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In quantum mechanics and quantum field theory, the **propagator** is a function that specifies the probability amplitude for a particle to travel from one place to another in a given period of time, or to travel with a certain energy and momentum. In Feynman diagrams, which serve to calculate the rate of collisions in quantum field theory, virtual particles contribute their propagator to the rate of the scattering event described by the respective diagram. These may also be viewed as the inverse of the wave operator appropriate to the particle, and are, therefore, often called *(causal) Green's functions* (called "*causal*" to distinguish it from the elliptic Laplacian Green's function).^{[1]}^{[2]}

In non-relativistic quantum mechanics, the propagator gives the probability amplitude for a particle to travel from one spatial point (x') at one time (t') to another spatial point (x) at a later time (t).

Consider a system with Hamiltonian H. The Green's function (fundamental solution) for the Schrödinger equation is a function

satisfying

where *H _{x}* denotes the Hamiltonian written in terms of the x coordinates,

This propagator may also be written as the transition amplitude

where *Û*(*t*, *t′*) is the unitary time-evolution operator for the system taking states at time t′ to states at time t. Note the initial condition enforced by .

The quantum-mechanical propagator may also be found by using a path integral:

where the boundary conditions of the path integral include *q*(*t*) = *x*, *q*(*t′*) = *x′*. Here L denotes the Lagrangian of the system. The paths that are summed over move only forwards in time and are integrated with the differential following the path in time.

In non-relativistic quantum mechanics, the propagator lets one find the wave function of a system, given an initial wave function and a time interval. The new wave function is specified by the equation

If *K*(*x*, *t*; *x*′, *t*′) only depends on the difference *x* − *x′*, this is a convolution of the initial wave function and the propagator.

For a time-translationally invariant system, the propagator only depends on the time difference *t* − *t*′, so it may be rewritten as

The propagator of a one-dimensional free particle, obtainable from, e.g., the path integral, is then

Similarly, the propagator of a one-dimensional quantum harmonic oscillator is the Mehler kernel,^{[3]}^{[4]}

The latter may be obtained from the previous free-particle result upon making use of van Kortryk's SU(1,1) Lie-group identity,^{[5]}

For the N-dimensional case, the propagator can be simply obtained by the product

In relativistic quantum mechanics and quantum field theory the propagators are Lorentz-invariant. They give the amplitude for a particle to travel between two spacetime points.

In quantum field theory, the theory of a free (or non-interacting) scalar field is a useful and simple example which serves to illustrate the concepts needed for more complicated theories. It describes spin-zero particles. There are a number of possible propagators for free scalar field theory. We now describe the most common ones.

The position space propagators are Green's functions for the Klein–Gordon equation. This means that they are functions *G*(*x*, *y*) satisfying

- x, y are two points in Minkowski spacetime,
- is the d'Alembertian operator acting on the x coordinates,
*δ*(*x*−*y*) is the Dirac delta function.

(As typical in relativistic quantum field theory calculations, we use units where the speed of light c and Planck's reduced constant ħ are set to unity.)

We shall restrict attention to 4-dimensional Minkowski spacetime. We can perform a Fourier transform of the equation for the propagator, obtaining

This equation can be inverted in the sense of distributions, noting that the equation *xf*(*x*) = 1 has the solution (see Sokhotski–Plemelj theorem)

The solution is

where

The different choices for how to deform the integration contour in the above expression lead to various forms for the propagator. The choice of contour is usually phrased in terms of the integral.

The integrand then has two poles at

A contour going clockwise over both poles gives the **causal retarded propagator**. This is zero if x-y is spacelike or if *x* ⁰< *y* ⁰ (i.e. if y is to the future of x).

This choice of contour is equivalent to calculating the limit,

Here

- and

This expression can be related to the vacuum expectation value of the commutator of the free scalar field operator,

A contour going anti-clockwise under both poles gives the **causal advanced propagator**. This is zero if x-y is spacelike or if *x* ⁰> *y* ⁰ (i.e. if y is to the past of x).

This choice of contour is equivalent to calculating the limit^{[6]}

This expression can also be expressed in terms of the vacuum expectation value of the commutator of the free scalar field. In this case,

A contour going under the left pole and over the right pole gives the **Feynman propagator**, introduced by Richard Feynman in 1948.^{[7]}

This choice of contour is equivalent to calculating the limit^{[8]}

Here

This expression can be derived directly from the field theory as the vacuum expectation value of the *time-ordered product* of the free scalar field, that is, the product always taken such that the time ordering of the spacetime points is the same,

This expression is Lorentz invariant, as long as the field operators commute with one another when the points x and y are separated by a spacelike interval.

The usual derivation is to insert a complete set of single-particle momentum states between the fields with Lorentz covariant normalization, and then to show that the Θ functions providing the causal time ordering may be obtained by a contour integral along the energy axis, if the integrand is as above (hence the infinitesimal imaginary part), to move the pole off the real line.

The propagator may also be derived using the path integral formulation of quantum theory.

The Fourier transform of the position space propagators can be thought of as propagators in momentum space. These take a much simpler form than the position space propagators.

They are often written with an explicit ε term although this is understood to be a reminder about which integration contour is appropriate (see above). This ε term is included to incorporate boundary conditions and causality (see below).

For a 4-momentum p the causal and Feynman propagators in momentum space are:

For purposes of Feynman diagram calculations, it is usually convenient to write these with an additional overall factor of −i (conventions vary).

The Feynman propagator has some properties that seem baffling at first. In particular, unlike the commutator, the propagator is *nonzero* outside of the light cone, though it falls off rapidly for spacelike intervals. Interpreted as an amplitude for particle motion, this translates to the virtual particle travelling faster than light. It is not immediately obvious how this can be reconciled with causality: can we use faster-than-light virtual particles to send faster-than-light messages?

The answer is no: while in classical mechanics the intervals along which particles and causal effects can travel are the same, this is no longer true in quantum field theory, where it is commutators that determine which operators can affect one another.

So what *does* the spacelike part of the propagator represent? In QFT the vacuum is an active participant, and particle numbers and field values are related by an uncertainty principle; field values are uncertain even for particle number *zero*. There is a nonzero probability amplitude to find a significant fluctuation in the vacuum value of the field Φ(*x*) if one measures it locally (or, to be more precise, if one measures an operator obtained by averaging the field over a small region). Furthermore, the dynamics of the fields tend to favor spatially correlated fluctuations to some extent. The nonzero time-ordered product for spacelike-separated fields then just measures the amplitude for a nonlocal correlation in these vacuum fluctuations, analogous to an EPR correlation. Indeed, the propagator is often called a *two-point correlation function* for the free field.

Since, by the postulates of quantum field theory, all observable operators commute with each other at spacelike separation, messages can no more be sent through these correlations than they can through any other EPR correlations; the correlations are in random variables.

Regarding virtual particles, the propagator at spacelike separation can be thought of as a means of calculating the amplitude for creating a virtual particle-antiparticle pair that eventually disappears into the vacuum, or for detecting a virtual pair emerging from the vacuum. In Feynman's language, such creation and annihilation processes are equivalent to a virtual particle wandering backward and forward through time, which can take it outside of the light cone. However, no signaling back in time is allowed.

This can be made clearer by writing the propagator in the following form for a massless photon:

This is the usual definition but normalised by a factor of . Then the rule is that one only takes the limit at the end of a calculation.

One sees that

The most common use of the propagator is in calculating probability amplitudes for particle interactions using Feynman diagrams. These calculations are usually carried out in momentum space. In general, the amplitude gets a factor of the propagator for every *internal line*, that is, every line that does not represent an incoming or outgoing particle in the initial or final state. It will also get a factor proportional to, and similar in form to, an interaction term in the theory's Lagrangian for every internal vertex where lines meet. These prescriptions are known as *Feynman rules*.

Internal lines correspond to virtual particles. Since the propagator does not vanish for combinations of energy and momentum disallowed by the classical equations of motion, we say that the virtual particles are allowed to be off shell. In fact, since the propagator is obtained by inverting the wave equation, in general, it will have singularities on shell.

The energy carried by the particle in the propagator can even be *negative*. This can be interpreted simply as the case in which, instead of a particle going one way, its antiparticle is going the *other* way, and therefore carrying an opposing flow of positive energy. The propagator encompasses both possibilities. It does mean that one has to be careful about minus signs for the case of fermions, whose propagators are not even functions in the energy and momentum (see below).

Virtual particles conserve energy and momentum. However, since they can be off shell, wherever the diagram contains a closed *loop*, the energies and momenta of the virtual particles participating in the loop will be partly unconstrained, since a change in a quantity for one particle in the loop can be balanced by an equal and opposite change in another. Therefore, every loop in a Feynman diagram requires an integral over a continuum of possible energies and momenta. In general, these integrals of products of propagators can diverge, a situation that must be handled by the process of renormalization.

If the particle possesses spin then its propagator is in general somewhat more complicated, as it will involve the particle's spin or polarization indices. The differential equation satisfied by the propagator for a spin 1⁄2 particle is given by^{[9]}

where *I*_{4} is the unit matrix in four dimensions, and employing the Feynman slash notation. This is the Dirac equation for a delta function source in spacetime. Using the momentum representation,

where on the right-hand side an integral representation of the four-dimensional delta function is used. Thus

By multiplying from the left with

the momentum-space propagator used in Feynman diagrams for a Dirac field representing the electron in quantum electrodynamics is found to have form

The *iε* downstairs is a prescription for how to handle the poles in the complex *p*_{0}-plane. It automatically yields the Feynman contour of integration by shifting the poles appropriately. It is sometimes written

for short. It should be remembered that this expression is just shorthand notation for (*γ*_{μ}*p*^{μ} − *m*)^{−1}. "One over matrix" is otherwise nonsensical. In position space one has

This is related to the Feynman propagator by

where .

The propagator for a gauge boson in a gauge theory depends on the choice of convention to fix the gauge. For the gauge used by Feynman and Stueckelberg, the propagator for a photon is

The general form with gauge parameter *λ*, up to overall sign and the factor of , reads

The propagator for a massive vector field can be derived from the Stueckelberg Lagrangian. The general form with gauge parameter *λ*, up to overall sign and the factor of , reads

With these general forms one obtains the propagators in unitary gauge for *λ* = 0, the propagator in Feynman or 't Hooft gauge for *λ* = 1 and in Landau or Lorenz gauge for *λ* = ∞. There are also other notations where the gauge parameter is the inverse of λ, usually denoted ξ (see *R*_{ξ} gauges). The name of the propagator, however, refers to its final form and not necessarily to the value of the gauge parameter.

Unitary gauge:

Feynman ('t Hooft) gauge:

Landau (Lorenz) gauge:

The graviton propagator for Minkowski space in general relativity is ^{[10]}

The scalar propagators are Green's functions for the Klein–Gordon equation. There are related singular functions which are important in quantum field theory. We follow the notation in Bjorken and Drell.^{[12]} See also Bogolyubov and Shirkov (Appendix A).^{[13]} These functions are most simply defined in terms of the vacuum expectation value of products of field operators.

The commutator of two scalar field operators defines the Pauli–Jordan function by^{[14]}^{[12]}

with

This satisfies

and is zero if .

We can define the positive and negative frequency parts of , sometimes called cut propagators, in a relativistically invariant way.

This allows us to define the positive frequency part:

and the negative frequency part:

These satisfy^{[12]}

and

The anti-commutator of two scalar field operators defines function by

with

This satisfies

The retarded, advanced and Feynman propagators defined above are all Green's functions for the Klein–Gordon equation.

They are related to the singular functions by^{[12]}

where is the sign of .

**^**The mathematics of PDEs and the wave equation, p 32., Michael P. Lamoureux, University of Calgary, Seismic Imaging Summer School, August 7–11, 2006, Calgary.**^**Ch.: 9 Green's functions, p 6., J Peacock, FOURIER ANALYSIS LECTURE COURSE: LECTURE 15.**^**E. U. Condon, "Immersion of the Fourier transform in a continuous group of functional transformations",*Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA***23**, (1937) 158–164.**^**Wolfgang Pauli,*Wave Mechanics: Volume 5 of Pauli Lectures on Physics*(Dover Books on Physics, 2000) ISBN 0486414620. Section 44.**^**Kolsrud, M. (1956). Exact quantum dynamical solutions for oscillator-like systems,*Physical Review***104**(4), 1186.**^**Scharf, Günter (13 November 2012).*Finite Quantum Electrodynamics, The Causal Approach*. Springer. p. 89. ISBN 978-3-642-63345-4.**^**Feynman, R. P. (2005), "Space-Time Approach to Non-Relativistic Quantum Mechanics",*Feynman's Thesis — A New Approach to Quantum Theory*, WORLD SCIENTIFIC, pp. 71–109, doi:10.1142/9789812567635_0002, ISBN 978-981-256-366-8, retrieved 2022-08-17**^**Huang, Kerson (1998).*Quantum Field Theory: From Operators to Path Integrals*. New York: John Wiley & Sons. p. 30. ISBN 0-471-14120-8.**^**Greiner & Reinhardt 2008, Ch.2**^**https://dspace.library.uu.nl/bitstream/handle/1874/4837/Quantum_theory_of_gravitation.pdf?sequence=2&isAllowed=y^{[bare URL PDF]}**^**"Graviton and gauge boson propagators in AdSd+1" (PDF).- ^
^{a}^{b}^{c}^{d}Bjorken, James D.; Drell, Sidney David (1964). "Appendix C".*Relativistic Quantum Mechanics*. International series in pure and applied physics. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 9780070054936. **^**Bogoliubov, N.; Shirkov, D. V. (1959). "Appendix A".*Introduction to the theory of quantized fields*. Wiley-Interscience. ISBN 0-470-08613-0.**^**Pauli, Wolfgang; Jordan, Pascual (1928). "Zur Quantenelektrodynamik ladungsfreier Felder".*Zeitschrift für Physik*.**47**(3–4): 151–173. Bibcode:1928ZPhy...47..151J. doi:10.1007/BF02055793. S2CID 120536476.

- Bjorken, J.; Drell, S. (1965).
*Relativistic Quantum Fields*. New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-005494-0. (Appendix C.) - Bogoliubov, N.; Shirkov, D. V. (1959).
*Introduction to the theory of quantized fields*. Wiley-Interscience. ISBN 0-470-08613-0. (Especially pp. 136–156 and Appendix A) - DeWitt-Morette, C.; DeWitt, B. (eds.).
*Relativity, Groups and Topology*. Glasgow: Blackie and Son. ISBN 0-444-86858-5. (section Dynamical Theory of Groups & Fields, Especially pp. 615–624) - Greiner, W.; Reinhardt, J. (2008).
*Quantum Electrodynamics*(4th ed.). Springer Verlag. ISBN 9783540875604. - Greiner, W.; Reinhardt, J. (1996).
*Field Quantization*. Springer Verlag. ISBN 9783540591795.walter greiner Classical Mechanics: Point Particles and Relativity.

- Griffiths, D. J. (1987).
*Introduction to Elementary Particles*. New York: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-471-60386-4. - Griffiths, D. J. (2004).
*Introduction to Quantum Mechanics*. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-131-11892-7. - Halliwell, J.J.; Orwitz, M. (1993), "Sum-over-histories origin of the composition laws of relativistic quantum mechanics and quantum cosmology",
*Physical Review D*,**48**(2): 748–768, arXiv:gr-qc/9211004, Bibcode:1993PhRvD..48..748H, doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.48.748, PMID 10016304, S2CID 16381314 - Huang, Kerson (1998).
*Quantum Field Theory: From Operators to Path Integrals*. New York: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-471-14120-8. - Itzykson, C.; Zuber, J-B. (1980).
*Quantum Field Theory*. New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-032071-3. - Pokorski, S. (1987).
*Gauge Field Theories*. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-36846-4.*(Has useful appendices of Feynman diagram rules, including propagators, in the back.)* - Schulman, L. S. (1981).
*Techniques & Applications of Path Integration*. New York: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-471-76450-7. - Scharf, G. (1995).
*Finite Quantum Electrodynamics, The Causal Approach.*Springer. ISBN 978-3-642-63345-4.

- Three Methods for Computing the Feynman Propagator