Pleiades in folklore and literature

Summary

High visibility of the star cluster Pleiades in the night sky and its position along the ecliptic (which approximates to the solar system's common planetary plane) has given it importance in many cultures, ancient and modern. Its heliacal rising, which moves through the seasons over millennia (see precession) was nonetheless a date of folklore or ritual for various ancestral groups, so too its yearly heliacal setting.[2] As noted by scholar Stith Thompson, the constellation was "nearly always imagined" as a group of seven sisters, and their myths explain why there are only six.[3]

Pleiades seen with the naked eye (upper-left corner).[1]

North AfricaEdit

Berber peopleEdit

Tuareg Berbers of the northern Sahara call the Pleiades Cat iheḍ (pronounced: shat ihed) (or -ahăḍ). This Berber name means: "daughters of the night". To many other Berbers it is Tagemmunt ("the group").[4]

A Tuareg Berber proverb says:

Cat ahăḍ as uḍănăt, ttukayeɣ ttegmyeɣ, anwar daɣ ttsasseɣ. As d-gmaḍent, ttukayeɣ ttegmyeɣ tabruq ttelseɣ.

When the Pleiades fall, I wake looking for my goatskin bag to drink. When (the Pleiades) rise, I wake looking for cloth/clothes to wear.

Meaning: When the Pleiades "fall" with the sun on the west, it still roughly (at J2000) means the hot, dry summer is coming. When they rise from the east with the sun, the cold somewhat rainy season is coming. Nomads and others need to brace for these.[5][4]

Middle EastEdit

BibleEdit

Old Testament, the Pleiades appear (untranslated as כימה, "Khima") thrice.[6] Mention follows (or precedes) of nearby Orion, a bright, anthropomorphic constellation: Amos 5:8; Job 9:9; and Job 38:31. The first two are references about their creation. The third (taken in the context of following verses) stresses their ongoing nature in the night sky; God is speaking directly to Job and challenges him, asking if he can bind the chains of the Pleiades — the implication being that Job cannot, but God can.

TalmudEdit

The Talmud (Berakhot 58b) suggests understanding כימה as כמאה ke' me-ah (kimah), "about one hundred" stars in the Pleiades star cluster. Like most astronomical figures in rabbinic writing, the Jewish sages pointed to this as having come from Mount Sinai.

Rabbi Shlomo Yitzchaki ("Rashi", 1040–1105) suggested even more stars within the cluster when he commented on the Talmud with a question, "What is meant by Kimah?” It is then understood that the Talmud was suggesting hundreds of stars in the Pleiades cluster, and that only the first hundred are mentioned due to them being the most important.[7]

Other Jewish sourcesEdit

According to Jewish folklore, when two fallen angels named Azazel and Shemhazai made it to the earth, they fell strongly in love with the women of humankind. Shemhazai found a maiden named Istehar who swore she would give herself to him if he told her the sacred name which granted him the power to fly to Heaven. He revealed it to her, but she flew up to Heaven, never to fulfill her promise, thus she was placed in the constellation Pleiades,[8] although she is also associated with the planet Venus.[9]

Arabia, the Levant and Islamic sourcesEdit

In Arabic the Pleiades are known as al-Thurayya الثريا, the first main consonant becoming a morpheme into outlying linguistic zones north and east, and is mentioned in Islamic literature. Muhammad made mention of the Pleiades. Some scholars of Islam suggested that the Pleiades are the "star" mentioned in Sura An-Najm ("The Star") of the Quran.[10] The Prophet is noted to have counted twelve stars in the constellation as reported in Ibn Ishaq.

The name was borrowed into Persian and Turkish as a female given name, and is in use throughout the Middle East (for example Princess Soraya of Iran and Thoraya Obaid). It eponymises the Thuraya satellite phone system of the United Arab Emirates.

A Hadith recalled by Imam Bukhari, states:

A companion of The Holy Prophet (may the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) relates: One day we were sitting with The Holy Prophet (may the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) when this chapter[a][11] was revealed. I enquired from Muhammad (may the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him). Who are the people to whom the words "and among others of them who have not yet joined them"[b] refer? Salman (may Allah be pleased with him), a Persian was sitting among us. The Holy Prophet (may the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) put his hand on Salman (may Allah be pleased with him) and said. If faith were to go up to the Pleiades, a man from among these would surely find it. (Bukhari).[13]

  1. ^ Chapter 62[11] - Surah Al-Jummah[12] - from the Qur'an
  2. ^ The verse quoted here is verse 3 from the aforementioned chapter

TurkeyEdit

In Turkish the Pleiades are known as Ülker. According to the Middle Turkic lexicographer Kaşgarlı Mahmud, writing in the 11th century, ülker çerig refers to a military ambush (çerig meaning 'troops in battle formation'): "The army is broken up into detachments posted in various places," and when one detachment falls back the others follow after it, and by this device "(the enemy) is often routed." Thus ülker çerig literally means 'an army made up of a group of detachments', which forms an apt simile for a star cluster.[14] Ülker is also a unisex given name, a surname and the name of a food company best known for its chocolates.

IranEdit

In Farsi the Pleiades is primarily known as Parvin (pronounced "parveen"). It too is a common given name of Iranians, Afghanis and some Pakistanis (for example Parvin E'tesami).

EuropeEdit

Pleiades has gained, in a few tongues, several creative derivations of its French quite well-known, non-stellar meaning: "multitude".

Greek mythologyEdit

In Greek mythology, the stars of Pleiades represented the Seven Sisters. The constellation was also described as ἑπτάποροι "heptaporoi", by poet Aratus.[15]

Norse mythologyEdit

To the Vikings, the Pleiades were Freyja's hens,[16] and their name in many old European languages such as Hungarian compares them to a hen with chicks. In contemporary Danish the cluster is known as Syvstjernen, "the Seven Star".

Western astrologyEdit

 
Kabbalistic "Pleiades" symbol from Libri tres de occulta philosophia (1531) by Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa.

The astrological Pleiades were described in Three Books of Occult Philosophy by Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa (Köln, 1533, but published manuscript as early as 1510).

In Western astrology they represent coping with sorrow[17] and were considered a single one of the medieval fixed stars. As such, they are associated with quartz and fennel.[citation needed]

In esoteric astrology the seven solar systems revolve around Pleiades.[18]

Celtic mythologyEdit

 
A bronze disk, 1600 BC, from Nebra, Germany, is one of the oldest known representations of the cosmos. The Pleiades are top right. See Nebra sky disk

To the Bronze Age people of Europe, such as the Celts (and probably considerably earlier), the Pleiades were associated with mourning and with funerals, since at that time in history, on the cross-quarter day[dubious ] between the autumn equinox and the winter solstice (see Samhain, also Halloween or All Souls Day), which was a festival devoted to the remembrance of the dead, the cluster rose in the eastern sky as the sun's light faded in the evening. It was from this acronychal rising that the Pleiades became associated with tears and mourning. As a result of precession over the centuries, the Pleiades no longer marked the festival, but the association has nevertheless persisted, and may account for the significance of the Pleiades astrologically.

Baltic mythologyEdit

In Baltic languages the name for this constellation is Sietynas in Lithuanian and Sietiņš in Latvian which is derived from sietas meaning "a sieve". In Lithuanian folk songs this constellation is often personified as a benevolent brother who helps orphan girls to marry or walks soldiers along the fields. But in Lithuanian folk tales as well as Latvian folk songs this constellation is usually depicted as an inanimate object, a sieve which gets stolen by the devil from the thunder god or is used to conjure light rain by thunder's wife and children.[19][20][21]

Danish folkloreEdit

Ethnographer Svend Grundtvig collected a folkloric account of the myth of the Pleiades in Danish folklore ("The Pleiades, or the Seven Stars").[22] In this variant, six brothers travel the world to learn a trade and, with their combined help, rescue a kidnapped princess from a dwarf. Unable to choose which brother she likes best, God allows the seven to pass out in their sleep and turns them into the seven stars of the constellation.[23]

Hungarian folkloreEdit

The old name of the starcluster in Hungarian is "Fiastyúk", meaning 'a hen with chicks'.

Slavic folkloreEdit

Russian folkloreEdit

In historical Russian treatises about astronomy, the constellation was known as semizvedie, as well as vlasozelisci.[24] Another Russian name to the constellation is Volosozhary or Volosynia, related by some scholars to the word volosy ('wool'), and to the god Volos.[25][26][27]

Ukrainian folkloreEdit

In Ukrainian traditional folklore the Pleiades are known as Стожари (Stozhary), Волосожари (Volosozhary), or Баби-Звізди (Baby-Zvizdy).

'Stozhary' can be etymologically traced to "стожарня" (stozharnya) meaning a 'granary', 'storehouse for hay and crops', or can also be reduced to the root "сто-жар" ('sto-zhar'), meaning 'hundredfold glowing' or "a hundred embers".[28]

'Volosozhary' (the ones whose hair is glowing), or 'Baby-Zvizdy' (female-stars) refer to the female tribal deities. According to the legend, seven maids lived long ago. They used to dance the traditional round dances and sing the glorious songs to honor the gods. After their death the gods turned them into water nymphs, and, having taken them to the Heavens, settled them upon the seven stars, where they dance their round dances (symbolic for moving the time) to this day. (see article in Ukrainian Wikipedia)

In Ukraine this asterism was considered a female talisman until recent times.

Belarusian traditionEdit

The constellation of the Pleiades is known by several names in Belarusian tradition, such as Sitechko ('a sieve'), and, in a legend from the Horvats, there are seven vil ('spirits of deceased maidens') who dance around in a circle.[29] Further studies by researcher Tsimafei Avilin show the main names of the constellation in Belarusian: Sieve (Sita or, rarely, Rešata, and variations) and The Hens (Kuročka and variations).[30]

Serbian folkloreEdit

In Serbian folklore, the Pleiades can be called Vlašići (“children of Vlas"),[31] a title possibly connected to Slavic deity Veles.[32] The members of this asterism, considered to be "seven starry brothers", each receive an individual name: in one version, duos Mika and Mioka, Raka and Raoka, Orisav and Borisav, and the last Milisav; in another, Vole and Voleta, Rale and Raleta, Mile and Mileta and Pržožak; in a third, Mile and Mileta, Rade and Radeta, Bore and Boreta and Prigimaz.[33]

In a version collected by Vuk Karadzic and published in the Archiv für slavische Philologie with the title Die Plejaden, a pair of brothers, Dragoman and Milan, lose their sister to a dragon and try to get her back. The dragon kills them. Years later, their mother gives birth to another son, named Busan. The boy suckles on his mother's breast for 7 years, becomes immensely strong and goes to kill the dragon. He rescues his sister and resurrects his brothers. Milan and Dragoman marry princesses, and the first father seven golden-haired children. The children, however, die in their sleep and are elevated to the sky as the Pleiades.[34]

In another version by Karadzic, translated as Abermals die Plejaden ("Once again, the Pleiades"), a human prince recruits the services of five brothers, sons of a "dragon-woman", to rescue a princess. After the mission, they quarrel about who gets to keep the princess. Their mother solves the quarrel by taking the princess as their sister. The narration then tells that these are the seven stars of the Pleiades, also known in Serbian as Vlašići.[34]

Indigenous peoples of the AmericasEdit

(Alphabetical by people)

It was common among the indigenous peoples of the Americas to measure keenness of vision by the number of stars the viewer could see in the Pleiades, a practice which was also used in historical Europe, especially in Greece.[citation needed]

Andean culturesEdit

In the ancient Andes, the Pleiades were associated with abundance, because they return to the Southern Hemisphere sky each year at harvest-time. In Quechua they are called Qullqa (storehouse).

AssiniboineEdit

In a tale collected in Belknap, attributed to the Assiniboine, seven youths discuss among themselves what they could change into. They decide to transform into stars by climbing a spiderweb.[35]

ArawakEdit

Dutch cartographer Claudius de Goeje reported that the Pleiades constellation among the Arawak is named wīwa yó-koro and marks the beginning of the year.[36] De Goeje also states that the Pleiades as the beginning of the year occurred "with all the tribes of Guiana".[37]

AztecEdit

According to Anthony Aveni ancient Aztecs of Mexico and Central America based their calendar upon the Pleiades. Their year began when priests first remarked the asterism heliacal rising in the east, immediately before the sun's dawn light obliterated the view of the stars. Aztecs called the Pleiades Tiānquiztli (Nahuatl pronunciation: [tiaːŋˈkistɬi]; Classical Nahuatl for "marketplace". Compare tianguis).[38]

BlackfootEdit

Paul Goble, a British-American author who often depicted Native American stories, tells a Blackfoot legend that he says is told by other tribes as well. In the story, the Pleiades are orphans ("Lost Boys") that were not cared for by the people, so they became stars. Sun Man is angered by the mistreatment of the children and punishes the people with a drought, causing the buffalo to disappear, until the dogs, the only friends of the orphans, intercede on behalf of the people. Because the buffalo are not available while the Lost Boys are in the skies, the cosmic setting of the Pleiades was an assembly signal for Blackfoot hunter to travel to their hunting grounds to conduct the large-scale hunts, culminating in slaughters at buffalo jumps, that characterized their culture.

Another Pleiades story, attributed to the Blackfoot, names the constellation The Bunched Stars.[39][40]

CaddoEdit

In a Caddo tale, compiled by Frances Jenkins Olcott, a mother has seven boys who did not want to work. One night, their mother sent them to bed without supper and, in the next morning, without breakfast. The boys, who knew magic song, began to dance around their house and slowly make their ascent to the heavens, to become the Seven Stars, which can only be seen in winter.[41]

CherokeeEdit

A Cherokee myth (similar to that of the Onondaga people) indicates that seven boys who would not do their ceremonial chores and wanted only to play, ran around and around the ceremonial ball court in a circle, and rose up into the sky. Only six of the boys made it to the sky; the seventh was caught by his mother and fell to the ground with such force that he sank into the ground. A pine tree grew over his resting place.[42][43]

CheyenneEdit

A Cheyenne myth "The Girl Who Married a Dog", states that the group of seven stars known as the Pleiades originated from seven puppies which a Cheyenne chief's daughter gave birth to after mysteriously being visited by a dog in human form to whom she vowed "Wherever you go, I go".[44][45]

HopiEdit

The Hopi determined the passage of time for nighttime rituals in the winter by observing the Pleiades (Tsöötsöqam)[46][47] and Orion's belt (Hotòmqam) through a kiva entrance hatch as they passed overhead. The Pleiades were depicted in a mural on one kiva wall.[48]

IroquoisEdit

A tale atrributed to the Iroquois people shows that the Pleiades were six boys who danced atop a hill to the tune a seventh was singing. On a certain occasion, they danced so fast and so light they began to ascend to the skies, and thus became the constellation.[49][50]

KiowaEdit

The Kiowa of North America legend of the Seven Star Girls links the origin of the Pleiades to Devils Tower. The seven little girls were chased by bears, and climbed a low rock. They begged the rock to save them, and it grew higher and higher until they were pushed up into the sky. The seven girls became the Pleiades and the grooves on Devils Tower are the marks of the bear's claws.[51][52]

LakotaEdit

The Lakota Tribe of North America had a legend that linked the origin of the Pleiades to Devils Tower. According to the Seris (of northwestern Mexico), these stars are seven women who are giving birth. The constellation is known as Cmaamc, which is apparently an archaic plural of the noun cmaam "woman".[53]

MonoEdit

The Monache people tell of six wives who loved onions more than their husbands and now live happily in "sky country".[54]

Monte Alto CultureEdit

The early Monte Alto Culture, and others in Guatemala such as Ujuxte and Takalik Abaj, made their early observatories using the Pleiades and Eta Draconis as reference; they were called the seven sisters, and thought to be their original land.[55]

Nez PerceEdit

A Nez Perce myth about this constellation mirrors the ancient Greek myths about the Lost Pleiades. In the Nez Perce version the Pleiades is also a group of sisters, however the story itself is somewhat different. One sister falls in love with a man and, following his death, is so absorbed by her own grief that she tells her sisters about him. They mock her and tell her how silly it is of her to feel sad for the human after his death, and she in return keeps her growing sadness to herself, eventually becoming so ashamed and miserable about her own feelings that she pulls the sky over her face like a veil, blocking herself from view. This myth explains why there are only six of the seven stars visible to the naked eye.[56]

NavajoEdit

The Pleiades (dilγéhé) play a major role in Navajo folklore and ritual. In the Navajo creation story, Upward-reachingway, dilγéhé was the first constellation placed in the sky by Black God. When Black God entered the hogan of creation, the Pleiades were on his ankle; he stamped his foot and they moved to his knee, then to his ankle, then to his shoulder, and finally to his left temple. The seven stars of dilγéhé are depicted on ceremonial masks of Black God, in sand paintings and on ceremonial gourd rattles.[57]

OjibweEdit

The Ojibwe people of North America believe they came from Bagone-giizhig "Hole in the Sky".[58] They traveled in a space ship that lead the way to Earth on a Spiders web beam of light through the portal known as the 7 sisters star system.

OnondagaEdit

The Onondaga people's version of the story has lazy children who prefer to dance over their daily chores ignoring the warnings of the Bright Shining Old Man.[54][59]

Pacific CoastEdit

In a tale attributed to Pacific Coast indigenous populations, the Pleiades are a family of seven sisters who, fed up with their husbands (all brothers) not sharing with them their game, want to be changed into stars. The husband of the youngest sister, the youngest of the seven brothers, accompanies his spouse and transforms into the Taurus constellation.[60]

PawneeEdit

The Skidi Pawnee consider the Pleiades to be seven brothers. They observed the seven brothers, as well as Corona Borealis, the Chiefs, through the smoke hole of Pawnee lodges to determine the time of night.[61]

A second tale tells the Pleiades are six brothers who rescue their sister, who becomes the seventh star of the constellation.[62]

ShastaEdit

The Shasta people tell a story of the children of racoon killed by coyote avenging their father's death and then rising into the sky to form the Pleiades. The smallest star in the cluster is said to be coyote's youngest who aided the young racoons.[54][63]

TachiEdit

In a tale from the Tachi people, the Pleiades are five sisters who lived in sky and marry a man named Flea. When he is ailed by an itch, they no longer like him and plan to leave him. He follows them to the sky.[64]

WyandotEdit

In a tale attributed to the Wyandot people, seven Singing Maidens, daughters of the Sun and the Moon, who live in Sky Land, descend to Earth and dance with human children. Their father, wrathful at their disobedience, banishes them to another part of the sky.[65][66] In another tale, the Pleiades are seven Star Sisters who descend to Earth in a basket. One day, a human hunter captures the youngest by her girdle while their sisters escape in the basket. The maiden promises to become the hunter's wife, but before he must accompany her to the sky.[67]

AsiaEdit

Ban Raji mythologyEdit

To the Ban Raji people, who live semi-nomadically across western Nepal and Uttarakhand, the Pleiades are the "Seven sisters-in-law, and brother-in-law" (Hatai halyou daa Salla).[citation needed] They hold or held that when they can first make them out annually over the mountains straddling the upper Kali they feel happy to see their ancient kin.[68] This is about eight hours afternoon by local, traditional time standards.[citation needed]

ChinaEdit

The earliest recorded reference to the Pleiades may be in Chinese astronomical literature dating from 2357 BCE.[69] For agricultural tribes in the northern hemisphere, the course of the Pleiades indicated the beginning and ending of the growing seasons. In Chinese constellations they are 昴 mao, the Hairy Head of the white tiger of the West.[citation needed]

IndiaEdit

In Indian astrology the Pleiades were known as the nakshatra Kṛttikā which in Sanskrit is translated as "the cutters".[70] The Pleiades are called the star of fire, and their ruling deity is the fire god Agni. It is one of the most prominent of the nakshatra and is associated with anger and stubbornness. Karthigai (கார்த்திகை) in Tamil refers to the six wives of the six rishi (sages), the seventh being Arundhati the wife of Vasistha which relates to the star Alcor in Ursa Major. The six stars in the Pleiades correspond to six wives, while the faithful wife Arundhati stuck with Sage Vasistha in Ursa Major.[71] The six wives fell in love with Agni, hence the name Pleiades (star of fire).

JapanEdit

 

{{{annotations}}}

 
Former Subaru logo on a Subaru 360

In Japan, the Pleiades are known as 昴 Subaru which means "coming together" or cluster in Japanese and have given their name to the car manufacturer whose logo incorporates six stars to represent the five companies that merged into one.[72] Subaru Telescope, located in Mauna Kea Observatory on Hawaii, is also named after the Pleiades.[73]

KoreaEdit

In Korea, the Pleiades are known as 묘성, "myo seong", or 昴星, with the suffix, 성 or 星 meaning star. It also goes by many other names, directly transliterated from english (플레이아데스 pronounced "pleiades") and translated literally (일곱으로 된 한 벌 or 7인조 referring to "seven sisters").

Malay ArchipelagoEdit

The cluster, known as Bintang Tujuh ("seven stars") or Bintang Puyuh ("sparrow stars") in Malay, is an marker in the traditional rice planting season in Kedah for sowing paddy seeds.[74]

In the island of Java, the asterism is known in Javanese as Lintang Kartika or Gugus Kartika ("Kartika cluster"), a direct influence from the ancient Hindu Javanese. Influenced by Hinduism, the stars represent the seven princesses, which is represented in the court dance of Bedhaya Ketawang of the royal palaces of Surakarta. The dance is performed once per year, on the second day of the Javanese month of Ruwah (during May) and is performed by the nine females, relatives or wives of the Susuhunan (prince) of Surakarta before a private audience in the inner circle of the Sultanate family.[75] Another name for Pleiades in Java is Wuluh.[76]

In northern Java, its rising marks the arrival of the mangsa kapitu ("seventh season"), which marks the beginning of rice planting season.[76]

Pleiades was once of most asterisms that used by Bugis sailors for navigation, called worong-porongngé bintoéng pitu, meaning "cluster of seven stars"[77]

PhilippinesEdit

In the Philippines the Pleiades are known as "Moroporo", meaning either “the boiling lights” or a flock of birds. Its appearance signified a new agricultural season, and thus starts the preparation for the new planting season.[78]

ThailandEdit

In Thailand the Pleiades are known as RTGSDao Luk Kai (ดาวลูกไก่) or the "Chick Stars", from a Thai folk tale. The story tells that a poor elderly couple who lived in a forest had raised a family of chickens: a mother hen and her six (or alternately seven) chicks. One day a monk arrived at the couple's home during his Dhutanga journey. Worried that they had no suitable food to offer him, the elderly couple contemplated cooking the mother hen. The hen overheard the conversation and rushed back to the coop to say farewell to her children. She told them to take care of themselves, and that her death would repay the kindness of the elderly couple, who had taken care of all of them for so long. As the mother hen's feathers were being burned over a fire, the chicks threw themselves into the fire to die along with their mother. The deity, impressed by and in remembrance of their love, immortalized the seven chickens as the stars of the Pleiades. In tellings of the story in which there were only six chicks, the mother is included but often includes only the seven chicks.[79][80][81]

OceaniaEdit

The Motif Index of Polynesian Narratives locates stories about the genesis of the Pleiades in New Zealand, Cooks and in Rotuma.[82] The myth of the Pleiades in South Pacific Islands is related to Matariki, and the stars were originally one.[83]

AustraliaEdit

Depending on the cultural/language group, there are several stories or songlines, regarding the origins of the Pleiades among Aboriginal Australian peoples, usually referred to as the Seven Sisters.

In the western desert region and cultural bloc, they are said to be seven sisters fleeing from the unwelcome attentions of a man represented by some of the stars in Orion, the hunter. In these stories, the man is called Nyiru[84] or Nirunja,[85] and the Seven Sisters songline known as Kungkarangkalpa.[86] The seven sisters story often features in the artwork of the region.[84][87]

A legend of the Wurundjeri people of south-eastern Australia has it that they are the fire of seven Karatgurk sisters. These women were the first to know fire-making and each carried live coals on the end of their digging sticks. They refused to share these coals with anybody and were ultimately tricked into giving up their secret by Crow, who brought fire to mankind. After this, they were swept into the night sky. Their glowing fire sticks became the bright stars of the Pleiades cluster.[88][89]

The Wirangu people of the west coast of South Australia have a creation story embodied in a songline of great significance based on the Pleiades. In the story, the hunter (the Orion constellation) is named Tgilby. Tgilby, after falling in love with the seven sisters, known as Yugarilya, chases them out of the sky, onto and across the earth. He chases them as the Yugarilya chase a snake, Dyunu.[90]

HawaiiEdit

There is an analogous holiday in Hawaiʻi known as Makahiki.[91] The makahiki season begins with a new moon following the rising of the pleiades (or makali`i) just after sunset instead of the heliacal rising.

The Hawaiian creation chant known as the Kumulipo also begins with reference to the pleiades (known as the makali`i).

New ZealandEdit

 
Māori and Greek names of the nine stars of Matariki

Occurring June 20 – June 22, the winter solstice (Te Maruaroa o Takurua) is seen by the New Zealand Māori as the middle of the winter season. It follows directly after the first sighting of Matariki (The Pleiades) and Puanga/Puaka (Rigel)[92] in the dawn sky, an event which marked the beginning of the New Year and was said to be when the Sun turned from his northern journey with his winter-bride Takurua (Sirius) and began his journey back to his summer-bride Hine Raumati.

Author Kate Clark retold a Maori tale titled Matariki, or the Little Eyes.[93]

RotumaEdit

C. Maxwell Churchward transcribed a tale from the Rotuma about the origin of the Pleiades he dubbed The Two Sisters Who Became Constellations, or in the original language Sianpual'etaf ma Sianpual'ekia' ("Sianpual'etaf and Sianpual'ekia"). In this tale, two sisters, the older Sianpual'etaf, ("Girl Shining In The-Light") and the younger Sianpual'ekia ("Girl Shining In The-Sunset-Glow"), escape from their cruel husbands and become constellation: the older becomes "The Little Eyes" and the younger "The Fan".[94]

SamoaEdit

In Samoa, the Pleiades constellation is called Matalii or Mataalii, meaning "Eyes of the Chiefs".[95][96]

Subsaharan AfricaEdit

In Swahili (of East Africa) they are called "kilimia" (Proto-Bantu "ki-dimida" in Bantu areas E, F, G, J, L and S) which comes from the verb -lima meaning "dig" or "cultivate" as their visibility was taken as a sign to prepare digging as the onset of the rain was near.

In related Sesotho (of far Southern Africa's Basotho (people of Sotho)) the Pleiades are called "Seleme se setshehadi" ("the female planter"). Its disappearance in April (the 10th month) and the appearance of the star Achernar signals the beginning of the cold season. Like many neighbours, the Basotho associate its visibility with agriculture and plenty.

Modern beliefsEdit

Jehovah's WitnessesEdit

The 19th century astronomer Johann Heinrich von Mädler proposed the Central Sun Hypothesis, according to which all stars revolve around the star Alcyone, in the Pleiades. Based on this hypothesis, the Jehovah's Witnesses denomination taught until the 1950s that Alcyone was likely to be the site of the throne of God.[97]

TheosophyEdit

In Theosophy, it is believed the Seven Stars of the Pleiades focus the spiritual energy of the Seven Rays from the Galactic Logos to the Seven Stars of the Great Bear, then to Sirius, then to the Sun, then to the god of Earth (Sanat Kumara) and finally through the seven Masters of the Seven Rays to us.[98]

UFOsEdit

In Ufology some believers describe Nordic alien extraterrestrials (called Pleiadeans) as originating from this system.

Modern literatureEdit

The name of the constellation inspired a group of Alexandrian poets, the Alexandrian Pleiad, then French literary movement La Pléiade.

The "Netted Stars" known as Remmirath in The Fellowship of the Ring by J. R. R. Tolkien are likely a reference to the Pleiades, given their appearance and proximity to a red star called Borgil (identified with Aldebaran) and the constellation Menelvagor of the Shining Belt (Orion). As in real life, Remmirath rise before Borgil and Menelvagor.

Children's book author Edith Ogden Harrison gave the myth of the Pleiades a literary treatment in her book Prince Silverwings, and other fairy tales, as the tale of The Cloud Maidens.[99] The story tells of the courtship of one of the Seven Sisters by the legendary Man in the Moon. Unfortunately, the Cloud Maiden is banished to Earth and becomes the "Maid of the Mist".

Another etiological tale, from a Slavic source, is The Seven Stars: a princess is kidnapped by a dragon, so the high chamberlain seeks a "Dragon-mother" and her sons, who each possess extraordinary abilities, to rescue her. At the end of the tale, the rescuers and the chamberlain enter a dispute on who should have the princess, but the "Dragon-mother" suggests they should treasure her as a sister, and to keep protecting her. As such, the seven are elevated to the sky as "The Seven Stars" (the Pleiades).[100]

The Irish writer Lucinda Riley has published a series of books about The seven sisters that is based on the Pleiades of the ancient Greek mythology.[101]

New AgeEdit

In New Age lore, some believe that Sun and the Earth will pass through a Photon belt from the Pleiades, causing a cataclysm and/or initiating a spiritual transition (referred to variously as a "shift in consciousness," the "Great Shift," the "Shift of the Ages").

Barbara Marciniak, author of Bringers of the Dawn, is one of the authors who contributes to the New Age mythos of Pleiadian ET beings who are linked to human ancestry.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Ancient Constellations over ALMA". ESO Picture of the Week. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
  2. ^ Brad Schaefer (Yale University). Heliacal Rising: Definitions, Calculations, and some Specific Cases (Essays from Archaeoastronomy & Ethnoastronomy News, the Quarterly Bulletin of the Center for Archaeoastronomy, Number 25.)
  3. ^ Thompson, Stith (1977). The Folktale. University of California Press. pp. 237-238. ISBN 0-520-03537-2.
  4. ^ a b Essai sur les origines des Touaregs
  5. ^ Étoiles et constellations chez les nomades, Edmond Bernus & Ehya ag-Sidiyene, Awal magazine, 1989, Édition de la maison des sciences de l'homme, Paris, France Étoiles et constellations chez les nomades, Edmond Bernus & Ehya ag-Sidiyene
  6. ^ James Hastings; John Alexander Selbie; Andrew Bruce Davidson; Samuel Rolles Driver; Henry Barclay Swete (1911). Dictionary of the Bible: Kir-Pleiades. Scribner. pp. 895–896.
  7. ^ "The Pleiades Star Cluster" (in Hebrew). Retrieved 2017-05-21.
  8. ^ Ginzberg, Louis (1909). Legends of the Jews. Jewish Publication Society. Entry: Volume I, "Noah: The Punishment of the Fallen Angels" [1]
  9. ^ Franz Delitzsch (1877). Biblical Commentary on the Prophecies of Isaiah. Vol. 1. Funk and Wagnalls. p. 343.
  10. ^ Abdullah Yusuf Ali (1934). The Holy Qur'an — Translation and Commentary. ISBN 978-1-902480-01-5.
  11. ^ a b "The Holy Quran".
  12. ^ "The Holy Quran".
  13. ^ "Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad".
  14. ^ Clauson, Gerard (1972). An Etymological Dictionary of Pre-Thirteenth-Century Turkish. Oxford: Clarendon Press. p. 143. ISBN 978-0-19-864112-4.
  15. ^ Lorgeoux-Bouayad, Laetitia (2012). "Le mystère des étoiles aux sept voies". Bulletin de l'Association Guillaume Budé. 1 (2): 75–99. doi:10.3406/bude.2012.6949.
  16. ^ Fred N. Brown (2007). Rediscovering Vinland : evidence of ancient Viking presence in America. New York: iUniverse. p. 128. ISBN 978-0595436804.
  17. ^ Morse, Eric (1988). The Living Stars. London: Amethyst Books.
  18. ^ Bailey, Alice (1934). Esoteric Astrology. New York: Lucis Publishing Company.
  19. ^ Vaiškūnas, Jonas. "Pleiades in Lithuanian ethnoastronomy". In: Actes de la Vème Conférence Annuelle de la SEAC, Gdańsk 1997. Warszawa–Gdańsk: Instytut Archeologii Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego, 1999, pp. 225–237.
  20. ^ Vaiškūnas, Jonas (2009). "Žinios apie dangaus šviesulius Griškabūdžio apylinkėse" [Knowledge on celestial objects around Griškabūdis]. Liaudies kultūra (in Lithuanian) (5): 13–29.
  21. ^ Laurinkienė, Nijolė (2002). "Pasaulio kūrimo motyvai lietuvių pasakojamojoje tautosakoje" [The Motifs of creating the world in the Lithuanian narrative folklore]. Liaudies kultūra (in Lithuanian) (2): 8–15.
  22. ^ Grundtvig, Svend. Fairy Tales from Afar. Translated from the Danish Popular Tales of Svend Grundtvig by Jane Mulley. New York: A. Wessels Company, 1902. pp. 154-166.
  23. ^ Lansing, Marion Florence. Fairy tales. Vol. 2. Boston, New York [etc.]: Ginn and company. 1908. pp. 62-68, 179.
  24. ^ Ryan, W. F. (1974). "Curious Star Names in Slavonic Literature". Russian Linguistics. 1 (2): 137–150. doi:10.1007/BF02526657. JSTOR 40159797. S2CID 170344951.
  25. ^ Rudenka, Alena; Putilina, Anastasia (2017). "Astronyms in ancient Belarusian and Chinese texts". Proceedings of the International Conference on Onomastics "Name and Naming": 1027–1033. doi:10.30816/ICONN4/2017/83. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  26. ^ Haney, Jack V. An Introduction to the Russian Folktale. M.E. Sharpe, 1999. pp. 67-68. ISBN 9780765632791.
  27. ^ Shapiro, Michael. The Sense of Change: Language as History. Indiana University Press, 1991. p. 104. ISBN 9780253352033.
  28. ^ The Comprehensive Dictionary of the Contemporary Ukrainian Language. Perun Publishers, 2005.
  29. ^ Avilin, Tsimafei (20 December 2008). "Astronyms in Belarussian folk beliefs". Archaeologia Baltica. 10: 29–34.
  30. ^ Hrynevich, Yanina (August 2018). "Worldview of Belarusian Folk Song Lyrics". Folklore. 72: 111–140. doi:10.7592/FEJF2018.72.HRYNEVICH. S2CID 149530775.
  31. ^ Ryan, W. F. (1974). "Curious Star Names in Slavonic Literature". Russian Linguistics. 1 (2): 137–150. doi:10.1007/BF02526657. JSTOR 40159797. S2CID 170344951.
  32. ^ Zaroff, Roman (5 May 2015). "Organized Pagan Cult in Kievan Rus'. The Invention of Foreign Elite or Evolution of Local Tradition?". Studia mythologica Slavica. 2: 47–76. doi:10.3986/sms.v2i0.1844.
  33. ^ Avilin, Tsimafei (2018). "The Pleiades in the Belarusian Tradition: Folklore Texts and Linguistic Areal Studies" (PDF). Folklore (72): 141–158.
  34. ^ a b Jagić, V; Köhler, R. (1881). "Aus dem südslavischen Märchenschatz". Archiv für slavische Philologie. 5: 17–79. hdl:2027/mdp.39015069551805.
  35. ^ Lowie, Robert Harry. The Assiniboine. New York: The Trustees, 1909. pp. 177 and 250.
  36. ^ de Goeje, C. H. (1942). "De Inwijding tot Medicijnman bij de Arawakken (Guyana) in Tekst en Mythe". Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde van Nederlandsch-Indië. 101 (2/3): 211–276. doi:10.1163/22134379-90001253. JSTOR 20770550. ProQuest 1143510871.
  37. ^ Goeje, Claudius H. de. Philosophy, initiation and myths of the Indians of Guiana and adjacent countries. Leiden: Brill, 1943. p. 27.
  38. ^ Aveni, Anthony F. (2001). Skywatchers (Rev. and updated edn. of: Skywatchers of ancient Mexico, 1980 ed.). Austin: University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-70504-2. OCLC 45195586.
  39. ^ Wissler, Clark. Star Legends Among the American Indians. New York: American Museum of Natural History. 1936-1937. p. 6-7.
  40. ^ Wissler, Clark; D. C. Duvall. Mythology of the Blackfoot Indians. New York: The Trustees, 1908. pp. 71-72.
  41. ^ Olcott, Frances Jenkins, and Milo Winter. The Wonder Garden: Nature Myths And Tales From All the World Over for Story-telling And Reading Aloud And for the Children's Own Reading. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1919. pp. 255-256.
  42. ^ Kingsolver, Barbara (1993). Pigs in Heaven. Harper Perennial. pp. 90–91.
  43. ^ "The Origin of the Pleiades and the Pine". In: Mooney, James. Myths of the Cherokee. Washington: G.P.O., 1902. pp. 258-259.
  44. ^ The Girl Who Married A Dog
  45. ^ Coffin, Tristram Potter. Indian Tales of North America: an Anthology for the Adult Reader. Philadelphia: American Folklore Society, 1961. pp. 34-35.
  46. ^ Malotki, Ekkehart (1983). Hopi Time: A Linguistic Analysis of the Temporal Concepts in the Hopi Language. Trends in Linguistics. Studies and Monographs. Vol. 20. Berlin, New York, Amsterdam: Mouton Publishers. pp. 445–448. ISBN 90-279-3349-9.
  47. ^ Hopi Dictionary Project (University of Arizona Bureau of Applied Research in Anthropology) (1998), Hopi dictionary: Hopìikwa Lavàytutuveni: A Hopi-English Dictionary of the Third Mesa Dialect with an English-Hopi Finder List and a Sketch of Hopi Grammar, Tucson, Arizona: University of Arizona Press, ISBN 0-8165-1789-4
  48. ^ Stephen, Alexander M. (1936), Parsons, Elsie Clews (ed.), Hopi Journal of Alexander M. Stephen, New York: Columbia University Press, p. 233
  49. ^ Judd, Mary Catherine. Wigwam stories told by North American Indians. Boston: Ginn & Company. 1906. pp. 174-175.
  50. ^ Mooney, James. Myths of the Cherokee. Washington: G.P.O., 1902. p. 443.
  51. ^ Andrews, Munya (2004). The Seven Sisters of the Pleiades: Stories from Around the World. Spinifex Press. pp. 149-152. ISBN 1876756454.
  52. ^ Kracht, Benjamin (2017). Kiowa Belief and Ritual. University of Nebraska Press. pp. 63, 75, 139, 189. ISBN 978-1496201461.
  53. ^ Moser, Mary B.; Stephen A. Marlett (2005). Comcáac quih yaza quih hant ihíip hac: Diccionario seri-español-inglés (PDF) (in Spanish and English). Hermosillo, Sonora and Mexico City: Universidad de Sonora and Plaza y Valdés Editores.
  54. ^ a b c Monroe, [compiled by] Jean Guard; Stewart, Ray A. Williamson; illustrations by Edgar (1987). They dance in the sky : Native American star myths. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. pp. 1–14. ISBN 0-395-39970-X.
  55. ^ Maya Astronomy
  56. ^ Clark, Ella (1953). Indian Legends of the Pacific Northwest. Berkeley and Los Angeles, California: University of California Press. pp. 155–156. ISBN 0-520-00243-1.
  57. ^ Haile, Berard (1977) [1947], Starlore Among the Navaho, Santa Fe, NM: William Gannon
  58. ^ Lee, Annette S. (30 August 2020). "Native Skywatchers and the Ojibwe Giizhig Anung Masinaaigan-Ojibwe Sky Star Map". arXiv:2008.13214 [physics.hist-ph].
  59. ^ Coffin, Tristram Potter. Indian Tales of North America: an Anthology for the Adult Reader. Philadelphia: American Folklore Society, 1961. pp. 33-34.
  60. ^ Chandler, Katherine. In the reign of Coyote: folklore from the Pacific coast. Boston: Ginn & Co. [ca. 1905] pp. 148-155.
  61. ^ Chamberlain, Von Del (1982), When Stars Came Down to Earth: Cosmology of the Skidi Pawnee Indians of North America, Ballena Press Anthropological Papers, vol. 26, Los Altos, CA / College Park, MD: Ballena Press / Center for Archaeoastronomy, pp. 166–7, 175–7, 226–7, ISBN 0-87919-098-1
  62. ^ Dorsey, George Amos. The Pawnee: Mythology (Part I). Washington: Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1906. pp. 119-122 and 488-489.
  63. ^ Gifford, Edward Winslow; Gwendoline Harris Block. Californian Indian Nights Entertainments: Stories of the Creation of the World, of Man, of Fire, of the Sun, of Thunder, Etc.; of Coyote, the Land of the Dead, the Sky Land, Monsters, Animal People, Etc.. Glendale, California: The Arthur H. Clark Company, 1930. pp. 226-227.
  64. ^ Gifford, Edward Winslow; Gwendoline Harris Block. Californian Indian Nights Entertainments: Stories of the Creation of the World, of Man, of Fire, of the Sun, of Thunder, Etc.; of Coyote, the Land of the Dead, the Sky Land, Monsters, Animal People, Etc.. Glendale, Calif.: The Arthur H. Clark Company, 1930. pp. 225-226.
  65. ^ Connelley, William Elsey. Wyandot Folk-lore. Topeka, Kansas: Crane & company, 1899. pp. 109-111.
  66. ^ Olcott, Frances Jenkins; Richardson, Frederick. The red Indian fairy book for the children's own reading and for story-tellers. Boston; New York: Houghton Mifflin Co.. 1917. pp. 282-284.
  67. ^ Olcott, Frances Jenkins; Richardson, Frederick. The red Indian fairy book for the children's own reading and for story-tellers. Boston; New York: Houghton Mifflin Co.. 1917. pp. 285-287.
  68. ^ Fortier 2008[full citation needed][verification needed]
  69. ^ Star-names and their meanings by Allen, Richard Hinckley, 1838-1908[full citation needed][verification needed]
  70. ^ Dennis M. Harness. The Nakshatras: The Lunar Mansions of Vedic Astrology. Lotus Press (Twin Lakes WI, 1999.) ISBN 978-0-914955-83-2[page needed]
  71. ^ "Chastest Woman Arundhati in Literature!". 25 June 2014.
  72. ^ Subaru of America, Inc. FAQ
  73. ^ A Brief History of Subaru
  74. ^ Nurul Fatini Jaafar (2016). "Kebudayaan Langit Pribumi Malayonesia". Kesturi. Akademi Sains Islam Malaysia. 26 (2). doi:10.13140/RG.2.2.24869.55520.
  75. ^ Becker, Judith. Gamelan Stories: Tantrism, Islam, and Aesthetics in Central Java. Arizona State University Program for Southeast Asian Studies, 1993. ISBN 1-881044-06-8
  76. ^ a b Avivah Yamani (January 2, 2011). "Jejak Langkah Astronomi di Indonesia" [Footsteps of Astronomy in Indonesia]. Langit Selatan (in Indonesian). Langit Selatan. Archived from the original on January 31, 2016. Retrieved January 31, 2016.
  77. ^ Kelley, David H.; Milone, Eugene F.; Aveni, A.F. (2011). Exploring Ancient Skies: A Survey of Ancient and Cultural Astronomy. New York, New York: Springer. p. 344. ISBN 978-1-4419-7623-9.
  78. ^ Manapat, Ricardo (2011). "Mathematical Ideas in Early Philippine Society: Posthumous Essay" (PDF). Philippine Studies. 59 (3): 291–336. JSTOR 42634685. Project MUSE 450519.
  79. ^ Thaiculture.com
  80. ^ rspg.or.th
  81. ^ "Seven Stars". In: Vathanaprida, Supaporn; MacDonald, Margaret Read; Rohitasuke, Boonsong. Thai Tales: Folktales of Thailand World. Libraries Unlimited, 1994. pp. 39-41, 128-129. ISBN 9780585136165.
  82. ^ Kirtley, Bacil F. (1971). "Mythological Motifs". A Motif-Index of Traditional Polynesian Narratives. University of Hawai'i Press. pp. 1–112. doi:10.2307/j.ctvp2n3hb.8. ISBN 978-0-87022-416-4. JSTOR j.ctvp2n3hb.8. S2CID 241314864.
  83. ^ Gill, William Wyatt; and Müller, Friedrich Max. Myths And Songs From the South Pacific. London: H. S. King & co., 1876. pp. 43-44.
  84. ^ a b "Seven Sisters Dreaming". Aboriginal Art & Culture: An American eye. 24 March 2013. Retrieved 15 November 2020.
  85. ^ "The Story of the "Seven Sisters"". Honey Ant Gallery. 2017. Retrieved 15 November 2020.
  86. ^ "Prizes: Archibald Prize 2017: Tjungkara Ken". Art Gallery of NSW. 2017. Retrieved 15 November 2020.
  87. ^ "Kungkarangkalpa – Seven sisters". AGSA - Online Collection. Retrieved 15 November 2020.
  88. ^ Mudrooroo (1994). Aboriginal mythology: An A-Z spanning the history of the Australian Aboriginal people from the earliest legends to the present day. London: Thorsons. pp. 35–36. ISBN 978-1-85538-306-7.
  89. ^ Peter D'Arcy (1994). Margo Sutton (ed.). The Emu in the Sky: Stories about the Aboriginals and the day and night skies - The Emu. The National Science and Technology Centre. pp. 15, 16. ISBN 978-0-64618-202-5.
  90. ^ Hamilton, Jodie (7 October 2020). "Seven Sisters stars creation story reconnecting people to their country after clifftop massacre taboo lifted". ABC News. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 11 November 2020.
  91. ^ Hawaiian Voyaging Course
  92. ^ Rigel is Puanga in northern Māori, and Puaka in southern dialects
  93. ^ Clark, Kate McCosh. Maori tales and legends. Collected and retold. London: Nutt, 1896. pp. 104-107.
  94. ^ Churchward, C. Maxwell (1938). "Rotuman Legends (Continued)". Oceania. 8 (3): 351–368. doi:10.1002/j.1834-4461.1938.tb00427.x. JSTOR 40327659.
  95. ^ Clark, Kate McCosh. Maori tales and legends. Collected and retold. London: Nutt, 1896. p. 179.
  96. ^ Samoan Society (1928). "The Samoan division of time". The Journal of the Polynesian Society. 37 (146): 228–240. JSTOR 20702200.
  97. ^ "God's Throne - Pleiades". www.quotes-watchtower.co.uk. Archived from the original on 2006-08-18.
  98. ^ Baker, Dr. Douglas The Seven Rays:Key to the Mysteries 1952
  99. ^ Harrison, Edith Ogden, and Lucy Fitch Perkins. Prince Silverwings, And Other Fairy Tales. Chicago: A. C. McClurg & co., 1902. pp. 109-123.
  100. ^ Houghton, Louise Seymour. The Russian grandmother's wonder tales. New York: C. Scribner's sons. 1906. pp. 129-135.
  101. ^ Lucinda Riley: The Seven Sisters Series, lucindariley.co.uk, retrieved 5 July 2020

91 Star-names and their meanings by Allen, Richard Hinckley, 1838-1908

Further readingEdit

  • Avilin, Tsimafei (August 2018). "The Pleiades in the Belarusian Tradition: Folklore Texts and Linguistic Areal Studies". Folklore. 72: 141–158. doi:10.7592/FEJF2018.72.avilin. S2CID 150307855.
  • Baudouin, Marcel (1916). "La préhistoire des étoiles: Les Pléiades au Néolithique". Bulletins et Mémoires de la Société d'Anthropologie de Paris. 7 (1): 25–103. doi:10.3406/bmsap.1916.8777.
  • Nyhart, Lynn K. (2000). "Review of Wissenschaftspopularisierung im 19. Jahrhundert: Burgerliche Kultur, naturwissenschaftliche Bildung und die deutsche Offentlichkeit, 1848-1914". Isis. 91 (4): 760–761. doi:10.1086/384951. JSTOR 23682657.
  • Beauchamp, W. M. (October 1900). "Onondaga Tale of the Pleiades". The Journal of American Folklore. 13 (51): 281–282. doi:10.2307/532915. JSTOR 532915.
  • Berezkin, Yu.E. (December 2009). "The Pleiades as Openings, the Milky Way as the Path of Birds, and the Girl in the Moon: Northern Eurasian Ethno-Cultural Links in the Mirror of Cosmonymy". Archaeology, Ethnology and Anthropology of Eurasia. 37 (4): 100–113. doi:10.1016/j.aeae.2010.02.012.
  • Ceci, Lynn (1978). "Watchers of the Pleiades: Ethnoastronomy among Native Cultivators in Northeastern North America". Ethnohistory. 25 (4): 301–317. doi:10.2307/481683. JSTOR 481683.
  • D'Huy, Julien; Berezkin, Yuri (2017). "How Did the First Humans Perceive the Starry Night? On the Pleiades". The Retrospective Methods Network Newsletter (12–13): 100–122.
  • Hirschberg, Walter (1929). "Die Plejaden in Afrika und ihre Beziehung zum Bodenbau". Zeitschrift für Ethnologie. 61 (4/6): 321–337. JSTOR 23033004.
  • Lang, Andrew. "Star Myths". In: Custom and Myth. Longmans, Green and co. 1884. pp. 121–142.
  • Miller, Roy Andrew (1988). "Pleiades Perceived: MUL.MUL to Subaru". Journal of the American Oriental Society. 108 (1): 1–25. doi:10.2307/603243. JSTOR 603243.
  • Norris, Ray P.; Norris, Barnaby R. M. (2021). "Why Are There Seven Sisters?". Advancing Cultural Astronomy. Historical & Cultural Astronomy. pp. 223–235. arXiv:2101.09170. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-64606-6_11. ISBN 978-3-030-64605-9. S2CID 231692987.
  • Palmer, Edwina (2010). "'Slit Belly Swamp': A Japanese Myth of the Origin of the Pleiades?". Asian Ethnology. 69 (2): 311–331. JSTOR 40961328.
  • Singh, Tayenjam Bijoykumar (2005). "Khomjong-nubi Nongkaron: the Pleiades ascending heaven". India International Centre Quarterly. 32 (2/3): 30–32. JSTOR 23006004.
  • Selin H., Xiaochun S. (eds). Astronomy Across Cultures. Science Across Cultures: The History of Non-Western Science. Vol. 1. Springer, Dordrecht.