Pleiades (Greek mythology)

Summary

The Pleiades (/ˈplədz, ˈpl-, ˈpl-/;[1] Greek: Πλειάδες, Ancient Greek pronunciation: [pleːádes]), were the seven sister-nymphs, companions of Artemis, the goddess of the hunt.[2] Together with their seven sisters, the Hyades, they were called the Atlantides, Dodonides, or Nysiades, nursemaids and teachers of the infant Dionysus. The Pleiades were thought to have been translated to the night sky as a cluster of stars, the Pleiades, and were associated with rain.

The Pleiades
The Seven Star-nymph Sisters
The Pleiades (Elihu Vedder).jpg
The Pleiades by Elihu Vedder
AbodeMt. Cyllene on Arcadia
Personal information
Parents(a) Atlas and (b) Pleione or
(c) Aethra
Siblings
(a,b,c) Hyades
  • 1 include Dione or
  • 2 includes Thyone and Prodice or
  • 3 includes (i) Coronis, Cleeia (or Cleis) and Philia or
    (ii) Aesyle (or Phaisyle), Eudora and Ambrosia or
  • 5 includes (i) Aesyle (or Phaisyle), Coronis, Cleeia (or Cleis), Phaeo and Eudora or
    (ii) Aesyle (or Phaisyle), Coronis, Eudora, Ambrosia and Polyxo or
    (iii) Pytho, Synecho, Baccho, Cardie and Niseis
(a,b,c) Hyas
(a,b) Calypso
(a) Hesperides (half-sisters)

EtymologyEdit

The name Pleiades ostensibly derived from the name of their mother, Pleione, effectively meaning "daughters of Pleione". However, the name of the star-cluster likely came first, and Pleione was invented to explain it.[3] According to another suggestion Pleiades derived from πλεῖν (plein , "to sail") because of the cluster's importance in delimiting the sailing season in the Mediterranean Sea: "the season of navigation began with their heliacal rising".[4]

FamilyEdit

The Pleiades' parents were the Titan Atlas[5] and the Oceanid Pleione[6] born on Mount Cyllene. In some accounts, their mother was called Aethra, another Oceanid.[7] Aside from the above sisters, the Hyades, the Pleiades' other siblings were Hyas and the nymph Calypso who was famous in the tale of Odysseus. Sometimes they were related as half-sisters to the Hesperides, nymphs of the morning star.

NamesEdit

Several of the most prominent male Olympian gods (including Zeus, Poseidon, and Ares) engaged in affairs with the seven heavenly sisters. These relationships resulted in the birth of their children.

  1. Maia, eldest[8] of the seven Pleiades, was mother of Hermes by Zeus.[9]
  2. Electra, mother of Dardanus[10] and Iasion,[11] by Zeus.[12]
  3. Taygete, mother of Lacedaemon, also by Zeus.[13]
  4. Alcyone, mother of Hyrieus,[14] Hyperenor and Aethusa;[15] Hyperes and Anthas;[16] and Epopeus[14] by Poseidon.
  5. Celaeno, mother of Lycus[17] and Nycteus by Poseidon; and of Eurypylus and Euphemus also by Poseidon.
  6. Sterope, also Asterope, mother of King Oenomaus of Elis by Ares or wife of Oenomaus instead.[18]
  7. Merope, youngest of the Pleiades.[19] In other mythic contexts, she married Sisyphus[20] and, becoming mortal, faded away. Merope bore Sisyphus several sons including Glaucus.[21]

MythologyEdit

 
Lost Pleiad (1884) by William-Adolphe Bouguereau.

After Atlas was forced to carry the heavens on his shoulders, Orion began to pursue all of the Pleiades, and Zeus transformed them first into doves, and then into stars to comfort their father. The constellation of Orion is said to still pursue them across the night sky.

One of the most memorable myths involving the Pleiades is the story of how these sisters literally became stars, their catasterism. According to some versions of the tale, all seven sisters committed suicide because they were so saddened by either the fate of their father, Atlas, or the loss of their siblings, the Hyades. In turn Zeus, the ruler of the Greek gods, immortalized the sisters by placing them in the sky. There these seven stars formed the star cluster known thereafter as the Pleiades.

The Greek poet Hesiod mentions the Pleiades several times in his Works and Days. As the Pleiades are primarily winter stars, they feature prominently in the ancient agricultural calendar. Here is a bit of advice from Hesiod:

And if longing seizes you for sailing the stormy seas,
when the Pleiades flee mighty Orion
and plunge into the misty deep
and all the gusty winds are raging,
then do not keep your ship on the wine-dark sea
but, as I bid you, remember to work the land.

— Works and Days 618–623

The Pleiades would "flee mighty Orion and plunge into the misty deep" as they set in the West, which they would begin to do just before dawn during October–November, a good time of the year to lay up your ship after the fine summer weather and "remember to work the land"; in Mediterranean agriculture autumn is the time to plough and sow.

The poetess Sappho mentions the Pleiades in one of her poems:

The moon has gone
The Pleiades gone
In dead of night
Time passes on
I lie alone

The poet Lord Tennyson mentions the Pleiades in his poem Locksley Hall:

Many a night I saw the Pleiads, rising through the mellow shade,
Glitter like a swarm of fire-flies tangled in a silver braid.

The loss of one of the sisters, Merope, in some myths may reflect an astronomical event wherein one of the stars in the Pleiades star cluster disappeared from view by the naked eye.[22][23]

Alternative versionEdit

Although most accounts are uniform as to the number, names, and main myths concerning the Pleiades, the mythological information recorded by a scholiast on Theocritus' Idylls with reference to Callimachus[24] has nothing in common with the traditional version. According to it, the Pleiades were daughters of an Amazonian queen; their names were Maia, Coccymo, Glaucia, Protis, Parthenia, Stonychia, and Lampado. They were credited with inventing ritual dances and nighttime festivals.

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ "Pleiades". Merriam-Webster Dictionary.
  2. ^ Scholiast on Homer, Iliad 18.486. This in turn cites the lost Epic Cycle. The scholiast to Pindar, Olympian Ode 3.53 also refers to Taygete as a friend of Artemis.
  3. ^ Hard 2004, p. 518.
  4. ^ "Pleiad, n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, December 2014. Web. 20 January 2015.
  5. ^ Hesiod, Astronomy fr. 1; Aeschylus, fr. 172; Ovid, Metamorphoses 6.172
  6. ^ Apollodorus, 3.10.1, Hyginus, Fabulae 192; De Astronomica 2.21; Ovid, Fasti 4.169 & 5.79
  7. ^ Hyginus, De Astronomica 2.21 with Musaeus as the authority; Ovid, Fasti 5.164
  8. ^ Apollodorus, 3.10.2
  9. ^ Hesiod, Theogony 938; Apollodorus, 3.10.2
  10. ^ Hyginus, Fabulae 155 & 192
  11. ^ Hyginus, Fabulae 250
  12. ^ Apollodorus, 3.12.1
  13. ^ Apollodorus, 3.10.3
  14. ^ a b Hyginus, Fabulae 157
  15. ^ Apollodorus, 3.10.1
  16. ^ Pausanias, 2.30.8
  17. ^ Apollodorus, 3.10.1
  18. ^ Apollodorus, 3.10.1
  19. ^ "The Pleiades in Greek Mythology". Greek Legends and Myths. Retrieved 2022-02-25.
  20. ^ Apollodorus, 3.10.1
  21. ^ Apollodorus, 1.9.3
  22. ^ The Pleiades in mythology, Pleiade Associates, Bristol, United Kingdom, accessed June 7, 2012
  23. ^ Marusek, James A., Did a Supernova cause the Collapse of Civilization in India?, October 28, 2005
  24. ^ Scholia on Theocritus, Idyll 13, 25

ReferencesEdit

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  • Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica, edited and translated by William H. Race, Loeb Classical Library No. 1, Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press, 2009. ISBN 978-0-674-99630-4. Online version at Harvard University Press.
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  • Grimal, Pierre, The Dictionary of Classical Mythology, Wiley-Blackwell, 1996. ISBN 978-0-631-20102-1.
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  • Homer, The Odyssey with an English Translation by A.T. Murray, Ph.D. in two volumes. Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann, Ltd. 1919. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library.
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  • Kohn, Rachael (October 10, 2004). "The Seven Stars of the Pleiades". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 2007-05-01.
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