Philotes

Summary

Philotes
Personification of Friendship
Personal information
ParentsNyx[1] and Erebus[2]
SiblingsMoros, Keres, Thanatos, Hypnos, Oneiroi, Momus, Oizys, Hesperides, Moirai, Nemesis, Apate, Geras, Eris, Styx, Dolos, Ponos, Euphrosyne, Epiphron, Continentia, Petulantia, Misericordia, Pertinacia
Roman equivalentAmicitia, Gratia

In Greek mythology, Philotes (/ˈfɪlətz/; Ancient Greek: Φιλότης) was a minor goddess or spirit (daimones) personifying affection, friendship, and sex.

Family

Philotes was was a daughter of the primordial deities, Erebus (Darkness)[3] and Nyx (Night).[4]

Hesiod's account

And Nyx (Night) bore hateful Moros (Doom) and black Ker (Violent Death) and Thanatos (Death), and she bore Hypnos (Sleep) and the tribe of Oneiroi (Dreams). And again the goddess murky Night, though she lay with none, bare Momos (Blame) and painful Oizys (Misery) and the Hesperides who guard the rich, golden apples and the trees bearing fruit beyond glorious Ocean. Also she bore the Moirai (Destinies) and ruthless avenging Keres (Death Fates), Clotho and Lachesis and Atropos, who give men at their birth both evil and good to have, and they pursue the transgressions of men and of gods: and these goddesses never cease from their dread anger until they punish the sinner with a sore penalty. Also deadly Night bore Nemesis (Indignation) to afflict mortal men, and after her, Apate (Deceit) and Philotes (Friendship) and hateful Geras (Age) and hard-hearted Eris (Strife).[5]

Hyginus's account

From Nox/ Nyx (Night) and Erebus [were born]: Fatum/ Moros (Fate), Senectus/ Geras (Old Age), Mors/ Thanatos (Death), Letum (Dissolution), Continentia/ Sophrosyne (Moderation), Somnus/ Hypnos (Sleep), Somnia/ Oneiroi (Dreams), Amor (Love)--that is Lysimeles, Epiphron (Prudence), Porphyrion, Epaphus, Discordia/ Eris (Discord), Miseria/ Oizys (Misery), Petulantia/ Hybris (Wantonness), Nemesis (Envy), Euphrosyne (Good Cheer), Amicitia/Philotes (Friendship), Misericordia/ Eleos (Compassion), Styx (Hatred); the three Parcae/ Moirai (Fates), namely Clotho, Lachesis and Atropos; the Hesperides.[6]

Cicero's account

Their [Aether and Hemera's] brothers and sisters, whom the ancient genealogists name Amor/ Eros (Love), Dolus (Guile), Metus/ Deimos (Fear), Labor/ Ponus (Toil), Invidentia/ Nemesis (Envy), Fatum/ Moros (Fate), Senectus/ Geras (Old Age), Mors/ Thanatos (Death), Tenebrae/ Keres (Darkness), Miseria/ Oizys (Misery), Querella/ Momus (Complaint), Gratia]]/Philotes (Favour), Fraus/ Apate (Fraud), Pertinacia (Obstinacy), the Parcae/ Moirai (Fates), the Hesperides, the Somnia/ Oneiroi (Dreams): all of these are fabled to be the children of Erebus (Darkness) and Nox/ Nyx (Night).[7]

Mythology

According to Hesiod's Theogony, she represented sexual and social intercourse. Her siblings are said to be, among others, Apate (Deceit) and Nemesis (Indignation).[8] She was described by Empedocles as one of the driving forces behind creation, being paired together with Neikea (Feuds); Philotes being the force behind good things and Neikea being the force of bad things.[9] He also identifies her with Kypris[10] and mentions that Philotes feels hurt and offended by life-destroying offerings and demands the abstention from animal sacrifices.[11]

Notes

  1. ^ Hesiod, Theogony 224
  2. ^ Hyginus, Fabulae Preface
  3. ^ Hesiod, Theogony 244
  4. ^ Hyginus, Fabulae Preface; Cicero, De Natura Deorum 3.17
  5. ^ Hesiod, Theogony 211–255
  6. ^ Hyginus, Fabulae Preface
  7. ^ Cicero, De Natura Deorum 3.17
  8. ^ Stephen Scully (2015). Hesiod's Theogony: from Near Eastern Creation Myths to Paradise Lost. Oxford University Press. p. 44. ISBN 978-0-19-025396-7.
  9. ^ Stephen Scully (2015). Hesiod's Theogony: from Near Eastern Creation Myths to Paradise Lost. Oxford University Press. p. 96. ISBN 978-0-19-025396-7.
  10. ^ Felix M. Cleve (2013). The giants of pre-sophistic Greek philosophy. Springer. p. 354. ISBN 978-94-017-5665-5.
  11. ^ Felix M. Cleve (2013). The giants of pre-sophistic Greek philosophy. Springer. p. 390. ISBN 978-94-017-5665-5.

References

  • Gaius Julius Hyginus, Fabulae from The Myths of Hyginus translated and edited by Mary Grant. University of Kansas Publications in Humanistic Studies. Online version at the Topos Text Project.
  • Hesiod, Theogony from The Homeric Hymns and Homerica with an English Translation by Hugh G. Evelyn-White, Cambridge, MA.,Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann Ltd. 1914. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library. Greek text available from the same website.
  • Marcus Tullius Cicero, Nature of the Gods from the Treatises of M.T. Cicero translated by Charles Duke Yonge (1812-1891), Bohn edition of 1878. Online version at the Topos Text Project.
  • Marcus Tullius Cicero, De Natura Deorum. O. Plasberg. Leipzig. Teubner. 1917. Latin text available at the Perseus Digital Library.