Thomas Telford Ltd.  Sample Chapter
- "Radar Flight". RAF Boulmer. Retrieved 6 August 2017.
- firstname.lastname@example.org, Scottish Government, St. Andrew's House, Regent Road, Edinburgh EH1 3DG Tel:0131 556 8400 (7 December 2011). "School Estates Statistics 2011". www.scotland.gov.uk. Retrieved 3 April 2018.
- "Peterhead Town Services Map" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 May 2014.
- "Buchan Aero Club Longside Airfield - Peterhead".
- "H. M. Convict Prison Peterhead 1888 - Peterhead Prison Museum". Peterhead Prison Museum. Retrieved 13 March 2018.
- "Estelle Maskame". Goodreads. Retrieved 17 March 2017.
- "Journey to the Center of the Earth by Jules Verne: Chapter 9". www.online-literature.com. Retrieved 13 March 2018.
- Peterhead Scottish Week – Annual gala in town
- Local Authority Covering Peterhead Area
- Waves Radio – Local Radio station for Peterhead & Surrounding areas
- Peterhead RFC Official Website
- Peterhead Lifeboat Station