Politics of Jammu and Kashmir


Jammu and Kashmir is administered by the Republic of India within the framework of a federal parliamentary republic as a union territory, like the union territory of Puducherry, with a multi-party democratic system of governance. Until 2019, it was governed as a state administered by India. Politics in the region reflects the historical tension and dispute that the state has been a part of in the form of the Kashmir conflict. The head of state is the Lieutenant Governor of Jammu and Kashmir, currently Manoj Sinha, while the head of government is the Chief Minister of Jammu and Kashmir, currently vacant. Legislative power is vested in the Legislative Assembly of Jammu and Kashmir. The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature.

Politics of Jammu and Kashmir
Government of Jammu and Kashmir.svg
Polity typeUnion territory of India: A federal territory with its own elected legislatures and governments; with partial statehood
ConstitutionConstitution of India
Legislative branch
NameLegislative Assembly
Presiding officerVacant
Executive branch
Head of State
TitleLieutenant Governor
CurrentlyManoj Sinha
Head of Government
TitleChief Minister
Judicial branch
Jammu and Kashmir High Court
Chief judgeGita Mittal


Gulab Singh has been called as the founder of the polity of Jammu and Kashmir.[1] Following the 1860s, interaction with British India resulted in the region becoming a part of the geopolitical game between Russia and Britain.[2] During the period of India's independence, the partition, up till and after India becoming a Republic, the question of Kashmir's future marked political decisions. The introduction of Pakistan into the internal political situation at this stage created complexities.[3]

Some observers point out that the Kashmir conflict is a political issue.[4] Amidst the political instability that the conflict has brought to the region, all the governments of Jammu and Kashmir have been engaged in attaining normalcy.[5] The state has seen a "parallel existence of the democratic and separatist sphere of politics" and a shift from political hegemony till as late as 2002 to a multi-party system.[6]

Historically Kashmiri Muslims went through a prediod where they preferred greater autonomy and sovereignty for the region and have even proposed an independent Kashmir. However a minority of the non-Muslims who live in the region like to see the state fully integrated into India. Some Kashmiri Muslims also have inclination towards Pakistan since a small part of Kashmir is under Pakistan control. There has also been a number of separatist movements, both political and militant, mostly led by hardline Muslim leaders. However, in recent years a growing number of Kashmiri Muslims have been leaning towards remaining in India for economic and cultural reasons.[7][8] A 2008 report by United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees determined that State of Jammu and Kashmir is one and only 'Partly free' state in India.[9] Human rights abuses in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir state have also been an issue and affect the politics of the region.

In August 2019, the Government of India introduced the Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation Bill, 2019 in the Rajya Sabha and moved resolution to scrap the Article 370 from the Constitution of India and bifurcate the state of Jammu and Kashmir into two Union Territories – Jammu & Kashmir with a legislation like Delhi, and Ladakh with a legislation like Chandigarh.[10] Jammu and Kashmir was the only Indian state that had its own flag. However, as Article 370 of the Indian constitution, which granted Jammu and Kashmir autonomy, was abrogated in August 2019, the flag has lost its official status.

Political parties of Jammu & KashmirEdit

List of political parties:[11]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Muhammad 2019, p. Chapter 10.
  2. ^ Kaur 1996, p. 9.
  3. ^ Puri 2015, p. 217–221.
  4. ^ Wani 2018, p. Acknowledgement.
  5. ^ Wani 2018, p. Introduction.
  6. ^ Rekha 2019, p. Introduction.
  7. ^ "A growing peace constituency - Times of India". The Times of India.
  8. ^ "Welcome to Frontline : Vol. 29 :: No. 13". Hinduonnet.com. Archived from the original on 26 May 2002. Retrieved 28 June 2012.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  9. ^ United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (2 July 2008). "Refworld | Freedom in the World 2008 - Kashmir [India]". UNHCR. Archived from the original on 10 October 2012. Retrieved 28 June 2012.
  10. ^ "Govt introduces J&K Reorganisation Bill 2019 in Rajya Sabha; moves resolution revoking Article 370 | DD News". www.ddnews.gov.in. Retrieved 26 August 2019.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h "Jammu and Kashmir Elections and Results - News and Updates on Chief Ministers, Cabinet and Governors". www.elections.in. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
  12. ^ "BJP launches website ahead of Modi's rally in Jammu & Kashmir".


  • Tajuddin, Muhammad (2019). "10— Religion-polity interface in Jammu and Kashmir: An analysis". In Kumar, Narender (ed.). Politics and Religion in India. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 9781000691474.
  • Kaur, Ravinderjit (1996). Political Awakening in Kashmir. New Delhi: APH Publishing. ISBN 9788170247098.
  • Wani, Aijaz Ashraf (2018). What Happened to Governance in Kashmir?. New Delhi: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199097159.
  • Chowdhary, Rekha (2019). Jammu and Kashmir: 1990 and Beyond: Competitive Politics in the Shadow of Separatism. Tamil Nadu: SAGE Publishing India. ISBN 9789353282325.
  • Puri, Balraj (2015). "V: Jammu and Kashmir". In Wiener, Myron (ed.). State Politics in India. Princeton University Press. pp. 215–243. ISBN 9781400879144.

Further readingEdit

  • Kumar, Radha (2018). Paradise at War: A Political History of Kashmir. New Delhi: Aleph. ISBN 9789388292122.
  • Chowdhary, Rekha. "Electoral Politics in the Context of Separatism and Political Divergence: An Analysis of 2009 Parliamentary elections in Jammu & Kashmir". South Asia Multidisciplinary Academic Journal, 3, 2009.