Projection (set theory)


In set theory, a projection is one of two closely related types of functions or operations, namely:

  • A set-theoretic operation typified by the jth projection map, written , that takes an element of the Cartesian product to the value .[1]
  • A function that sends an element x to its equivalence class under a specified equivalence relation E,[2] or, equivalently, a surjection from a set to another set.[3] The function from elements to equivalence classes is a surjection, and every surjection corresponds to an equivalence relation under which two elements are equivalent when they have the same image. The result of the mapping is written as [x] when E is understood, or written as [x]E when it is necessary to make E explicit.

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Halmos, P. R. (1960), Naive Set Theory, Undergraduate Texts in Mathematics, Springer, p. 32, ISBN 9780387900926.
  2. ^ Brown, Arlen; Pearcy, Carl M. (1995), An Introduction to Analysis, Graduate Texts in Mathematics, vol. 154, Springer, p. 8, ISBN 9780387943695.
  3. ^ Jech, Thomas (2003), Set Theory: The Third Millennium Edition, Springer Monographs in Mathematics, Springer, p. 34, ISBN 9783540440857.