Protovestiarios (Greek: πρωτοβεστιάριος, "first vestiarios") was a high Byzantine court position, originally reserved for eunuchs. In the late Byzantine period (12th–15th centuries), it denoted the Empire's senior-most financial official, and was also adopted by the medieval Serbian states.

History and functions

The title is first attested in 412, as the comes sacrae vestis, an official in charge of the Byzantine emperor's "sacred wardrobe" (Latin: sacra vestis), coming under the praepositus sacri cubiculi. In Greek, the term used was oikeiakon vestiarion (οἰκειακόν βεστιάριον, "private wardrobe"), and by this name it remained known from the 7th century onward. As such, the office was distinct from the public or imperial wardrobe, the basilikon vestiarion, which was entrusted to a state official, the chartoularios tou vestiariou.[1][2] The private wardrobe also included part of the Byzantine emperor's private treasury, and controlled an extensive staff.[1]

Consequently, the holders of this office came second only to the parakoimomenos in court hierarchy, functioning as the latter's aides. Until the 11th century, it was reserved for eunuchs, but in the 9th–11th centuries, several protovestiarioi were appointed as generals and ambassadors.[3] In the 11th century, the title rose further in importance, eclipsing the kouropalates;[4] transformed into an honorary title, it also began being given to non-eunuchs, including members of the imperial family.[5] As such, the title survived until the late Palaiologan period, its holders including high-ranking ministers and future emperors.[3] The mid-14th century Book of Offices of Pseudo-Kodinos lists the rank in the sixth place in the palace hierarchy, between the panhypersebastos and the megas doux.[6] The insignia of the protovestiarios as a golden and green staff of office (dikanikion) with gold and coloured glass, green shoes and a green mantle (tamparion), and a green saddle with gold braid similar to the panhypersebastos.[7]

The female equivalent was the protovestiaria (Greek: πρωτοβεστιαρία), the head of the empress' servants. Protovestiarioi are also attested for private citizens, in which case again the title refers to their head servant and treasurer.[3]

Notable protovestiarioi

In Serbia

The title was also adopted in the medieval Serbian states as protovestijar (Serbian Cyrillic: протовестијар/протовистијар, archaic: протовистіар[8]), and likewise entailed fiscal responsibilities, being the equivalent to a "finance minister".[9] According to historian John V. A. Fine, Jr., "The chief financial official responsible for the state treasury and its income was the protovestijar. This position was regularly held by a merchant from Kotor who understood financial management and bookkeeping. Both protovestijars and logothetes were used as diplomats, the protovestijars in particular being sent west, for as citizens of Kotor they knew Italian and Latin."[10]

It was mentioned during the rule of King Stefan Uroš I (r. 1243–1276).[11] Stefan Dušan (r. 1331–55) elevated the nobility and clergy when crowned Emperor; komornik Nikola Buća from Kotor was appointed protovestijar.[9][12][13] The power of the protovestijar is best testified by the proverb derived from Nikola Buća: "Car da – al Buća ne da" (The Emperor gives, but Buća does not).[14][15][16] The Buća family produced several protovestijars, including Nikola's nephew Trifun Mihajlov Buća (fl. 1357), one of the most important people in his time, who served Emperor Dušan's successor Uroš V.[16]

Tvrtko I (Ban of Bosnia, 1353–77, King 1377—1391) added the ranks logotet and protovestijar after the Serbian model after crowning himself King. Tvrtko's first protovestijar was a Ragusan, kapedan Ratko, elevated in 1378.[17]

Balša II (Lord of Zeta, 1378–85), added the rank into service after taking Durrazzo in spring 1385, appointing Filip Bareli.[18]

Principality of Achaea

The title of protovestiarios was also adopted in the Frankish Principality of Achaea, where it designated an office equivalent to a Western chamberlain and charged with keeping the list of fief-holders. This office was often given to native Greeks.[19]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Bury 1911, p. 125.
  2. ^ Haldon 1997, p. 181.
  3. ^ a b c Kazhdan 1991, p. 1749.
  4. ^ Gibbon 1860, p. 242.
  5. ^ Holmes 2005, p. 84.
  6. ^ Verpeaux 1966, p. 137.
  7. ^ Verpeaux 1966, p. 153.
  8. ^ Blagojević 2001, p. 119
  9. ^ a b Novaković 1966, p. 148: "тако је царев протовистијар (по данашњој терминологији: министар финансија), Никола Бућа, по рођењу Которанин"
  10. ^ Fine 1994, pp. 313–314.
  11. ^ Ћирковић, Сима (1999). Михальчић, Раде (ed.). Лексикон српског средњег века. Knowledge. p. 596. ПРОТОВЕСТИЈАР - титула преузета из Ви- зантије и прихваћена у неким деловима српске др- жаве пре половине XIII века (1239-1253). Неки про- тобистар Вратимир отесао је међе села Осојника у Сланском приморју заједно са кнезом Стефаном, епископом Спиридоном и епископом Методијем. Знатно касније, 1323. године, у служби краља Вла- дислава II, сина ...
  12. ^ Fine 1994, p. 651
  13. ^ Blagojević 2001, p. 188
  14. ^ Kostić (2001). "Nemanjići i Boka" (in Serbian). |chapter= ignored (help)
  15. ^ Vizantološki institut 2004, pp. 389–390
  16. ^ a b Kalezić 1970, p. 130
  17. ^ Vladimir Ćorović (1923). Luka Vukalović i hercegovački ustanci od 1852-1962. g, Volumes 45-47. Srpska kraljevska akademija nauka i umetnosti. p. 42. Поред логотета, кога је довео из Рашке, он уводи и чин протовестијара. Тај чин даје у прво време двојици људи, који нису били Босанци. Један од првих протовестијара био је Дубровчанин презвитер Ратко, који је 1375. постао банов капелан, 1378. протовестијар, а нај= после требињски бискуп.
  18. ^ Ружа Ћук (1986). Serbia and Venice in the 13th and the 14th century. Просвета. p. 164. Балша II је, после за- узимања Драча у пролеће 1385. године, увео службу протовестијара. Његов протовестијар постао је тада Филип Барели.210 Пошто се Бал- ша II често налазио у финанеијским тешкоћама, ...
  19. ^ Bon 1969, p. 83.

Sources

  • Blagojević, Miloš (2001), Državna uprava u srpskim srednjovekovnim zemljama (in Serbian), Službeni list SRJ
  • Bon, Antoine (1969). La Morée franque. Recherches historiques, topographiques et archéologiques sur la principauté d’Achaïe (in French). Paris: De Boccard.
  • Bury, John Bagnell (1911). The Imperial Administrative System of the Ninth Century - With a Revised Text of the Kletorologion of Philotheos. London: Oxford University Press.
  • Fine, John Van Antwerp (1994). The Late Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century to the Ottoman Conquest. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. ISBN 978-0-472-08260-5.
  • Gibbon, Edward (1860). The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. New York, New York: Harper & Brothers.
  • Haldon, John F. (1997). Byzantium in the Seventh Century: The Transformation of a Culture. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-31917-1.
  • Holmes, Catherine (2005). Basil II and the Governance of Empire (976–1025). Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-927968-5.
  • Kalezić, Danilo (1970). Kotor (in Croatian). Grafički zavod Hrvatske.
  • Kazhdan, Alexander, ed. (1991). The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-504652-6. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  • Novaković, Stojan (1966), Iz srpske istorije (in Serbian), Matica srpska
  • Verpeaux, Jean, ed. (1966). Pseudo-Kodinos, Traité des Offices (in French). Paris: Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique.
  • Vizantološki institut (2004). Zbornik radova, Volume 41–42 (in Serbian). Belgrade: Vizantološki institut (Srpska akademija nauka i umetnosti).