In ancient Greece and during the Byzantine era, the Promachoi (singular: Promachos; Greek: πρόμαχος) were the men fighting in the first rank of the phalanx.[1][2] The word can also be used as an adjective as in "promachos line"[3] referring to the first line of battle.

Promachos in a Greek phalanx

The first use of the word is recorded in Homer's Iliad.[4] An obsolete English literal translation of promachos is forefighter, in Dutch voorvechter.

Name edit

  • Promachos (Πρόμαχος), a young man from Knossos.[5]

Sanctuaries - Statues edit

  • Athena Promachos, the famous bronze statue by Phidias that towered over the Parthenon.
  • Hermes Promachos, a sanctuary at Tanagra was dedicated to him.[6][7]
  • Heracles Promachos, a white marble statue of Heracles in the Heracles Sanctuary at Thebes. The Thebans Xenocrites (Ξενοκρίτης) and Eubius (Εὔβιος) created the statue.[8]

References edit

  1. ^ Perseus Project - Greek Word Study Tool (πρόμαχος).
  2. ^ Sylloge Tacticorum, 45.15
  3. ^ Leo VI. Tactica, 12.43
  4. ^ Homer Iliad, Ξ.82
  5. ^ Conon, Narrations (Photius), 16
  6. ^ Pausanias, Description of Greece, 9.22.1
  7. ^ Pausanias, Description of Greece, 9.22.2
  8. ^ Pausanias, Description of Greece, 9.11.4