3D model (JSmol)
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
|Molar mass||87.968971 g/mol|
|Density||3.91 g/L, gas|
|Melting point||−151.5 °C (−240.7 °F; 121.6 K)|
|Boiling point||−101.8 °C (−151.2 °F; 171.3 K)|
|Safety data sheet||See: data page|
|NFPA 704 (fire diamond)|
|Supplementary data page|
|Refractive index (n),|
Dielectric constant (εr), etc.
|UV, IR, NMR, MS|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
|(what is ?)|
Phosphorus trifluoride (formula PF3), is a colorless and odorless gas. It is highly toxic and reacts slowly with water. Its main use is as a ligand in metal complexes. As a ligand, it parallels carbon monoxide in metal carbonyls, and indeed its toxicity is due to its binding with the iron in blood hemoglobin in a similar way to carbon monoxide.
Phosphorus trifluoride has an F−P−F bond angle of approximately 96.3°. Gaseous PF3 has a standard enthalpy of formation of −945 kJ/mol (−226 kcal/mol). The phosphorus atom has a nuclear magnetic resonance chemical shift of 97 ppm (downfield of H3PO4).
Phosphorus trifluoride hydrolyzes especially at high pH, but it is less hydrolytically sensitive than phosphorus trichloride. It does not attack glass except at high temperatures, and anhydrous potassium hydroxide may be used to dry it with little loss. With hot metals, phosphides and fluorides are formed. With Lewis bases such as ammonia addition products (adducts) are formed, and PF3 is oxidized by oxidizing agents such as bromine or potassium permanganate.
As a ligand for transition metals, PF3 is a strong π-acceptor. It forms a variety of metal complexes with metals in low oxidation states. PF3 forms several complexes for which the corresponding CO derivatives (see metal carbonyl) are unstable or nonexistent. Thus, Pd(PF3)4 is known, but Pd(CO)4 is not. Such complexes are usually prepared directly from the related metal carbonyl compound, with loss of CO. However, nickel metal reacts directly with PF3 at 100 °C under 35 MPa pressure to form Ni(PF3)4, which is analogous to Ni(CO)4. Cr(PF3)6, the analogue of Cr(CO)6, may be prepared from dibenzenechromium:
|Ball-and-stick model of [Pt(PF3)4]||Space-filling model of [Pt(PF3)4]|
Phosphorus trifluoride is usually prepared from phosphorus trichloride via halogen exchange using various fluorides such as hydrogen fluoride, calcium fluoride, arsenic trifluoride, antimony trifluoride, or zinc fluoride: