Power of Siberia
Sila Sibiri
Ceremony to mark the joining of the Power of Siberia gas pipeline’s first section
Ceremony to mark the joining of the Power of Siberia gas pipeline’s first section
The routes of the Power of Siberia pipeline (left), the Sakhalin–Khabarovsk–Vladivostok pipeline (right) and the proposed link between them (centre)
The routes of the Power of Siberia pipeline (left), the Sakhalin–Khabarovsk–Vladivostok pipeline (right) and the proposed link between them (centre)
Location
CountryRussia
General directionWest-east-south
FromChayanda field (phase 1)
Kovykta field (phase 2)
Passes throughSvobodny
Khabarovsk (further expansion)
ToBlagoveshchensk (phase 1)
Vladivostok (further expansion)
Runs alongsideEastern Siberia-Pacific Ocean oil pipeline
General information
TypeNatural gas
OperatorGazprom
Commissioned2 December 2019
Technical information
Length3,968 km (2,466 mi)
Maximum discharge61 billion cubic metres per annum (2.2×10^12 cu ft/a)
Diameter1,420 mm (56 in)
No. of compressor stations9

Power of Siberia (Sila Sibiri, formerly named the Yakutia–Khabarovsk–Vladivostok pipeline, also known as China–Russia East-Route Natural Gas pipeline; Russian: Сила Сибири, Chinese: 中俄东线天然气管道[1]) is a pipeline in Eastern Siberia that transports natural gas from Yakutia to Primorsky Krai and China. It is a part of the eastern gas route from Siberia to China. The proposed western gas route to China is known as Power of Siberia 2 (Altai gas pipeline).

History

On 29 October 2012, Russian president Vladimir Putin instructed Alexey Miller, CEO of Gazprom to start the construction of the pipeline.[2] The Yakutia–Khabarovsk–Vladivostok pipeline project was officially renamed Power of Siberia at the end of 2012.[3]

On 21 May 2014, Russia and China signed a 30-year gas deal worth $400 billion which was needed to make the project feasible. Construction was launched on 1 September 2014 in Yakutsk by Putin and Chinese deputy prime minister Zhang Gaoli.[4][5][6] Construction of the connecting pipeline in China started on 29 June 2015.[7][8][9]

On 4 September 2016, Miller and China National Petroleum Corporation's Chairman Wang Yilin signed an agreement to build a crossing under the Amur River for the pipeline.[10] Two tunnels under the river were completed by China Petroleum Pipeline in March 2019.[11]

In 2017, construction of the Atamanskaya (Zeyskaya) compressor station began. The compressor station was completed in 2019.[12]

The pipeline was filled with gas in October 2019.[13] Deliveries to China started on 2 December 2019.[1][14]

Technical description

The total length of the pipeline, when fully completed, will be 3,968 km (2,466 mi).[7] The capacity of the 1,420 mm (56 in) pipeline would be up to 61 billion m3 (2.2 trillion cu ft) per annum of natural gas,[5][15] of which 38 billion m3 (1.3 trillion cu ft) per annum are supplied to China.[16][17] The pipeline's working pressure is ensured by nine compressor stations[18][12] with a total capacity of 1,200 MW.[12] Construction of compressor stations will be completed by 2022.[12] The working pressure between the Chayanda field and the Atamanskaya compressor station is 9.8 MPa (1,420 psi), and between the Atamanskaya compressor station and the border of China is 11.8 MPa (1,710 psi).[18][19] The Chayandinskaya compressor station has capacity of 577 MW and the Atamanskaya compressor station has capacity of 128 MW. Rest of seven compressor stations has total capacity of 481 MW.[12] They include Saldykelskaya, Olyokminskaya, Amginskaya, and Nimnyrkaya compressor stations, among others.[20]

Together with the development of the Chayanda field and the Amur Gas Processing Plant, the Power of Siberia projects costs US$55–70 billion.[21]

The pipeline is able to withstand temperatures as low as −62 °C (−80 °F).[22] Nanocomposite coatings made by JSC Metaclay are being used to increase the lifetime of the pipeline.[23] To withstand earthquakes, the pipeline uses materials that will deform under seismic activity.[22] Internal coatings ensure energy efficiency by reducing the friction of the pipeline's inner surfaces.[22] The mass of all the pipes used to construct the pipeline is more than 2.25 million tonnes (2.5 million tons).[24]

Because of lower environmental standards in both Russia and China, the pipeline seems to maintain lower environmental impact standards when compared to similar international pipelines to Western Europe.[25]

Route

The pipeline is fed from the Chayanda field in Yakutia[26], which was launched in 2019.[16] The Kovykta field in Irkutsk Oblast will start to supply to the pipeline in 2023.[27] The 2,156.1 km (1,339.7 mi) first phase of the pipeline starts at the Chayanda field in Yakutia.[12][19][28] It runs partly within the same corridor as the second stage of the Eastern Siberia-Pacific Ocean oil pipeline.[9][29] In Svobodny in Amur Oblast, the pipeline is connected to the Amur Gas Processing Plant. From there, the pipeline branches south to Blagoveshchensk on the Russia–China border.[28] By the two 1,139 m (3,737 ft) tunnels under the Amur River, it is connected to the 3,371 km (2,095 mi) HeiheShanghai pipeline in China.[11] Together they form the eastern route for gas supplies from Siberia to China.[11]

The 803.5 km (499.3 mi) second phase of the pipeline connects the Kovykta field to the Chayanda field.[12] According to the original plan, the further 1,000 km (620 mi) extension of the Power of Siberia pipeline will continue from Svobodny through Birobidzhan to Khabarovsk where the pipeline will be linked with the Sakhalin–Khabarovsk–Vladivostok pipeline.[6][30] Gazprom has not published if and when this extension will be built.

Contractors

Different sections of the pipeline were built by Stroytransgaz owned by Gennady Timchenko, Neftegazstroy, and Stroygazmontazh owned by Arkady Rotenberg.[31]

Impact

The pipeline has strong implications for energy security in both China and Russia in the short term.[25] The pipeline is designed to reduce China's dependence on coal, which is more carbon intensive and causes more pollution than natural gas.[32] For Russia, the pipeline allows another economic partnership in the face of resistance to pipelines being built in Western Europe.[32]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "China-Russia east-route natural gas pipeline in operation". Xinhua. 2019-12-02. Retrieved 2019-12-04.
  2. ^ "Газпром" получил импульс для освоения Чаянды [Gazprom received an impulse for conquest of Chayanda] (in Russian). Interfax. 29 October 2012. Retrieved 2014-04-11.
  3. ^ "Газопровод "Якутия - Хабаровск - Владивосток" получил название "Сила Сибири"" [The Yakutia–Khabarovsk–Vladivostok gas pipeline renamed Power of Siberia]. News Ykt (in Russian). 2012-12-28. Retrieved 2019-12-04.
  4. ^ "Putin In Yakutsk To Inaugurate Construction Of Pipeline To China". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 1 September 2014. Retrieved 2014-09-02.
  5. ^ a b "Putin gives start to Power of Siberia gas pipeline construction". ITAR-TASS. 1 September 2014. Retrieved 2014-09-02.
  6. ^ a b "Power of Siberia construction launched" (Press release). Gazprom. 1 September 2014. Retrieved 2019-12-04.
  7. ^ a b "Half of pipes supplied for Russia's China-bound Power of Siberia gas pipeline construction". TASS. 2015-08-11. Retrieved 2019-12-05.
  8. ^ "Construction goes smoothly on China-Russia gas pipeline". Xinhua. 2019-09-05. Retrieved 2019-11-26.
  9. ^ a b "Power of Siberia pipeline's construction launched in China". NRT24. 2015-06-30. Retrieved 2019-12-04.
  10. ^ "Gazprom and CNPC sign EPC contract to construct underwater crossing of Power of Siberia" (Press release). Gazprom. 2016-09-04. Retrieved 2017-10-15.
  11. ^ a b c "Underwater tunnels completed for China-Russia gas pipeline". Xinhua . 2019-03-29. Retrieved 2019-11-26.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g ""Газпром" завершит прокладку "Силы Сибири" в 2018 г." [Gazprom will complete the laying of the Power of Siberia in 2018]. Vesti (in Russian). 2018-04-25. Retrieved 2019-12-05.
  13. ^ Balmforth , Tom (2019-10-25). "Gazprom finishes filling China-bound Power of Siberia gas pipeline". Reuters . Retrieved 2019-11-26.
  14. ^ Shabbir, Fahad (2019-11-25). "Putin, Xi Expected To Hold Teleconference For Launching Power Of Siberia Dec 2 - Kremlin". UrduPoint. Retrieved 2019-11-26.
  15. ^ "Putting the Power into Siberia". Siberian Times. 2014-09-02. Retrieved 2017-10-15.
  16. ^ a b Khodyakova, Yelena (4 March 2014). «Газпром» отложил запуск газопровода «Сила Сибири» до 2019 г. [Gazprom postponed start of the Power of Siberia pipeline until 2019]. Vedomosti (in Russian). Retrieved 2014-04-11.
  17. ^ Soldatkin, Vladimir; Pinchuk, Denis (7 March 2014). "Rosneft challenges Gazprom monopoly to export Russian pipeline gas". Reuters. Retrieved 2014-04-11.
  18. ^ a b "Реализация проекта «Магистральный газопровод «Сила Сибири» (ПАО «Газпром»)" [Implementation of the gas pipeline project Power of Siberia (PJSC Gazprom)] (in Russian). Ministry of Energy. Retrieved 2019-12-04.
  19. ^ a b "Gazprom project ahead of schedule". Pipelines International. 2017-06-15. Retrieved 2017-09-07.
  20. ^ 20% «Силы Сибири». Компания Тимченко без конкурса получила второй подряд на строительство трубопровода в Китай [20% of Power of Siberia. Timchenko's company received a second contract for the construction of a pipeline to China without a tender]. RBC (in Russian). 2016-05-20. Retrieved 2019-12-05.
  21. ^ d'Amora, Delphine (2014-07-09). "Gazprom's Gas Pipeline to China to Cost Up to $70Bln, Kremlin Says". The Moscow Times. Retrieved 2019-12-05.
  22. ^ a b c "Power of Siberia". www.gazprom.com. Retrieved 2017-10-15.
  23. ^ Fostering A New Industry: Nanomaterials (PDF). Rusnano.
  24. ^ "Power of Siberia Pipeline". www.pipeintech.com. Archived from the original on 2018-01-12.
  25. ^ a b Ozawa, Marc; Chi, Kong Chyong; Kun-Chin, Lin; Reilly, Tim; Humphrey, Caroline; Wood-Donnelly, Corine (June 2019). "The Power of Siberia: A Eurasian Pipeline Policy 'Good' for Whom?". In Search of Good Energy Policy. Cambridge University Press: 305–335. doi:10.1017/9781108639439.021.
  26. ^ "Gazprom Eying Chayandinskoye, Sakhalin-3 Licenses". Rigzone. 2008-06-15. Retrieved 2008-08-02.
  27. ^ "Как устроен газопровод "Сила Сибири" и что даст его запуск" [How is the Power of Siberia gas pipeline arranged and what will its launch give] (in Russian). TASS. 2019-12-02. Retrieved 2019-12-04.
  28. ^ a b Tanas , Olga; Shiryaevskaya , Anna; Murtaugh , Dan (2019-11-25). "How Russia-China Gas Pipeline Changes Energy Calculus". Bloomberg . Retrieved 2019-11-26.
  29. ^ "Gazprom announces tender for construction of Power of Siberia section for $2.35 bln". TASS. 2015-11-30. Retrieved 2019-12-05.
  30. ^ Gazprom map of gas pipelines in Siberia, planned and projected retrieved 2012-11-26
  31. ^ Стройтрансгаз без конкурса получил подряд на второй участок "Силы Сибири" [Stroytransgaz without a tender received a contract for the second section of the "Power of Siberia"] (in Russian). Interfax. 2016-05-20. Retrieved 2014-04-11.
  32. ^ a b "'Power of Siberia': Russia, China launch massive gas pipeline". Al Jazeera. 2019-12-02. Retrieved 2019-12-03.

External links

  • Official website