|Location||Pittsburgh, United States|
|Founded||November 11, 1864 (as Thurston's Oil Exchange)|
|Closed||August 23, 1974|
|Key people||John Baxter Barbour, Jr.|
|Currency||United States dollar|
The Pittsburgh Stock Exchange was a large regional stock market located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania from November 11, 1864 (originally as Thurston's Oil Exchange) until closing on August 23, 1974. It was alternatively named the Pittsburgh Coal Exchange starting on May 27, 1870, and the Pittsburgh Oil Exchange on July 21, 1878 with 180 members. On July 25, 1896 the Exchange formally took the name Pittsburgh Stock Exchange though it had been referred to by that name since the spring of 1894. The Exchange, like many modern day exchanges, was forced to close during sharp economic crashes or crises. On December 24, 1969 The Philadelphia-Baltimore-Washington Stock Exchange bought the Pittsburgh Stock Exchange. At its height the exchange traded over 1,200 companies, but by the last trading day in 1974 only Pittsburgh Brewing Company, Williams & Company and Westinghouse remained listed.
Oil and Coal Exchange
The Pittsburgh Stock Exchange was formed in 1864 as the "Oil Exchange." The Pittsburgh Stock Exchange was originally Thurston's Oil Exchange, a large regional stock market located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania starting on November 11, 1864 on Fourth Street, downtown. The exchange was built on the oil traded at Pittsburgh during the Civil War with the creation of Thurston's Oil Exchange.
It was alternatively named the Pittsburgh Coal Exchange starting on May 27, 1870, after the Pittsburgh Coal Exchange was chartered "for coal companies engaged in river transporation [sic?]" that January.
The Coal Exchange changed its name to the Pittsburgh Oil Exchange in 1878. After many oil exchanges were being consolidated by Standard Oil, the exchange became known as the Pittsburgh Oil Exchange on July 21, 1878 with 180 members.
In 1891 the United States Board on Geographic Names adopted standardized naming principles, one of which was that place names ending in -burgh should drop the final -h, rendering the city's name Pittsburg. The new official spelling was resisted by many people in the city. The Pittsburgh Gazette refused to adopt the Board's decision, as did the Pittsburgh Stock Exchange, the University of Pittsburgh, and many city official. Responding to mounting pressure, the name change was reversed in 1911.
Open for general stocks
The Pittsburgh Coal Exchange opened for all general stocks by 1894, and in April 1894 the exchange began using the title Pittsburgh Stock Exchange. The exchange began officially operating under that name on July 25, 1896.
The building of the Pittsburgh Stock Exchange was destroyed in a fire on October 29, 1896.
With the Pittsburgh Stock Exchange closing that day, on March 5, 1933 President Roosevelt announced a bank holiday as both Mellon Financial and PNC Bank with the Pittsburgh Stock Exchange all left nervous account holders waiting outside locked doors.
On April 5, 1966 the New York Stock Exchange responded to the Regional Industrial Development Corporation's invitation to relocate to Pittsburgh, with the NYSE promising that the city was under consideration.
On December 24, 1969 The Philadelphia-Baltimore-Washington Stock Exchange bought the Pittsburgh Stock Exchange with the commitment to keep the trading floor operational in the city, yet a national economic downturn and increased computerization and centralization led to the Exchange closing after trading ended at 3 PM on August 23, 1974.
At its height the exchange traded over 1,200 companies but by the last trading day in 1974 only Pittsburgh Brewing Company, Williams & Company and Westinghouse remained listed. A total of 11 companies traded the last day with 3,100 shares.
The stock exchange closed its Fourth Avenue "financial district" doors in August 1974 after computerization had consolidated trades in New York, Chicago and other global centers. Some academics posit the exchange closed due to an extended national bear market and increased computerization that would eventually centralize much regional stock market trading to New York City.
From April 1, 1903 until October 1962 the stock exchange was located at 229 Fourth Avenue. From October 1962 until it closed in August 1974 it was located at the 2 story 8,500 square foot structure 333 Fourth Avenue. Prior to 1903 it was located in rented quarters of the Pittsburgh Bank for Savings on the corner of Fourth Avenue and Smithfield Street. After the exchange closed, the 1962-1974 structure was purchased by Point Park University on November 1, 2006 for $645,000.
John Baxter Barbour, Jr. (April 16, 1862 - March 11, 1929) was president of the Pittsburgh Stock Exchange for eight terms. Barbour was elected to membership in the Oil Exchange when he was nineteen years of age, and of the Pittsburgh Stock Exchange, was one of the organizers and a charter member. He became president in 1911. On May 3, 1916, was again elected president. For two terms he was treasurer of the Pittsburgh Petroleum, Stock and Metal Exchange.
- List of former stock exchanges in the Americas
- List of stock exchange mergers in the Americas
- List of stock exchanges
- Economy of Pittsburgh
- Pittsburgh in the American Civil War
- Fourth Avenue Historic District (Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania)
- Etymology of Pittsburgh
- Gigler, Rich (August 24, 1974). "The City Stock Exchange Closes as a Victim of the Times". The Pittsburgh Press. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
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- "Relocate in Pittsburgh, Stock Exchange Urged". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette - Google News Archive Search. April 6, 1966. Retrieved August 12, 2016.
- United States Board on Geographic Names (1892). First report of the United States Board on Geographic Names. 1890–1891. U.S. Govt. Print. Off. p. 8. Retrieved 4 August 2010.
- Stewart, George R. (1967) . Names on the Land: A Historical Account of Place-Naming in the United States (Sentry edition (3rd) ed.). Houghton Mifflin. pp. 342–344.
- How to Spell Pittsburg Archived 2006-09-28 at the Wayback Machine, Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh, accessed January 18, 2009
- "Stock Mart To Move". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. September 13, 1962. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
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- "Died". Time magazine. March 25, 1929. Retrieved 2010-07-21.
John B. Barbour, 67, of Pittsburgh, retired financier, onetime president of the Pittsburgh Stock Exchange (eight terms); in Pittsburgh.
- "John B. Barbour. Pittsburgh Investment Broker Dies at Age of 67". New York Times. March 13, 1929. Retrieved 2010-07-21.
Mr. Barbour was the first secretary and treasurer of the Stock Exchange. At his death he was a member of the John B. Barbour Investment and Security Company ...
- "John Baxter Barbour, Jr.". Encyclopedia of Pennsylvania biography.
- "Stock Exchange Secretary Dies". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. June 6, 1936. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- Pittsburgh Business Times video of the 333 Fourth Avenue location
- 333 Fourth Avenue description
- 333 Fourth Avenue as a bank in 1947
- Pittsburgh Stock Exchanges Guide Ad from 1929
- Penn State's Western Pennsylvania History documents
- Pittsburgh Tribune-Review Article
- A 2nd Pittsburgh Tribune-Review Article
- Original Building at 229 Fourth Avenue, currently a parking lot
- Original 229 Fourth Avenue Building from the Library of Congress
- Exterior of 1962-1974 structure at 333 Fourth Avenue
- Interior of 1962-1974 structure at 333 Fourth Avenue
- Aerial View