Proto-Dravidian language

Summary

Proto-Dravidian is the linguistic reconstruction of the common ancestor of the Dravidian languages.[1] It is thought to have differentiated into Proto-North Dravidian, Proto-Central Dravidian, and Proto-South Dravidian, although the date of diversification is still debated.[2]

Proto-Dravidian
Reconstruction ofDravidian languages
Regionpossibly Northwestern India or West Central India
Erac. 4th–3rd m. BCE
Lower-order reconstructions

HistoryEdit

As a proto-language, Proto-Dravidian is not itself attested in historical records. Its modern conception is based solely on reconstruction. It is suggested that the language was spoken in the 4th millennium BCE, and started disintegrating into various branches around 3rd-millennium BCE.[3]

The origin and territory of the Proto-Dravidian speakers is uncertain, but some suggestions have been made based on the reconstructed Proto-Dravidian vocabulary. The reconstruction has been done on the basis of cognate words present in the different branches (Northern, Central and Southern) of the Dravidian language family.[4]

According to Dorian Fuller (2007), the botanical vocabulary of Proto-Dravidian is characteristic of the dry deciduous forests of central and peninsular India. For the Southern Dravidians, this region extends from Saurashtra and Central India to South India. It thus represents the general area in which the Southern Dravidians were living before the separation of branches.[4] For Northern Dravidians, the region of their original abode prior to separation is more obscure, though is regarded by many as the Iran-Pakistan-Afghanistan region.[citation needed]

According to Franklin Southworth (2005), the Proto-Dravidian vocabulary is characteristic of a rural economy based on agriculture, animal husbandry and hunting. However, there are some indications of a society more complex than a rural one:[5]

  • Words for an upper storey and beam
  • Metallurgy
  • Trade
  • Payment of dues (possibly taxes or contributions to religious ceremonies)
  • Social stratification

This evidence is not sufficient to determine with certainty the territory of the Proto-Dravidians. These characteristics can be accommodated within multiple contemporary cultures, including:[5]

PhonologyEdit

VowelsEdit

Proto-Dravidian contrasted between five short and long vowels: *a, , *i, , *u, , *e, , *o, . The sequences *ai and *au are treated as *ay and *av (or *aw)[9]

ConsonantsEdit

Proto-Dravidian has been reconstructed as having the following consonant phonemes (Subrahmanyam 1983:p40, Zvelebil 1990, Krishnamurthi 2003):

Labial Dental Alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasals *m *n *ṉ (?) *ṇ (ṅ)
Plosives *p *t *ṯ *ṭ *c *k
Semivowel *w *y *H
Tap/Rhotic *r *ẓ[a]
Lateral *l *ḷ
  1. ^ may also be represented as ḻ or r̤

The alveolar stop *ṯ developed into an alveolar trill /r/ in many daughter languages. The stop sound is retained in Kota and Toda (Subrahmanyam 1983). Malayalam and Sri Lankan Tamil still retains the original (alveolar) stop sound in gemination (ibid) and after a nasal. In Old Tamil it took the enunciative vowel like the other stops. In other words, *ṯ (or *ṟ) did not occur word-finally without the enunciative vowel (ibid).[further explanation needed]

Velar nasal *ṅ occurred only before *k in Proto-Dravidian (as in many of its daughter languages). Therefore, it is not considered a separate phoneme in Proto-Dravidian. However, it attained phonemic status in languages like Malayalam, Gondi, Konda and Pengo because the original sequence *ṅk was simplified to *ṅ or *ṅṅ (Subrahmanyam 1983).

The glottal fricative *h has been proposed by Bh. Krishnamurthi to account for the Old Tamil Aytam (Āytam) and other Dravidian comparative phonological phenomena (Krishnamurthi 2003).

The Northern Dravidian languages Kurukh, Malto and Brahui cannot easily be derived from the traditional Proto-Dravidian phonological system. McAlpin (2003)[10] proposes that they branched off from an earlier stage of Proto-Dravidian than the conventional reconstruction, which would apply only to the other languages. He suggests reconstructing a richer system of dorsal stop consonants:

Early Proto-Dravidian Late Proto-Dravidian
(Proto-Non-North Dravidian)
Proto-Kurukh-Malto Brahui
*c *c *c
*kʲ *c *k k
*k *k *k k
*q *k *q x
k / _i(ː)

NumeralsEdit

VocabularyEdit

Crop plantsEdit

Below are some crop plants that have been found in the Southern Neolithic complex of Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh, along with their Proto-Dravidian or Proto-South Dravidian reconstructions by Franklin Southworth (2005). In some cases, the proto-form glosses differ from the species identified from archaeological sites. For example, the two Southern Neolithic staple grasses Brachiaria ramosa and Setaria verticillata respectively correspond to the reconstructed Proto-Dravidian forms for Sorghum vulgare and Setaria italica as early Dravidian speakers shifted to millet species that were later introduced to South India.[11]

Pulses
Common name Scientific name Reconstruction level Proto-form Gloss of proto-form
horsegram Macrotyloma uniflorum Late Proto-Dravidian *koḷ horsegram
green gram Vigna radiata Late Proto-Dravidian *pac-Vt/Vl green gram
black gram Vigna cf. mungo; Vigna trilobata Late Proto-Dravidian *uẓ-untu, *min(t) black gram
hyacinth bean Lablab purpureus Proto-Tamil *ava-rai Dolichos lablab
pigeonpea Cajanus cajan Late Proto-Dravidian *tu-var pigeonpea
Millets and related grasses
Common name Scientific name Reconstruction level Proto-form Gloss of proto-form
browntop millet Brachiaria ramosa Late Proto-Dravidian *conna-l sorghum
bristly foxtail Setaria verticillata Late Proto-Dravidian *kot-V Setaria italica
sawa millet Echinochloa cf. colona
yellow foxtail Setaria pumila
little millet Panicum sumatrense
kodo millet Paspalum scrobiculatum Proto-South Dravidian *(v)ār/ar-Vk pearl millet
millet Pennisetum glaucum Proto-South Dravidian *kam-pu bulrush millet
finger millet Eleusine coracana Proto-South Dravidian *ira(k) ragi
Large cereals
Common name Scientific name Reconstruction level Proto-form Gloss of proto-form
barley Hordeum vulgare
wheat Triticum Late Proto-Dravidian? *kūli wheat
rice Oryza sp. Late Proto-Dravidian? *(v)ar-iñci rice
Other food/crop plants
Common name Scientific name Reconstruction level Proto-form Gloss of proto-form
jujube Zizyphus sp. Late Proto-Dravidian *irak- jujube
fig Ficus sp. Late Proto-Dravidian *cuv- fig
java plum cf. Syzygium cumini Late Proto-Dravidian *ñēr-al jambu
globe cucumber Cucumis cf. prophetarum
luffa cf. Luffa cylindrica Late Proto-Dravidian *pīr
flax Linum usitatissimum Proto-South Dravidian *ak-V-ce
cotton Gossypium sp. Proto-South Dravidian *par-utti
okra Abelmoschus sp.
parenchyma fragments Early Proto-Dravidian *kic-ampu
Not identified archaeologically in the Southern Neolithic
Common name Scientific name Reconstruction level Proto-form Gloss of proto-form
onion/garlic Allium sp. Early Proto-Dravidian *uḷḷi
eggplant Solanum sp. Early Proto-Dravidian *vaẓ-Vt
sesame Sesamum indicum Late Proto-Dravidian *nū(v)- sesame
sugarcane Saccharum sp. Early Proto-Dravidian *cet-Vkk
hemp Cannabis sp. Late Proto-Dravidian ? *boy-Vl


Basic vocabularyEdit

Basic vocabulary of Proto-Dravidian selected from Krishnamurti (2003):[12]

gloss Proto-Dravidian
one *on-ṯu
one (adj.) *ōr-/*or-V-
two *īr/*ir-V
three (adj.) *muH-/*mū-
four (adj.) *nāl/*nal-V-
five (adj.) *cay-m-
six (adj.) *caṯ-V
seven (adj.) *eẓ-V
eight (adj.) *eṇ
nine, 9/10 *toḷ-/*toṇ-
ten minus one *on-patV
ten (adj.) *paH-
head, hair, top *tal-ay
cheek *kap-Vḷ
eye *kaṇ
eyeball *kuṭ-V/*kuṇṭ-V
ear *kew-i
nose, beak *mū-nk(k)u/-nc-
tooth *pal
mouth[13] *wāy
hand, arm *kay
leg, foot *kāl
heart, kidney *kuṇṭV
liver *taẓ-Vnk-/-nkk
milk, breast *pāl
bone *el-V-mp/-nk
bone marrow *mūḷ-V-
excrement *piy/*pī
house *il
husband *maẓc-a-
man, husband *māy-tt-/*mā-cc-
woman *peṇ
name *pin-cc-Vr
sky *wān-am
sun *en-ṯ-
sun *pōẓ/*poẓ-u-tu
moon, moonlight *nel-a-nc/-ncc
month *nel-V-
star *cukk-V
star *miHn
cloud *muy-il
water *nīr
river, stream *yĀtu
lake *kuḷ-am/-Vnc-
sea, ocean *kaṭ-al
stone *kal
wind *waḷi
day *nāḷ
night *nāḷ/*naḷ-V-
year *yAṇṭ-u
tree *mar-am/-an
fruit, pod *kāy
forest *kā(-n), kā-ṭu
grass *pul
thatched grass *pīr
dog *naH-ay/-att/-kuẓi
animal, beast, deer *mā
deer *kur-V-c-
tiger *pul-i
rat *el-i
snake *pāmpu
meat *iṯ-ay-cci
meat *ū/*uy
oil, ghee *ney
fish *mīn
louse *pēn
mosquito *nuẓ-Vḷ/-nk-
wing *ceṯ-ank-/-ankk-
black *cir-
white *weḷ/*weṇ
red *kem
sweet (adj./n.) *in-
sour *puḷ-
bitter; bitterness *kac (> kay)
to eat, drink *uHṇ-/*ūṇ-
to eat *tiHn-
to come *waH-/*waH-r
to walk *naṭ-a
to give *ciy-/*cī-
to die *caH- ~ *ceH-
to sleep *kū-r-
to sleep *tuñc-
to count *eṇ

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Andronov 2003, p. 299.
  2. ^ Bhadriraju Krishnamurti (16 January 2003). The Dravidian Languages. Cambridge University Press. p. 492. ISBN 978-1-139-43533-8.
  3. ^ History and Archaeology, Volume 1, Issues 1-2 p.234, Department of Ancient History, Culture, and Archaeology, University of Allahabad
  4. ^ a b McIntosh 2008, p. 353.
  5. ^ a b McIntosh 2008, p. 353-354.
  6. ^ Aklujkar, A., Gonda, J., de Jong, J.W. et al. Reviews [Reviewed Work: Decipherment of the Proto-Dravidian Inscriptions of the Indus Civilization, (= The Scandinavian Institute of Asian Studies, Special Publications, No. 1) by Asko Parpola, Seppo Koskenniemi, Simo Parpola, Pentti Aalto]. In: Indo-Iranian Journal 12 (1970): 126–159. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00163004
  7. ^ McIntosh 2008, p. 354.
  8. ^ Mukhopadhyay, Bahata Ansumali (2021). "Ancestral Dravidian languages in Indus Civilization: ultraconserved Dravidian tooth-word reveals deep linguistic ancestry and supports genetics". Humanities and Social Sciences Communications. 8. doi:10.1057/s41599-021-00868-w. S2CID 236901972.
  9. ^ Baldi, Philip (1990). Linguistic Change and Reconstruction Methodology. Walter de Gruyter. p. 342. ISBN 3-11-011908-0.
  10. ^ McAlpin, David W. (2003). "Velars, Uvulars and the Northern Dravidian hypothesis". Journal of the American Oriental Society. 123:3 (3): 521–546. doi:10.2307/3217749. JSTOR 3217749.
  11. ^ Southworth, Franklin C. 2005. "Proto-Dravidian Agriculture". Paper presented at the 7th ESCA Round Table Conference, Kyoto, June 2005.
  12. ^ Krishnamurti, Bhadriraju (2003). The Dravidian Languages. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-139-43533-8.
  13. ^ Also 'edge, beak, mouth of vessel, aperture, blade of sword'

ReferencesEdit

  • Andronov, Mikhail Sergeevich (2003). A Comparative Grammar of the Dravidian Languages. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. ISBN 978-3-447-04455-4.
  • Ansumali Mukhopadhyay, B. Ancestral Dravidian languages in Indus Civilization: ultraconserved Dravidian tooth-word reveals deep linguistic ancestry and supports genetics. Humanit Soc Sci Commun 8, 193 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1057/s41599-021-00868-w
  • Fuller, Dorian Q. (2007), Petraglia, Michael D.; Allchin, Bridget (eds.), "Non-human genetics, agricultural origins and historical linguistics in South Asia", The Evolution and History of Human Populations in South Asia: Inter-disciplinary Studies in Archaeology, Biological Anthropology, Linguistics and Genetics, Vertebrate Paleobiology and Paleoanthropology Series, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, pp. 393–443, doi:10.1007/1-4020-5562-5_18, ISBN 978-1-4020-5562-1, retrieved 2021-08-23
  • Krishnamurti, B., The Dravidian Languages, Cambridge University Press, 2003. ISBN 0-521-77111-0
  • McIntosh, Jane R. (2008). The Ancient Indus Valley : New Perspectives. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 9781576079072.
  • Subrahmanyam, P.S., Dravidian Comparative Phonology, Annamalai University, 1983.
  • Zvelebil, Kamil. Dravidian Linguistics: An Introduction, PILC (Pondicherry Institute of Linguistics and Culture), 1990.

Further readingEdit

  • Andronov, M. "Lexicostatistic analysis of the chronology of disintegration of proto-Dravidian". In: Indo-Iranian Journal 7, 2 (1964): 170-186,. doi: https://doi.org/10.1163/000000064791616433
  • Blažek, Václav. "Dravidian numeral". In: Journal of Language Relationship [Вопросы языкового родства] 1 (2009), pp. 69–80.
  • Chandrasekaran, Periannan. "Pleonastic Compounding: An Ancient Dravidian Word Structure". In: Electronic Journal of Vedic Studies Vol. 18 No. 1 (2011). DOI: https://doi.org/10.11588/ejvs.2011.1.319
  • Emeneau, M. B. “Proto-Dravidian *c- and Its Developments”. In: Journal of the American Oriental Society 108, no. 2 (1988): 239–68. https://doi.org/10.2307/603651.
  • Kolipakam Vishnupriya, Jordan Fiona M., Dunn Michael, Greenhill Simon J., Bouckaert Remco, Gray Russell D. and Verkerk Annemarie (2018). "A Bayesian phylogenetic study of the Dravidian language family". In: Royal Society. open sci.5171504171504; http://doi.org/10.1098/rsos.171504
  • Sankaran, C. R. “RECONSTRUCTION OF THE PROTO-DRAVIDIAN PRONOUNS”. In: Bulletin of the Deccan College Research Institute 1, no. 1 (1939): 96–105. http://www.jstor.org/stable/42929233.
  • Southworth, F. "Rice in Dravidian". Rice 4 (2011): 142–148. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12284-011-9076-9
  • Subramoniam, V. I. "A PROBLEM IN THE RECONSTRUCTION OF THE PROTO DRAVIDIAN NASAL PHONEMES". In: Pratidanam: Indian, Iranian, and Indo-European studies presented to Franciscus Bernardus Jacobus Kuiper on his sixtieth birthday. Edited by J. C. Heesterman, G. H. Schokker and V. I. Subramoniam. Berlin, Boston: De Gruyter Mouton, 2021 [1968]. pp. 344-358. https://doi.org/10.1515/9783112415306-047
  • SUBRAHMANYAM, P.S. “PROTO-DRAVIDIAN SHORT HIGH AND MID VOWELS – MERGERS IN SOUTH DRAVIDIAN AND TELUGU-KUWI”. In: Bulletin of the Deccan College Research Institute 66/67 (2006): 291–303. http://www.jstor.org/stable/42931454.
  • Wells, Bryan K., and Andreas Fuls. “Proto-Dravidian and the Indus Script”. In: The Archaeology and Epigraphy of Indus Writing. Archaeopress, 2015. pp. 77-99. https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctvr43jmf.14.

See alsoEdit

External linksEdit

  • T. Burrow (1984). Dravidian Etymological Dictionary, 2nd Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-864326-5. Retrieved 2008-10-26.