Principality of Serbia


Principality of Serbia

Кнежевина Србија
Kneževina Srbija
Anthem: "Востани Сербије" / "Vostani Serbije"
(English: "Arise, Serbia")
The Principality of Serbia in 1878
The Principality of Serbia in 1878
CapitalBelgrade (1841-82)
Kragujevac (1818–38)
Gornja Crnuća (1815–18)
Common languagesSerbian
Serbian Orthodoxy
GovernmentAbsolute monarchy (1815–38)
Constitutional monarchy (1835, 1838–82)
Prince (Knez) 
• 1817–1839 (first)
Miloš Obrenović I
• 1868–1882 (last)
Milan Obrenović IV
Prime Minister 
• 1815–1816 (first)
Petar Nikolajević
• 1880–1882 (last)
Milan Piroćanac
• Recognition by the Sublime Porte
February 15, 1835
• de facto independence
July 13, 1878
1815[1]24,440 km2 (9,440 sq mi)
183437,511 km2 (14,483 sq mi)
• 1815[1]
• 1834
• 1874
ISO 3166 codeRS
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Sanjak of Smederevo
Revolutionary Serbia
Kingdom of Serbia

The Principality of Serbia (Serbian: Кнежевина Србија / Kneževina Srbija) was a semi-independent state in the Balkans that came into existence as a result of the Serbian Revolution, which lasted between 1804 and 1817.[2] Its creation was negotiated first through an unwritten agreement between Miloš Obrenović, leader of the Second Serbian Uprising, and Ottoman official Marashli Pasha. It was followed by the series of legal documents published by the Porte in 1828, 1829 and finally, 1830 — the Hatt-i Sharif. Its de facto independence ensued in 1867, following the expulsion of all Ottoman troops from the country; its independence was recognized internationally in 1878 by the Treaty of Berlin. In 1882 the country was elevated to the status of kingdom.


The Serbian revolutionary leaders — first Karađorđe and then Miloš Obrenović — succeeded in their goal of liberating Serbia from centuries-long Turkish rule. Turkish authorities acknowledged the state by the 1830 Hatt-i Sharif, and Miloš Obrenović became a hereditary prince (knjaz) of the Serbian Principality.

At first, the principality included only the territory of the former Pashaluk of Belgrade, but in 1831–33 it expanded to the east, south, and west. In 1866 Serbia began the campaign of forging The First Balkan Alliance by signing the series of agreements with other Balkan entities in the period 1866–68. On 18 April 1867 the Ottoman government ordered the Ottoman garrison, which since 1826 had been the last representation of Ottoman suzerainty in Serbia, withdrawn from the Belgrade fortress. The only stipulation was that the Ottoman flag continue to fly over the fortress alongside the Serbian one. Serbia's de facto independence dates from this event.[3] A new constitution in 1869 defined Serbia as an independent state. Serbia was further expanded to the southeast in 1878, when its independence from the Ottoman Empire won full international recognition at the Treaty of Berlin. The Principality would last until 1882 when it was raised to the level of the Kingdom of Serbia.

Political history



  • Akkerman Convention (7 October 1826), treaty between the Russian Empire and Ottoman Empire, contained article 5 on Serbia: autonomy, and return of lands removed in 1813, Serbs were also granted freedom of movement through the Ottoman Empire. Rejected by Mahmud II in 1828.
  • 1829 hatt-i sharif
  • 1830 hatt-i sharif
  • 1833 hatt-i sharif

Administrative divisions



This is ethnic and religious composition of Principality of Serbia in 1866 and after that population by year (with bolded text being dominant).

In the first decades of the principality, the population was about 85% Serb and 15% non-Serb. Of those, most were Vlachs, and there were some Muslim Albanians, which were the overwhelming majority of the Muslims that lived in Smederevo, Kladovo and Küprili. The new state aimed to homogenize of its population. As a result, from 1830 to the wars of the 1870s in which Albanians were expelled from the environs of Nis, it has been estimated that up to 150,000 Albanians that lived in the territories of the Principality of Serbia had been expelled.[4]

Ethnicities in 1866
Name Number
Serbs 1,057,540 (87%)
Vlachs (Romanians) 127,326 (10.5%)
Roma (Gypsies) 25,171 (2.1%)
Others 5,539 (0.5%)
Religion in 1866
Name Number
Orthodox 1,205,898 (99.20%)
Islam 6,498 (0.54%)
Catholic 4,161 (0.31%)
Others (0.26%)
Year Total population
1834 678,192
1841 828,895
1843 859,545
1846 915,080
1850 956,893
1854 998,919
1859 1,078,281
1863 1,108,668
1866 1,216,219
1878 1,669,337


The Principality was ruled by the Obrenović dynasty, except for a period under Prince Aleksandar of the Karađorđević dynasty. Princes Miloš and Mihailo Obrenović each reigned twice.

Portrait Name Birth Death From Until Notes
MilosObrenovic 1848.jpg Miloš Obrenović I March 17, 1780 September 26, 1860 November 6, 1817 June 25, 1839
Milan Obrenović II, Prince of Serbia.jpg Milan Obrenović II October 21, 1819 July 8, 1839 June 25, 1839 July 8, 1839 son of Miloš Obrenović I
Knez Mihajlo III Obrenovic.jpg Mihailo Obrenović III September 16, 1823 June 10, 1868 July 8, 1839 September 14, 1842 son of Miloš Obrenović I
PrinceAlexander I w.jpg Aleksandar Karađorđević October 11. 1806 May 3. 1885 September 14, 1842 December 23, 1858
MilosObrenovic 1848.jpg Miloš Obrenović I March 17, 1780 September 1860 December 23, 1858 September 26, 1860
Knez Mihajlo III Obrenovic.jpg Mihailo Obrenović III September 16, 1823 June 10, 1868 September 26, 1860 June 10, 1868
MilanIDeSerbia--dasknigreichse03kaniuoft.jpg Milan Obrenović IV August 22, 1854 February 11, 1901 June 10, 1868 March 6, 1882


See also


  1. ^ Michael R. Palairet (2002). The Balkan Economies C.1800-1914: Evolution Without Development. Cambridge University Press. pp. 16–. ISBN 978-0-521-52256-4.
  2. ^ Roth, Clémentine (2018). Why Narratives of History Matter: Serbian and Croatian Political Discourses on European Integration. Nomos Verlag. p. 263. ISBN 3845291001. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  3. ^ Stanford J. Shaw and Ezel Kural Shaw, History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey, Volume 2: Reform, Revolution and Republic—The Rise of Modern Turkey, 1808–1975 (Cambridge University Press, 1977), p. 148.
  4. ^ Rama, Shinasi (2019). Nation Failure, Ethnic Elites, and Balance of Power: The International Administration of Kosova. Springer. p. 72. ISBN 3030051927. Retrieved 27 March 2020.

Further reading

  • Ćirković, Sima (2004). The Serbs. Malden: Blackwell Publishing.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Divac, Zorica. "Family and marital affairs in 19th century Serbia." Glasnik Etnografskog instituta SANU 54 (2006): 219–232.
  • Frucht, Richard, ed. Encyclopedia of Eastern Europe: From the Congress of Vienna to the Fall of Communism (2000) online
  • Jelavich, Barbara (1983). History of the Balkans: Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries. 1. Cambridge University Press.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Pavlowitch, Stevan K. (2002). Serbia: The History behind the Name. London: Hurst & Company.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Radosavljević, Nedeljko V. (2010). "The Serbian Revolution and the Creation of the Modern State: The Beginning of Geopolitical Changes in the Balkan Peninsula in the 19th Century". Empires and Peninsulas: Southeastern Europe between Karlowitz and the Peace of Adrianople, 1699–1829. Berlin: LIT Verlag. pp. 171–178.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Rajić, Suzana (2010). "Serbia - the Revival of the Nation-state, 1804-1829: From Turkish Provinces to Autonomous Principality". Empires and Peninsulas: Southeastern Europe between Karlowitz and the Peace of Adrianople, 1699–1829. Berlin: LIT Verlag. pp. 143–148.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Reiss, Rodolphe Archibald. The Kingdom of Serbia, 1919.
  • Radovan Samardžić (1982). Greek-Serbian Cooperation, 1830-1908: Collection of Reports from the Second Greek-Serbian Symposium, 1980. Serbian Academy of Science and Arts, Institute for Balkan Studies.
  • Stavrianos, Leften (2000) [1958]. The Balkans Since 1453. London: Hurst.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Temperley, Harold W. V. (1919). History of Serbia (PDF). London: Bell and Sons.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)

Other languages

  • Bataković, Dušan T., ed. (2005). Histoire du peuple serbe [History of the Serbian People] (in French). Lausanne: L’Age d’Homme.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Milićević, Milan (1876). Кнежевина Србија: географија, орографија, хидрографија, топографија, аркеологија, историја, етнографија, статистика, просвета, култура, управа.
  • Jovan Ristić (1898). Diplomatska istorija Srbije za vreme srpskih ratova za oslobođenje i nezavisnost: Drugi rat 1875-1878. Slovo ljubve.
  • Катић, Бојана Миљковић. Пољопривреда Кнежевине Србије:(1834-1867): Agriculture of the Principality of Sebia (1834-1867). Vol. 65. Istorijski institut, 2014.
  • Mrđenović, Dušan, ed. (1988). "Устави и владе Кнежевине Србије". Устави и владе Кнежевине Србије, Краљевине Србије, Краљевине СХС и Краљевине Југославије (1835-1941). Belgrade: Nova knj.
  • Nikolić, Dragan, Ristić, V., Arsić, L., & Kostov, V. (1991). Krivični zakonik Kneževine Srbije. Gradina.
  • Николић, Драган. "Кривични законик Кнежевине Србије." Просвета, Ниш (1991).
  • Јагодић, Милош. Насељавање Кнежевине Србије: 1861-1880: Settlement of the Princedom of Serbia: 1861–1880. Vol. 47. Istorijski institut, 2004.
  • Katić, Bojana Miljković. "Сеоско професионално занатство Кнежевине Србије (1834-1866)." Историјски часопис 62 (2013): 309–329.
  • Stranjaković, Dragoslav. Politička propaganda Srbije u jugoslovenskim pokrajinama: 1844-1858 godine. Štamparija Drag. Gregorića, 1936.
  • Stranjaković, Dragoslav. Jugoslovenski nacionalni i državni program Kneževine Srbije iz 1844 god. Srpska manastirska štamparija, 1931.
  • Stranjaković, Dragoslav., 1932. Srbija pijemont južnih slovena, 1842–1853. Nar. štamparija.
  • Petrović, V., and N. Petrović. "Građa za istoriju Kneževine Srbije, vreme prve vlade kneza Miloša Obrenovića." Beograd, knjiga prva 1821 (1815).
  • Nikolić, Dragan K. Izvori i priroda krivičnog prava Kneževine Srbije u vreme pripreme krivičnog zakona. 1988.
  • Arsić, M. "Crkvene matične knjige u propisima Kneževine Srbije." Arhivski pregled 1.4 (2000): 52–5.
  • Leovac, Danko Lj. Србија и Русија за време друге владавине кнеза Михаила:(1860-1868). Diss. Универзитет у Београду, Филозофски факултет, 2014.
  • Slavenko Terzić; Slavko Gavrilović (1992). Srbija i Grčka: (1856-1903) : borba za Balkan. Istorijski institut.
  • Popović, Radomir J. "Пројект Устава Србије Матије Бана из 1846. године." Мешовита грађа 34 (2013): 149–171.
  • Ђорђевић, Тихомир. "Насељавање Србије, за време прве владе кнеза Милоша Обреновића (1815-1839)." Гласник Српског географског друштва 5 (1921): 116–139.
  • Маринковић, Мирјана, and Терзић Славенко. Турска Канцеларија Кнеза Милоша Обреновића, 1815–1839. Историјски институт САНУ, 1999.
  • Кандић, Љубица. "Делатност скупштина за време прве владе Милоша Обреновића." Анали Правног факултета у Београду 1 (1961).
  • Radoš Ljušić (1986). Кнежевина Србија (1830-1839). Srpska akademija nauka i umetnosti.

External links

  • Principality of Serbia in 1833
  • Principality of Serbia in 1878
  • Balkan Peninsula in 1878
  • Map
  • Map