Progress 1

Summary

Progress 1
Progress drawing.svg
A Progress 7K-TG spacecraft
Mission typeSalyut 6 resupply
OperatorOKB-1
COSPAR ID1978-008A
SATCAT no.10603
Mission duration19 days
Spacecraft properties
SpacecraftProgress s/n 102
Spacecraft typeProgress 7K-TG
ManufacturerNPO Energia
Launch mass7020 kg
Dry mass6520 kg
Payload mass2300 kg
Dimensions7.48 m in length and
2.72 m in diameter
Start of mission
Launch date20 January 1978, 08:24:40 UTC
RocketSoyuz-U s/n E15000-075
Launch siteBaikonur, Site 31/6
ContractorOKB-1
End of mission
DisposalDeorbited
Decay date8 February 1978, 02:45 UTC
Orbital parameters
Reference systemGeocentric orbit
RegimeLow Earth orbit
Perigee altitude329 km
Apogee altitude348 km
Inclination51.66°
Period91.3 minutes
Epoch20 January 2020
Docking with Salyut 6
Docking portAft
Docking date22 January 1978, 10:12:14 UTC
Undocking date6 February 1978, 05:54 UTC
Time docked14.8 days
Cargo
Mass2300 kg
Pressurised1300 kg
Fuel1000 kg
 

Progress 1 (Russian: Прогресс 1), was a Soviet unmanned Progress cargo spacecraft which was launched in 1978 to resupply the Salyut 6 space station. It was the maiden flight of the Progress spacecraft, and used the Progress 7K-TG configuration. It carried supplies for the EO-1 crew aboard Salyut 6, which consisted of Soviet cosmonauts Yuri Romanenko and Georgy Grechko. The cargo carried by Progress 1 also included equipment for conducting scientific research, and fuel for adjusting the station's orbit and performing manoeuvres.

Spacecraft

Progress 1 was a Progress 7K-TG spacecraft. The first of forty three to be launched,[1] it had the serial number 102.[2] The Progress 7K-TG spacecraft was the first generation Progress, derived from the Soyuz 7K-T and intended for unmanned logistics missions to space stations in support of the Salyut programme.[3] The spacecraft were also used on some missions to adjust the orbit of the space station.[4]

The Progress spacecraft had a dry mass of 6,520 kilograms (14,370 lb), which increased to around 7,020 kilograms (15,480 lb) when fully fuelled. It measured 7.48 metres (24.5 ft) in length, and 2.72 metres (8 ft 11 in) in diameter. Each spacecraft could accommodate up to 2,500 kilograms (5,500 lb) of payload, consisting of dry cargo and propellant. The spacecraft were powered by chemical batteries, and could operate in free flight for up to three days, remaining docked to the station for up to thirty.[3][4]

Launch and docking

Progress 1 was launched at 08:24:40 UTC on 20 January 1978, atop a Soyuz-U 11A511U carrier rocket flying from Site 31/6 at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic. The rocket that launched it had the serial number E15000-075.[5] Following launch, Progress 1 was given the COSPAR designation 1978-008A, whilst NORAD assigned it the Satellite Catalog Number 10603.[6]

Following launch, Progress 1 began two days of free flight. It subsequently docked with the aft port of the Salyut 6 space station at 10:12:14 UTC on 22 January 1978.[3][7] When the Progress spacecraft docked, the station's other docking port was occupied by the Soyuz 27 spacecraft.[8]

Mission

Progress 1 was the first of twelve Progress spacecraft used to supply the Salyut 6 space station between 1978 and 1981.[6] Its payload of 2,300 kilograms (5,100 lb) consisted of 1,000 kilograms (2,200 lb) of propellant and oxygen,[9] as well as 1,300 kilograms (2,900 lb) of food, replacement parts, scientific instruments, and other supplies.[8] Whilst Progress 1 was docked, the EO-1 crew, consisting of cosmonauts Yuri Romanenko and Georgi Grechko, was aboard the station.[10] Progress 1 demonstrated the capability to refuel a spacecraft on orbit, critical for long-term station operations.[11] Once the cosmonauts had unloaded the cargo delivered by Progress 1, they loaded refuse onto the freighter for disposal.

On 6 February 1978, Progress 1 was catalogued in a low Earth orbit with a perigee of 329 kilometres (204 mi) and an apogee of 348 kilometres (216 mi), inclined at 51.66° and with a period of 91.3 minutes.[12] Progress 1 undocked from Salyut 6 at 05:54 UTC on 6 February.[7] It remained in orbit for two more days, finally being deorbited to a destructive reentry over the Pacific Ocean at around 02:45 UTC on 8 February 1978.[12][3]

See also

References

  1. ^ Krebs, Gunter. "Progress 1 - 42 (11F615A15, 7K-TG)". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 25 November 2010.
  2. ^ McDowell, Jonathan. "Launch Log". Jonathan's Space Page. Retrieved 25 November 2010.
  3. ^ a b c d Wade, Mark. "Progress". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved 25 November 2010.
  4. ^ a b Hall, Rex D.; Shayler, David J. (2003). Soyuz: A Universal Spacecraft. Springer-Praxis. pp. 239–250. ISBN 1-85233-657-9.
  5. ^ McDowell, Jonathan. "Launch List". Launch Vehicle Database. Jonathan's Space Page. Retrieved 25 November 2010.
  6. ^ a b "Progress 1". NSSDC Master Catalog. US National Space Science Data Center. Retrieved 25 November 2010. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  7. ^ a b Anikeev, Alexander. "Cargo spacecraft "Progress-1"". Manned Astronautics - Figures & Facts. Archived from the original on 10 September 2007. Retrieved 25 November 2010.
  8. ^ a b D.S.F.Portree (1995). "Mir Hardware Heritage" (PDF). NASA. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 September 2009. Retrieved 11 November 2010. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  9. ^ Hall, Rex D.; Shayler, David J. (2003). Soyuz: A Universal Spacecraft. Springer-Praxis. p. 272. ISBN 1-85233-657-9.
  10. ^ "Salyut 6 EO-1". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Archived from the original on 29 November 2010. Retrieved 11 November 2010.
  11. ^ "First Expedition to Salyut 6 - Sep 1977 to Mar 1978". Zarya. Retrieved 20 February 2016.
  12. ^ a b McDowell, Jonathan. "Satellite Catalog". Jonathan's Space Page. Retrieved 25 November 2010.