Punctuation

Summary

Punctuation (or sometimes interpunction) is the use of spacing, conventional signs (called punctuation marks), and certain typographical devices as aids to the understanding and correct reading of written text, whether read silently or aloud.[1] Another description is, "It is the practice, action, or system of inserting points or other small marks into texts in order to aid interpretation; division of text into sentences, clauses, etc., by means of such marks."[2]

In written English, punctuation is vital to disambiguate the meaning of sentences. For example: "woman, without her man, is nothing" (emphasizing the importance of men to women), and "woman: without her, man is nothing" (emphasizing the importance of women to men) have very different meanings; as do "eats shoots and leaves" (which means the subject consumes plant growths) and "eats, shoots, and leaves" (which means the subject eats first, then fires a weapon, and then leaves the scene).[3] The sharp differences in meaning are produced by the simple differences in punctuation within the example pairs, especially the latter.

The rules of punctuation vary with language, location, register, and time and are constantly evolving. Certain aspects of punctuation are stylistic and are thus the author's (or editor's) choice, or tachygraphic (shorthand) language forms, such as those used in online chat and text messages.

HistoryEdit

The first writing systems were either logographic or syllabic—for example, Chinese and Mayan script—which do not necessarily require punctuation, especially spacing. This is because the entire morpheme or word is typically clustered within a single glyph, so spacing does not help as much to distinguish where one word ends and the other starts. Disambiguation and emphasis can easily be communicated without punctuation by employing a separate written form distinct from the spoken form of the language that uses slightly different phraseology. Even today, written English differs subtly from spoken English because not all emphasis and disambiguation is possible to convey in print, even with punctuation.

Ancient Chinese classical texts were transmitted without punctuation. However, many Warring States period bamboo texts contain the symbols ⟨└⟩ and ⟨▄⟩ indicating the end of a chapter and full stop, respectively.[4] By the Song dynasty, addition of punctuation to texts by scholars to aid comprehension became common.[5]

The earliest alphabetic writing – Phoenician, Hebrew, and others of the same family – had no capitalization, no spaces, no vowels (see abjad) and few punctuation marks. This worked as long as the subject matter was restricted to a limited range of topics (for example, writing used for recording business transactions). Punctuation is historically an aid to reading aloud.

The oldest known document using punctuation is the Mesha Stele (9th century BC). This employs points between the words and horizontal strokes between the sense section as punctuation.[6][further explanation needed]

Western AntiquityEdit

Most texts were still written in scriptura continua, that is without any separation between words. However, the Greeks were sporadically using punctuation marks consisting of vertically arranged dots—usually two (dicolon) or three (tricolon)—in around the 5th century BC as an aid in the oral delivery of texts. Greek playwrights such as Euripides and Aristophanes used symbols to distinguish the ends of phrases in written drama: this essentially helped the play's cast to know when to pause. After 200 BC, the Greeks used Aristophanes of Byzantium's system (called théseis) of a single dot (punctus) placed at varying heights to mark up speeches at rhetorical divisions:

  • hypostigmḗ – a low punctus on the baseline to mark off a komma (unit smaller than a clause);
  • stigmḕ mésē – a punctus at midheight to mark off a clause (kōlon); and
  • stigmḕ teleía – a high punctus to mark off a sentence (periodos).[7]

In addition, the Greeks used the paragraphos (or gamma) to mark the beginning of sentences, marginal diples to mark quotations, and a koronis to indicate the end of major sections.

The Romans (c. 1st century BC) also occasionally used symbols to indicate pauses, but the Greek théseis—under the name distinctiones[8]—prevailed by the 4th century AD as reported by Aelius Donatus and Isidore of Seville (7th century). Also, texts were sometimes laid out per capitula, where every sentence had its own separate line. Diples were used, but by the late period these often degenerated into comma-shaped marks.

On the page, punctuation performs its grammatical function, but in the mind of the reader it does more than that. It tells the reader how to hum the tune.

 Lynn Truss, Eats, Shoots and Leaves.[9]

MedievalEdit

Punctuation developed dramatically when large numbers of copies of the Bible started to be produced. These were designed to be read aloud, so the copyists began to introduce a range of marks to aid the reader, including indentation, various punctuation marks (diple, paragraphos, simplex ductus), and an early version of initial capitals (litterae notabiliores). Jerome and his colleagues, who made a translation of the Bible into Latin, the Vulgate (c. AD 400), employed a layout system based on established practices for teaching the speeches of Demosthenes and Cicero. Under his layout per cola et commata every sense-unit was indented and given its own line. This layout was solely used for biblical manuscripts during the 5th–9th centuries but was abandoned in favor of punctuation.

In the 7th–8th centuries Irish and Anglo-Saxon scribes, whose native languages were not derived from Latin, added more visual cues to render texts more intelligible. Irish scribes introduced the practice of word separation.[10] Likewise, insular scribes adopted the distinctiones system while adapting it for minuscule script (so as to be more prominent) by using not differing height but rather a differing number of marks—aligned horizontally (or sometimes triangularly)—to signify a pause's value: one mark for a minor pause, two for a medium one, and three for a major. Most common were the punctus, a comma-shaped mark, and a 7-shaped mark (comma positura), often used in combination. The same marks could be used in the margin to mark off quotations.

In the late 8th century a different system emerged in France under the Carolingian dynasty. Originally indicating how the voice should be modulated when chanting the liturgy, the positurae migrated into any text meant to be read aloud, and then to all manuscripts. Positurae first reached England in the late 10th century, probably during the Benedictine reform movement, but was not adopted until after the Norman conquest. The original positurae were the punctus, punctus elevatus,[11] punctus versus, and punctus interrogativus, but a fifth symbol, the punctus flexus, was added in the 10th century to indicate a pause of a value between the punctus and punctus elevatus. In the late 11th/early 12th century the punctus versus disappeared and was taken over by the simple punctus (now with two distinct values).[12]

The late Middle Ages saw the addition of the virgula suspensiva (slash or slash with a midpoint dot) which was often used in conjunction with the punctus for different types of pauses. Direct quotations were marked with marginal diples, as in Antiquity, but from at least the 12th century scribes also began entering diples (sometimes double) within the column of text.

Printing-press eraEdit

The amount of printed material and its readership began to increase after the invention of moveable type in Europe in the 1450s. As explained by writer and editor Lynne Truss, "The rise of printing in the 14th and 15th centuries meant that a standard system of punctuation was urgently required."[13] Printed books, whose letters were uniform, could be read much more rapidly than manuscripts. Rapid reading, or reading aloud, did not allow time to analyze sentence structures. This increased speed led to the greater use and finally standardization of punctuation, which showed the relationships of words with each other: where one sentence ends and another begins, for example.

The introduction of a standard system of punctuation has also been attributed to the Venetian printers Aldus Manutius and his grandson. They have been credited with popularizing the practice of ending sentences with the colon or full stop (period), inventing the semicolon, making occasional use of parentheses, and creating the modern comma by lowering the virgule. By 1566, Aldus Manutius the Younger was able to state that the main object of punctuation was the clarification of syntax.[14]

By the 19th century, punctuation in the western world had evolved "to classify the marks hierarchically, in terms of weight".[15] Cecil Hartley's poem identifies their relative values:

The stop point out, with truth, the time of pause
A sentence doth require at ev'ry clause.
At ev'ry comma, stop while one you count;
At semicolon, two is the amount;
A colon doth require the time of three;
The period four, as learned men agree.[16]

The use of punctuation was not standardised until after the invention of printing. According to the 1885 edition of The American Printer, the importance of punctuation was noted in various sayings by children such as

Charles the First walked and talked
Half an hour after his head was cut off.

With a semi-colon and a comma added, it reads as follows:

Charles the First walked and talked;
Half an hour after, his head was cut off.[17]

In a 19th-century manual of typography, Thomas MacKellar writes:

Shortly after the invention of printing, the necessity of stops or pauses in sentences for the guidance of the reader produced the colon and full point. In process of time, the comma was added, which was then merely a perpendicular line, proportioned to the body of the letter. These three points were the only ones used until the close of the fifteenth century, when Aldo Manuccio gave a better shape to the comma, and added the semicolon; the comma denoting the shortest pause, the semicolon next, then the colon, and the full point terminating the sentence. The marks of interrogation and admiration were introduced many years after.[18]

Typewriters and electronic communicationEdit

The introduction of electrical telegraphy with a limited set of transmission codes[19] and typewriters with a limited set of keys influenced punctuation subtly. For example, curved quotes and apostrophes were all collapsed into two characters (' and "). The hyphen, minus sign, and dashes of various widths have been collapsed into a single character (-), sometimes repeated to represent a long dash. The spaces of different widths available to professional typesetters were generally replaced by a single full-character width space, with typefaces monospaced. In some cases a typewriter keyboard didn't include an exclamation point (!) but this was constructed by the overstrike of an apostrophe and a period; the original Morse code did not have an exclamation point.

These simplifications have been carried forward into digital writing, with teleprinters and the ASCII character set essentially supporting the same characters as typewriters. Treatment of whitespace in HTML discouraged the practice (in English prose) of putting two full spaces after a full stop, since a single or double space would appear the same on the screen. (Some style guides now discourage double spaces, and some electronic writing tools, including Wikipedia's software, automatically collapse double spaces to single.) The full traditional set of typesetting tools became available with the advent of desktop publishing and more sophisticated word processors. Despite the widespread adoption of character sets like Unicode that support the punctuation of traditional typesetting, writing forms like text messages tend to use the simplified ASCII style of punctuation, with the addition of new non-text characters like emoji. Informal text speak tends to drop punctuation when not needed, including some ways that would be considered errors in more formal writing.

In the computer era, punctuation characters were recycled for use in programming languages and URLs. Due to its use in email and Twitter handles, the at sign (@) has gone from an obscure character mostly used by sellers of bulk commodities (10 pounds @$2.00 per pound), to a very common character in common use for both technical routing and an abbreviation for "at". The tilde (~), in moveable type only used in combination with vowels, for mechanical reasons ended up as a separate key on mechanical typewriters, and like @ it has been put to completely new uses.

In EnglishEdit

There are two major styles of punctuation in English: British or American. These two styles differ mainly in the way in which they handle quotation marks, particularly in conjunction with other punctuation marks. In British English, punctuation marks such as periods and commas are placed inside the quotation mark only if they are part of what is being quoted, and placed outside the closing quotation mark if part of the containing sentence. In American English, however, such punctuation is generally placed inside the closing quotation mark regardless. This rule varies for other punctuation marks; for example, American English follows the British English rule when it comes to semicolons, colons, question marks, and exclamation points.[20][further explanation needed] The serial comma is used much more often in the United States than in England.

Other languagesEdit

Other languages of Europe use much the same punctuation as English. The similarity is so strong that the few variations may confuse a native English reader. Quotation marks are particularly variable across European languages. For example, in French and Russian, quotes would appear as: «Je suis fatigué.» (in French, each "double punctuation", as the guillemet, requires a non-breaking space; in Russian it does not).

In French of France, the signs : ; ? and ! are always preceded by a thin non-breaking space. In Canada, this is only the case for :.[21][22]

In Greek, the question mark is written as the English semicolon, while the functions of the colon and semicolon are performed by a raised point ⟨·⟩, known as the ano teleia (άνω τελεία).

In Georgian, three dots, ⟨჻⟩, were formerly used as a sentence or paragraph divider. It is still sometimes used in calligraphy.

Spanish and Asturian (both of them Romance languages used in Spain) use an inverted question mark ⟨¿⟩ at the beginning of a question and the normal question mark at the end, as well as an inverted exclamation mark ⟨¡⟩ at the beginning of an exclamation and the normal exclamation mark at the end.[23]

Armenian uses several punctuation marks of its own. The full stop is represented by a colon, and vice versa; the exclamation mark is represented by a diagonal similar to a tilde ⟨~⟩, while the question mark ⟨՞⟩ resembles an unclosed circle placed after the last vowel of the word.

Arabic, Urdu, and Persian—written from right to left—use a reversed question mark: ⟨؟⟩, and a reversed comma: ⟨،⟩. This is a modern innovation; pre-modern Arabic did not use punctuation. Hebrew, which is also written from right to left, uses the same characters as in English, ⟨,⟩ and ⟨?⟩.[24]

Originally, Sanskrit had no punctuation. In the 17th century, Sanskrit and Marathi, both written using Devanagari, started using the vertical bar ⟨⟩ to end a line of prose and double vertical bars ⟨॥⟩ in verse.

Punctuation was not used in Chinese, Japanese, Korean and Vietnamese Chu Nom writing until the adoption of punctuation from the West in the late 19th and early 20th century. In unpunctuated texts, the grammatical structure of sentences in classical writing is inferred from context.[25] Most punctuation marks in modern Chinese, Japanese, and Korean have similar functions to their English counterparts; however, they often look different and have different customary rules.

In the Indian subcontinent, ⟨:-⟩ is sometimes used in place of colon or after a subheading. Its origin is unclear, but could be a remnant of the British Raj. Another punctuation common in the Indian Subcontinent for writing monetary amounts is the use of ⟨/-⟩ or ⟨/=⟩ after the number. For example, Rs. 20/- or Rs. 20/= implies 20 rupees whole.

Thai, Khmer, Lao and Burmese did not use punctuation until the adoption of punctuation from the West in the 20th century. Blank spaces are more frequent than full stops or commas.

Novel punctuation marksEdit

InterrobangEdit

In 1962, American advertising executive Martin K. Speckter proposed the interrobang (‽), a combination of the question mark and exclamation point, to mark rhetorical questions or questions stated in a tone of disbelief. Although the new punctuation mark was widely discussed in the 1960s, it failed to achieve widespread use.[26]

"Love point" and similar marksEdit

In 1966, the French author Hervé Bazin proposed a series of six innovative punctuation marks in his book Plumons l'Oiseau ("Let's pluck the bird", 1966).[27] These were:[28]

  • the "irony point" or "irony mark" (point d'ironie:  )
  • the "love point" (point d'amour:  )
  • the "conviction point" (point de conviction:  )
  • the "authority point" (point d'autorité:  )
  • the "acclamation point" (point d'acclamation:  )
  • the "doubt point" (point de doute:  )

"Question comma", "exclamation comma"Edit

 
An exclamation comma.

An international patent application was filed, and published in 1992 under World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) number WO9219458,[29] for two new punctuation marks: the "question comma" and the "exclamation comma". The question comma has a comma instead of the dot at the bottom of a question mark, while the exclamation comma has a comma in place of the point at the bottom of an exclamation mark. These were intended for use as question and exclamation marks within a sentence, a function for which normal question and exclamation marks can also be used, but which may be considered obsolescent. The patent application entered into the national phase only in Canada. It was advertised as lapsing in Australia on 27 January 1994[30] and in Canada on 6 November 1995.[31]

Punctuation marks in UnicodeEdit

By Unicode General Category 'P'
§ Pd, dash
§ Ps-Pe, start–end (open–close brackets)
§ Pi-Pf, initial–final quote
§ Pc, connector
§ Po, other
Mark Name Code point General Category Script
Pd, dash
- HYPHEN-MINUS U+002D Pd, dash Common
HYPHEN U+2010 Pd, dash Common
NON-BREAKING HYPHEN U+2011 Pd, dash Common
FIGURE DASH U+2012 Pd, dash Common
EN DASH U+2013 Pd, dash Common
EM DASH U+2014 Pd, dash Common
HORIZONTAL BAR U+2015 Pd, dash Common
DOUBLE OBLIQUE HYPHEN U+2E17 Pd, dash Common
HYPHEN WITH DIAERESIS U+2E1A Pd, dash Common
TWO-EM DASH U+2E3A Pd, dash Common
THREE-EM DASH U+2E3B Pd, dash Common
DOUBLE HYPHEN U+2E40 Pd, dash Common
WAVE DASH U+301C Pd, dash Common
WAVY DASH U+3030 Pd, dash Common
KATAKANA-HIRAGANA DOUBLE HYPHEN U+30A0 Pd, dash Common
PRESENTATION FORM FOR VERTICAL EM DASH U+FE31 Pd, dash Common
PRESENTATION FORM FOR VERTICAL EN DASH U+FE32 Pd, dash Common
SMALL EM DASH U+FE58 Pd, dash Common
SMALL HYPHEN-MINUS U+FE63 Pd, dash Common
FULLWIDTH HYPHEN-MINUS U+FF0D Pd, dash Common
֊ ARMENIAN HYPHEN U+058A Pd, dash Armenian
CANADIAN SYLLABICS HYPHEN U+1400 Pd, dash Canadian Aboriginal
־ HEBREW PUNCTUATION MAQAF U+05BE Pd, dash Hebrew
MONGOLIAN TODO SOFT HYPHEN U+1806 Pd, dash Mongolian
𐺭 YEZIDI HYPHENATION MARK U+10EAD Pd, dash Yezidi
Pi-Pf, initial–final quote
« »
  • LEFT-POINTING DOUBLE ANGLE QUOTATION MARK
  • RIGHT-POINTING DOUBLE ANGLE QUOTATION MARK
  • U+00AB
  • U+00BB
  • Pi, initial
  • Pf, final
Common
‘ ’
  • LEFT SINGLE QUOTATION MARK
  • RIGHT SINGLE QUOTATION MARK
  • U+2018
  • U+2019
  • Pi, initial
  • Pf, final
Common
SINGLE HIGH-REVERSED-9 QUOTATION MARK U+201B Pi, initial quote Common
“ ”
  • LEFT DOUBLE QUOTATION MARK
  • RIGHT DOUBLE QUOTATION MARK
  • U+201C
  • U+201D
  • Pi, initial
  • Pf, final
Common
DOUBLE HIGH-REVERSED-9 QUOTATION MARK U+201F Pi, initial quote Common
‹ ›
  • SINGLE LEFT-POINTING ANGLE QUOTATION MARK
  • SINGLE RIGHT-POINTING ANGLE QUOTATION MARK
  • U+2039
  • U+203A
  • Pi, initial
  • Pf, final
Common
⸂ ⸃
  • LEFT SUBSTITUTION BRACKET
  • RIGHT SUBSTITUTION BRACKET
  • U+2E02
  • U+2E03
  • Pi, initial
  • Pf, final
Common
⸄ ⸅
  • LEFT DOTTED SUBSTITUTION BRACKET
  • RIGHT DOTTED SUBSTITUTION BRACKET
  • U+2E04
  • U+2E05
  • Pi, initial
  • Pf, final
Common
⸉ ⸊
  • LEFT TRANSPOSITION BRACKET
  • RIGHT TRANSPOSITION BRACKET
  • U+2E09
  • U+2E0A
  • Pi, initial
  • Pf, final
Common
⸌ ⸍
  • LEFT RAISED OMISSION BRACKET
  • RIGHT RAISED OMISSION BRACKET
  • U+2E0C
  • U+2E0D
  • Pi, initial
  • Pf, final
Common
⸜ ⸝
  • LEFT LOW PARAPHRASE BRACKET
  • RIGHT LOW PARAPHRASE BRACKET
  • U+2E1C
  • U+2E1D
  • Pi, initial
  • Pf, final
Common
⸠ ⸡
  • LEFT VERTICAL BAR WITH QUILL
  • RIGHT VERTICAL BAR WITH QUILL
  • U+2E20
  • U+2E21
  • Pi, initial
  • Pf, final
Common
Ps-Pe, open–close (brackets)
( )
  • LEFT PARENTHESIS
  • RIGHT PARENTHESIS
  • U+0028
  • U+0029
  • Ps, open
  • Pe, close
Common
[ ]
  • LEFT SQUARE BRACKET
  • RIGHT SQUARE BRACKET
  • U+005B
  • U+005D
  • Ps, open
  • Pe, close
Common
{ }
  • LEFT CURLY BRACKET
  • RIGHT CURLY BRACKET
  • U+007B
  • U+007D
  • Ps, open
  • Pe, close
Common
SINGLE LOW-9 QUOTATION MARK U+201A Ps, open Common
DOUBLE LOW-9 QUOTATION MARK U+201E Ps, open Common
⁅ ⁆
  • LEFT SQUARE BRACKET WITH QUILL
  • RIGHT SQUARE BRACKET WITH QUILL
  • U+2045
  • U+2046
  • Ps, open
  • Pe, close
Common
⁽ ⁾
  • SUPERSCRIPT LEFT PARENTHESIS
  • SUPERSCRIPT RIGHT PARENTHESIS
  • U+207D
  • U+207E
  • Ps, open
  • Pe, close
Common
₍ ₎
  • SUBSCRIPT LEFT PARENTHESIS
  • SUBSCRIPT RIGHT PARENTHESIS
  • U+208D
  • U+208E
  • Ps, open
  • Pe, close
Common
⌈ ⌉
  • LEFT CEILING
  • RIGHT CEILING
  • U+2308
  • U+2309
  • Ps, open
  • Pe, close
Common
⌊ ⌋
  • LEFT FLOOR
  • RIGHT FLOOR
  • U+230A
  • U+230B
  • Ps, open
  • Pe, close
Common
〈 〉
  • LEFT-POINTING ANGLE BRACKET
  • RIGHT-POINTING ANGLE BRACKET
  • U+2329
  • U+232A
  • Ps, open
  • Pe, close
Common
❨ ❩
  • MEDIUM LEFT PARENTHESIS ORNAMENT
  • MEDIUM RIGHT PARENTHESIS ORNAMENT
  • U+2768
  • U+2769
  • Ps, open
  • Pe, close
Common
❪ ❫
  • MEDIUM FLATTENED LEFT PARENTHESIS ORNAMENT
  • MEDIUM FLATTENED RIGHT PARENTHESIS ORNAMENT
  • U+276A
  • U+276B
  • Ps, open
  • Pe, close
Common
❬ ❭
  • MEDIUM LEFT-POINTING ANGLE BRACKET ORNAMENT
  • MEDIUM RIGHT-POINTING ANGLE BRACKET ORNAMENT
  • U+276C
  • U+276D
  • Ps, open
  • Pe, close
Common
❮ ❯
  • HEAVY LEFT-POINTING ANGLE QUOTATION MARK ORNAMENT
  • HEAVY RIGHT-POINTING ANGLE QUOTATION MARK ORNAMENT
  • U+276E
  • U+276F
  • Ps, open
  • Pe, close
Common
❰ ❱
  • HEAVY LEFT-POINTING ANGLE BRACKET ORNAMENT
  • HEAVY RIGHT-POINTING ANGLE BRACKET ORNAMENT
  • U+2770
  • U+2771
  • Ps, open
  • Pe, close
Common
❲ ❳
  • LIGHT LEFT TORTOISE SHELL BRACKET ORNAMENT
  • LIGHT RIGHT TORTOISE SHELL BRACKET ORNAMENT
  • U+2772
  • U+2773
  • Ps, open
  • Pe, close
Common
❴ ❵
  • MEDIUM LEFT CURLY BRACKET ORNAMENT
  • MEDIUM RIGHT CURLY BRACKET ORNAMENT
  • U+2774
  • U+2775
  • Ps, open
  • Pe, close
Common
⟅ ⟆
  • LEFT S-SHAPED BAG DELIMITER
  • RIGHT S-SHAPED BAG DELIMITER
  • U+27C5
  • U+27C6
  • Ps, open
  • Pe, close
Common
⟦ ⟧
  • MATHEMATICAL LEFT WHITE SQUARE BRACKET
  • MATHEMATICAL RIGHT WHITE SQUARE BRACKET
  • U+27E6
  • U+27E7
  • Ps, open
  • Pe, close
Common
⟨ ⟩
  • MATHEMATICAL LEFT ANGLE BRACKET
  • MATHEMATICAL RIGHT ANGLE BRACKET
  • U+27E8
  • U+27E9
  • Ps, open
  • Pe, close
Common
⟪ ⟫
  • MATHEMATICAL LEFT DOUBLE ANGLE BRACKET
  • MATHEMATICAL RIGHT DOUBLE ANGLE BRACKET
  • U+27EA
  • U+27EB
  • Ps, open
  • Pe, close
Common
⟬ ⟭
  • MATHEMATICAL LEFT WHITE TORTOISE SHELL BRACKET
  • MATHEMATICAL RIGHT WHITE TORTOISE SHELL BRACKET
  • U+27EC
  • U+27ED
  • Ps, open
  • Pe, close
Common
⟮ ⟯
  • MATHEMATICAL LEFT FLATTENED PARENTHESIS
  • MATHEMATICAL RIGHT FLATTENED PARENTHESIS
  • U+27EE
  • U+27EF
  • Ps, open
  • Pe, close
Common
⦃ ⦄
  • LEFT WHITE CURLY BRACKET
  • RIGHT WHITE CURLY BRACKET
  • U+2983
  • U+2984
  • Ps, open
  • Pe, close
Common
⦅ ⦆
  • LEFT WHITE PARENTHESIS
  • RIGHT WHITE PARENTHESIS
  • U+2985
  • U+2986
  • Ps, open
  • Pe, close
Common
⦇ ⦈
  • Z NOTATION LEFT IMAGE BRACKET
  • Z NOTATION RIGHT IMAGE BRACKET
  • U+2987
  • U+2988
  • Ps, open
  • Pe, close
Common
⦉ ⦊
  • Z NOTATION LEFT BINDING BRACKET
  • Z NOTATION RIGHT BINDING BRACKET
  • U+2989
  • U+298A
  • Ps, open
  • Pe, close
Common
⦋ ⦌
  • LEFT SQUARE BRACKET WITH UNDERBAR
  • RIGHT SQUARE BRACKET WITH UNDERBAR
  • U+298B
  • U+298C
  • Ps, open
  • Pe, close
Common
⦍ ⦎
  • LEFT SQUARE BRACKET WITH TICK IN TOP CORNER
  • RIGHT SQUARE BRACKET WITH TICK IN BOTTOM CORNER
  • U+298D
  • U+298E
  • Ps, open
  • Pe, close
Common
⦏ ⦐
  • LEFT SQUARE BRACKET WITH TICK IN BOTTOM CORNER
  • RIGHT SQUARE BRACKET WITH TICK IN TOP CORNER
  • U+298F
  • U+2990
  • Ps, open
  • Pe, close
Common
⦑ ⦒
  • LEFT ANGLE BRACKET WITH DOT
  • RIGHT ANGLE BRACKET WITH DOT
  • U+2991
  • U+2992
  • Ps, open
  • Pe, close
Common
⦓ ⦔
  • LEFT ARC LESS-THAN BRACKET
  • RIGHT ARC GREATER-THAN BRACKET
  • U+2993
  • U+2994
  • Ps, open
  • Pe, close
Common
⦕ ⦖
  • DOUBLE LEFT ARC GREATER-THAN BRACKET
  • DOUBLE RIGHT ARC LESS-THAN BRACKET
  • U+2995
  • U+2996
  • Ps, open
  • Pe, close
Common
⦗ ⦘
  • LEFT BLACK TORTOISE SHELL BRACKET
  • RIGHT BLACK TORTOISE SHELL BRACKET
  • U+2997
  • U+2998
  • Ps, open
  • Pe, close
Common
⧘ ⧙
  • LEFT WIGGLY FENCE
  • RIGHT WIGGLY FENCE
  • U+29D8
  • U+29D9
  • Ps, open
  • Pe, close
Common
⧚ ⧛
  • LEFT DOUBLE WIGGLY FENCE
  • RIGHT DOUBLE WIGGLY FENCE
  • U+29DA
  • U+29DB
  • Ps, open
  • Pe, close
Common
⧼ ⧽
  • LEFT-POINTING CURVED ANGLE BRACKET
  • RIGHT-POINTING CURVED ANGLE BRACKET
  • U+29FC
  • U+29FD
  • Ps, open
  • Pe, close
Common
⸢ ⸣
  • TOP LEFT HALF BRACKET
  • TOP RIGHT HALF BRACKET
  • U+2E22
  • U+2E23
  • Ps, open
  • Pe, close
Common
⸤ ⸥
  • BOTTOM LEFT HALF BRACKET
  • BOTTOM RIGHT HALF BRACKET
  • U+2E24
  • U+2E25
  • Ps, open
  • Pe, close
Common
⸦ ⸧
  • LEFT SIDEWAYS U BRACKET
  • RIGHT SIDEWAYS U BRACKET
  • U+2E26
  • U+2E27
  • Ps, open
  • Pe, close
Common
⸨ ⸩
  • LEFT DOUBLE PARENTHESIS
  • RIGHT DOUBLE PARENTHESIS
  • U+2E28
  • U+2E29
  • Ps, open
  • Pe, close
Common
DOUBLE LOW-REVERSED-9 QUOTATION MARK U+2E42 Ps, open Common
〈 〉
  • LEFT ANGLE BRACKET
  • RIGHT ANGLE BRACKET
  • U+3008
  • U+3009
  • Ps, open
  • Pe, close
Common
《 》
  • LEFT DOUBLE ANGLE BRACKET
  • RIGHT DOUBLE ANGLE BRACKET
  • U+300A
  • U+300B
  • Ps, open
  • Pe, close
Common
「 」
  • LEFT CORNER BRACKET
  • RIGHT CORNER BRACKET
  • U+300C
  • U+300D
  • Ps, open
  • Pe, close
Common
『 』
  • LEFT WHITE CORNER BRACKET
  • RIGHT WHITE CORNER BRACKET
  • U+300E
  • U+300F
  • Ps, open
  • Pe, close
Common
【 】
  • LEFT BLACK LENTICULAR BRACKET
  • RIGHT BLACK LENTICULAR BRACKET
  • U+3010
  • U+3011
  • Ps, open
  • Pe, close
Common
〔 〕
  • LEFT TORTOISE SHELL BRACKET
  • RIGHT TORTOISE SHELL BRACKET
  • U+3014
  • U+3015
  • Ps, open
  • Pe, close
Common
〖 〗
  • LEFT WHITE LENTICULAR BRACKET
  • RIGHT WHITE LENTICULAR BRACKET
  • U+3016
  • U+3017
  • Ps, open
  • Pe, close
Common
〘 〙
  • LEFT WHITE TORTOISE SHELL BRACKET
  • RIGHT WHITE TORTOISE SHELL BRACKET
  • U+3018
  • U+3019
  • Ps, open
  • Pe, close
Common
〚 〛
  • LEFT WHITE SQUARE BRACKET
  • RIGHT WHITE SQUARE BRACKET
  • U+301A
  • U+301B
  • Ps, open
  • Pe, close
Common
〝 〞
  • REVERSED DOUBLE PRIME QUOTATION MARK
  • DOUBLE PRIME QUOTATION MARK
  • U+301D
  • U+301E
  • Ps, open
  • Pe, close
Common
LOW DOUBLE PRIME QUOTATION MARK U+301F Pe, close Common
﴿ ORNATE RIGHT PARENTHESIS U+FD3F Ps, open Common
︗ ︘
  • PRESENTATION FORM FOR VERTICAL LEFT WHITE LENTICULAR BRACKET
  • PRESENTATION FORM FOR VERTICAL RIGHT WHITE LENTICULAR BRAKCET
  • U+FE17
  • U+FE18
  • Ps, open
  • Pe, close
Common
︵ ︶
  • PRESENTATION FORM FOR VERTICAL LEFT PARENTHESIS
  • PRESENTATION FORM FOR VERTICAL RIGHT PARENTHESIS
  • U+FE35
  • U+FE36
  • Ps, open
  • Pe, close
Common
︷ ︸
  • PRESENTATION FORM FOR VERTICAL LEFT CURLY BRACKET
  • PRESENTATION FORM FOR VERTICAL RIGHT CURLY BRACKET
  • U+FE37
  • U+FE38
  • Ps, open
  • Pe, close
Common
︹ ︺
  • PRESENTATION FORM FOR VERTICAL LEFT TORTOISE SHELL BRACKET
  • PRESENTATION FORM FOR VERTICAL RIGHT TORTOISE SHELL BRACKET
  • U+FE39
  • U+FE3A
  • Ps, open
  • Pe, close
Common
︻ ︼
  • PRESENTATION FORM FOR VERTICAL LEFT BLACK LENTICULAR BRACKET
  • PRESENTATION FORM FOR VERTICAL RIGHT BLACK LENTICULAR BRACKET
  • U+FE3B
  • U+FE3C
  • Ps, open
  • Pe, close
Common
︽ ︾
  • PRESENTATION FORM FOR VERTICAL LEFT DOUBLE ANGLE BRACKET
  • PRESENTATION FORM FOR VERTICAL RIGHT DOUBLE ANGLE BRACKET
  • U+FE3D
  • U+FE3E
  • Ps, open
  • Pe, close
Common
︿ ﹀
  • PRESENTATION FORM FOR VERTICAL LEFT ANGLE BRACKET
  • PRESENTATION FORM FOR VERTICAL RIGHT ANGLE BRACKET
  • U+FE3F
  • U+FE40
  • Ps, open
  • Pe, close
Common
﹁ ﹂
  • PRESENTATION FORM FOR VERTICAL LEFT CORNER BRACKET
  • PRESENTATION FORM FOR VERTICAL RIGHT CORNER BRACKET
  • U+FE41
  • U+FE42
  • Ps, open
  • Pe, close
Common
﹃ ﹄
  • PRESENTATION FORM FOR VERTICAL LEFT WHITE CORNER BRACKET
  • PRESENTATION FORM FOR VERTICAL RIGHT WHITE CORNER BRACKET
  • U+FE43
  • U+FE44
  • Ps, open
  • Pe, close
Common
﹇ ﹈
  • PRESENTATION FORM FOR VERTICAL LEFT SQUARE BRACKET
  • PRESENTATION FORM FOR VERTICAL RIGHT SQUARE BRACKET
  • U+FE47
  • U+FE48
  • Ps, open
  • Pe, close
Common
﹙ ﹚
  • SMALL LEFT PARENTHESIS
  • SMALL RIGHT PARENTHESIS
  • U+FE59
  • U+FE5A
  • Ps, open
  • Pe, close
Common
﹛ ﹜
  • SMALL LEFT CURLY BRACKET
  • SMALL RIGHT CURLY BRACKET
  • U+FE5B
  • U+FE5C
  • Ps, open
  • Pe, close
Common
﹝ ﹞
  • SMALL LEFT TORTOISE SHELL BRACKET
  • SMALL RIGHT TORTOISE SHELL BRACKET
  • U+FE5D
  • U+FE5E
  • Ps, open
  • Pe, close
Common
( )
  • FULLWIDTH LEFT PARENTHESIS
  • FULLWIDTH RIGHT PARENTHESIS
  • U+FF08
  • U+FF09
  • Ps, open
  • Pe, close
Common
[ ]
  • FULLWIDTH LEFT SQUARE BRACKET
  • FULLWIDTH RIGHT SQUARE BRACKET
  • U+FF3B
  • U+FF3D
  • Ps, open
  • Pe, close
Common
{ }
  • FULLWIDTH LEFT CURLY BRACKET
  • FULLWIDTH RIGHT CURLY BRACKET
  • U+FF5B
  • U+FF5D
  • Ps, open
  • Pe, close
Common
⦅ ⦆
  • FULLWIDTH LEFT WHITE PARENTHESIS
  • FULLWIDTH RIGHT WHITE PARENTHESIS
  • U+FF5F
  • U+FF60
  • Ps, open
  • Pe, close
Common
「 」
  • HALFWIDTH LEFT CORNER BRACKET
  • HALFWIDTH RIGHT CORNER BRACKET
  • U+FF62
  • U+FF63
  • Ps, open
  • Pe, close
Common
᚛ ᚜
  • OGHAM FEATHER MARK
  • OGHAM REVERSED FEATHER MARK
  • U+169B
  • U+169C
  • Ps, open
  • Pe, close
Ogham
༺ ༻
  • TIBETAN MARK GUG RTAGS GYON
  • TIBETAN MARK GUG RTAGS GYAS
  • U+0F3A
  • U+0F3B
  • Ps, open
  • Pe, close
Tibetan
༼ ༽
  • TIBETAN MARK ANG KHANG GYON
  • TIBETAN MARK ANG KHANG GYAS
  • U+0F3C
  • U+0F3D
  • Ps, open
  • Pe, close
Tibetan
Pc, connector
_ LOW LINE U+005F Pc, connector Common
UNDERTIE U+203F Pc, connector Common
CHARACTER TIE U+2040 Pc, connector Common
INVERTED UNDERTIE U+2054 Pc, connector Common
PRESENTATION FORM FOR VERTICAL LOW LINE U+FE33 Pc, connector Common
PRESENTATION FORM FOR VERTICAL WAVY LOW LINE U+FE34 Pc, connector Common
DASHED LOW LINE U+FE4D Pc, connector Common
CENTRELINE LOW LINE U+FE4E Pc, connector Common
WAVY LOW LINE U+FE4F Pc, connector Common
_ FULLWIDTH LOW LINE U+FF3F Pc, connector Common
Po, other
! EXCLAMATION MARK U+0021 Po, other Common
" QUOTATION MARK U+0022 Po, other Common
# NUMBER SIGN U+0023 Po, other Common
% PERCENT SIGN U+0025 Po, other Common
& AMPERSAND U+0026 Po, other Common
' APOSTROPHE U+0027 Po, other Common
* ASTERISK U+002A Po, other Common
, COMMA U+002C Po, other Common
. FULL STOP U+002E Po, other Common
/ SOLIDUS U+002F Po, other Common
: COLON U+003A Po, other Common
; SEMICOLON U+003B Po, other Common
? QUESTION MARK U+003F Po, other Common
@ COMMERCIAL AT U+0040 Po, other Common
\ REVERSE SOLIDUS U+005C Po, other Common
¡ INVERTED EXCLAMATION MARK U+00A1 Po, other Common
§ SECTION SIGN U+00A7 Po, other Common
PILCROW SIGN U+00B6 Po, other Common
· MIDDLE DOT U+00B7 Po, other Common
¿ INVERTED QUESTION MARK U+00BF Po, other Common
; GREEK QUESTION MARK U+037E Po, other Common
· GREEK ANO TELEIA U+0387 Po, other Common
، ARABIC COMMA U+060C Po, other Common
؛ ARABIC SEMICOLON U+061B Po, other Common
؟ ARABIC QUESTION MARK U+061F Po, other Common
DEVANAGARI DANDA U+0964 Po, other Common
DEVANAGARI DOUBLE DANDA U+0965 Po, other Common
GEORGIAN PARAGRAPH SEPARATOR U+10FB Po, other Common
RUNIC SINGLE PUNCTUATION U+16EB Po, other Common
RUNIC MULTIPLE PUNCTUATION U+16EC Po, other Common
RUNIC CROSS PUNCTUATION U+16ED Po, other Common
PHILIPPINE SINGLE PUNCTUATION U+1735 Po, other Common
PHILIPPINE DOUBLE PUNCTUATION U+1736 Po, other Common
MONGOLIAN COMMA U+1802 Po, other Common
MONGOLIAN FULL STOP U+1803 Po, other Common
MONGOLIAN FOUR DOTS U+1805 Po, other Common
VEDIC SIGN NIHSHVASA U+1CD3 Po, other Common
DOUBLE VERTICAL LINE U+2016 Po, other Common
DOUBLE LOW LINE U+2017 Po, other Common
DAGGER U+2020 Po, other Common
DOUBLE DAGGER U+2021 Po, other Common
BULLET U+2022 Po, other Common
TRIANGULAR BULLET U+2023 Po, other Common
ONE DOT LEADER U+2024 Po, other Common
TWO DOT LEADER U+2025 Po, other Common
HORIZONTAL ELLIPSIS U+2026 Po, other Common
HYPHENATION POINT U+2027 Po, other Common
PER MILLE SIGN U+2030 Po, other Common
PER TEN THOUSAND SIGN U+2031 Po, other Common
PRIME U+2032 Po, other Common
DOUBLE PRIME U+2033 Po, other Common
TRIPLE PRIME U+2034 Po, other Common
REVERSED PRIME U+2035 Po, other Common
REVERSED DOUBLE PRIME U+2036 Po, other Common
REVERSED TRIPLE PRIME U+2037 Po, other Common
CARET U+2038 Po, other Common
REFERENCE MARK U+203B Po, other Common
DOUBLE EXCLAMATION MARK U+203C Po, other Common
INTERROBANG U+203D Po, other Common
OVERLINE U+203E Po, other Common
CARET INSERTION POINT U+2041 Po, other Common
ASTERISM U+2042 Po, other Common
HYPHEN BULLET U+2043 Po, other Common
DOUBLE QUESTION MARK U+2047 Po, other Common
QUESTION EXCLAMATION MARK U+2048 Po, other Common
EXCLAMATION QUESTION MARK U+2049 Po, other Common
TIRONIAN SIGN ET U+204A Po, other Common
REVERSED PILCROW SIGN U+204B Po, other Common
BLACK LEFTWARDS BULLET U+204C Po, other Common
BLACK RIGHTWARDS BULLET U+204D Po, other Common
LOW ASTERISK U+204E Po, other Common
REVERSED SEMICOLON U+204F Po, other Common
CLOSE UP U+2050 Po, other Common
TWO ASTERISKS ALIGNED VERTICALLY U+2051 Po, other Common
SWUNG DASH U+2053 Po, other Common
FLOWER PUNCTUATION MARK U+2055 Po, other Common
THREE DOT PUNCTUATION U+2056 Po, other Common
QUADRUPLE PRIME U+2057 Po, other Common
FOUR DOT PUNCTUATION U+2058 Po, other Common
FIVE DOT PUNCTUATION U+2059 Po, other Common
TWO DOT PUNCTUATION U+205A Po, other Common
FOUR DOT MARK U+205B Po, other Common
DOTTED CROSS U+205C Po, other Common
TRICOLON U+205D Po, other Common
VERTICAL FOUR DOTS U+205E Po, other Common
RIGHT ANGLE SUBSTITUTION MARKER U+2E00 Po, other Common
RIGHT ANGLE DOTTED SUBSTITUTION MARKER U+2E01 Po, other Common
RAISED INTERPOLATION MARKER U+2E06 Po, other Common
RAISED DOTTED INTERPOLATION MARKER U+2E07 Po, other Common
DOTTED TRANSPOSITION MARKER U+2E08 Po, other Common
RAISED SQUARE U+2E0B Po, other Common
EDITORIAL CORONIS U+2E0E Po, other Common
PARAGRAPHOS U+2E0F Po, other Common
FORKED PARAGRAPHOS U+2E10 Po, other Common
REVERSED FORKED PARAGRAPHOS U+2E11 Po, other Common
HYPODIASTOLE U+2E12 Po, other Common
DOTTED OBELOS U+2E13 Po, other Common
DOWNWARDS ANCORA U+2E14 Po, other Common
UPWARDS ANCORA U+2E15 Po, other Common
DOTTED RIGHT-POINTING ANGLE U+2E16 Po, other Common
INVERTED INTERROBANG U+2E18 Po, other Common
PALM BRANCH U+2E19 Po, other Common
TILDE WITH RING ABOVE U+2E1B Po, other Common
TILDE WITH DOT ABOVE U+2E1E Po, other Common
TILDE WITH DOT BELOW U+2E1F Po, other Common
TWO DOTS OVER ONE DOT PUNCTUATION U+2E2A Po, other Common
ONE DOT OVER TWO DOTS PUNCTUATION U+2E2B Po, other Common
SQUARED FOUR DOT PUNCTUATION U+2E2C Po, other Common
FIVE DOT MARK U+2E2D Po, other Common
REVERSED QUESTION MARK U+2E2E Po, other Common
RING POINT U+2E30 Po, other Common
WORD SEPARATOR MIDDLE DOT U+2E31 Po, other Common
TURNED COMMA U+2E32 Po, other Common
RAISED DOT U+2E33 Po, other Common
RAISED COMMA U+2E34 Po, other Common
TURNED SEMICOLON U+2E35 Po, other Common
DAGGER WITH LEFT GUARD U+2E36 Po, other Common
DAGGER WITH RIGHT GUARD U+2E37 Po, other Common
TURNED DAGGER U+2E38 Po, other Common
TOP HALF SECTION SIGN U+2E39 Po, other Common
STENOGRAPHIC FULL STOP U+2E3C Po, other Common
VERTICAL SIX DOTS U+2E3D Po, other Common
WIGGLY VERTICAL LINE U+2E3E Po, other Common
⸿ CAPITULUM U+2E3F Po, other Common
REVERSED COMMA U+2E41 Po, other Common
DASH WITH LEFT UPTURN U+2E43 Po, other Common
DOUBLE SUSPENSION MARK U+2E44 Po, other Common
INVERTED LOW KAVYKA U+2E45 Po, other Common
INVERTED LOW KAVYKA WITH KAVYKA ABOVE U+2E46 Po, other Common
LOW KAVYKA U+2E47 Po, other Common
LOW KAVYKA WITH DOT U+2E48 Po, other Common
DOUBLE STACKED COMMA U+2E49 Po, other Common
DOTTED SOLIDUS U+2E4A Po, other Common
TRIPLE DAGGER U+2E4B Po, other Common
MEDIEVAL COMMA U+2E4C Po, other Common
PARAGRAPHUS MARK U+2E4D Po, other Common
PUNCTUS ELEVATUS MARK U+2E4E Po, other Common
CORNISH VERSE DIVIDER U+2E4F Po, other Common
TIRONIAN SIGN CAPITAL ET U+2E52 Po, other Common
IDEOGRAPHIC COMMA U+3001 Po, other Common
IDEOGRAPHIC FULL STOP U+3002 Po, other Common
DITTO MARK U+3003 Po, other Common
PART ALTERNATION MARK U+303D Po, other Common
KATAKANA MIDDLE DOT U+30FB Po, other Common
KAYAH LI SIGN CWI U+A92E Po, other Common
PRESENTATION FORM FOR VERTICAL COMMA U+FE10 Po, other Common
PRESENTATION FORM FOR VERTICAL IDEOGRAPHIC COMMA U+FE11 Po, other Common
PRESENTATION FORM FOR VERTICAL IDEOGRAPHIC FULL STOP U+FE12 Po, other Common
PRESENTATION FORM FOR VERTICAL COLON U+FE13 Po, other Common
PRESENTATION FORM FOR VERTICAL SEMICOLON U+FE14 Po, other Common
PRESENTATION FORM FOR VERTICAL EXCLAMATION MARK U+FE15 Po, other Common
PRESENTATION FORM FOR VERTICAL QUESTION MARK U+FE16 Po, other Common
PRESENTATION FORM FOR VERTICAL HORIZONTAL ELLIPSIS U+FE19 Po, other Common
PRESENTATION FORM FOR VERTICAL TWO DOT LEADER U+FE30 Po, other Common
SESAME DOT U+FE45 Po, other Common
WHITE SESAME DOT U+FE46 Po, other Common
DASHED OVERLINE U+FE49 Po, other Common
CENTRELINE OVERLINE U+FE4A Po, other Common
WAVY OVERLINE U+FE4B Po, other Common
DOUBLE WAVY OVERLINE U+FE4C Po, other Common
SMALL COMMA U+FE50 Po, other Common
SMALL IDEOGRAPHIC COMMA U+FE51 Po, other Common
SMALL FULL STOP U+FE52 Po, other Common
SMALL SEMICOLON U+FE54 Po, other Common
SMALL COLON U+FE55 Po, other Common
SMALL QUESTION MARK U+FE56 Po, other Common
SMALL EXCLAMATION MARK U+FE57 Po, other Common
SMALL NUMBER SIGN U+FE5F Po, other Common
SMALL AMPERSAND U+FE60 Po, other Common
SMALL ASTERISK U+FE61 Po, other Common
SMALL REVERSE SOLIDUS U+FE68 Po, other Common
SMALL PERCENT SIGN U+FE6A Po, other Common
SMALL COMMERCIAL AT U+FE6B Po, other Common
FULLWIDTH EXCLAMATION MARK U+FF01 Po, other Common
FULLWIDTH QUOTATION MARK U+FF02 Po, other Common
FULLWIDTH NUMBER SIGN U+FF03 Po, other Common
FULLWIDTH PERCENT SIGN U+FF05 Po, other Common
FULLWIDTH AMPERSAND U+FF06 Po, other Common
FULLWIDTH APOSTROPHE U+FF07 Po, other Common
FULLWIDTH ASTERISK U+FF0A Po, other Common
FULLWIDTH COMMA U+FF0C Po, other Common
FULLWIDTH FULL STOP U+FF0E Po, other Common
FULLWIDTH SOLIDUS U+FF0F Po, other Common
FULLWIDTH COLON U+FF1A Po, other Common
FULLWIDTH SEMICOLON U+FF1B Po, other Common
FULLWIDTH QUESTION MARK U+FF1F Po, other Common
FULLWIDTH COMMERCIAL AT U+FF20 Po, other Common
FULLWIDTH REVERSE SOLIDUS U+FF3C Po, other Common
HALFWIDTH IDEOGRAPHIC FULL STOP U+FF61 Po, other Common
HALFWIDTH IDEOGRAPHIC COMMA U+FF64 Po, other Common
HALFWIDTH KATAKANA MIDDLE DOT U+FF65 Po, other Common
𐄀 AEGEAN WORD SEPARATOR LINE U+10100 Po, other Common
𐄁 AEGEAN WORD SEPARATOR DOT U+10101 Po, other Common
𐄂 AEGEAN CHECK MARK U+10102 Po, other Common
𖿢 OLD CHINESE HOOK MARK U+16FE2 Po, other Common
𞥞 ADLAM INITIAL EXCLAMATION MARK U+1E95E Po, other Adlam
𞥟 ADLAM INITIAL QUESTION MARK U+1E95F Po, other Adlam
՚ ARMENIAN APOSTROPHE U+055A Po, other Armenian
՛ ARMENIAN EMPHASIS MARK U+055B Po, other Armenian
՜ ARMENIAN EXCLAMATION MARK U+055C Po, other Armenian
՝ ARMENIAN COMMA U+055D Po, other Armenian
՞ ARMENIAN QUESTION MARK U+055E Po, other Armenian
՟ ARMENIAN ABBREVIATION MARK U+055F Po, other Armenian
։ ARMENIAN FULL STOP U+0589 Po, other Armenian
؉ ARABIC-INDIC PER MILLE SIGN U+0609 Po, other Arabic
؊ ARABIC-INDIC PER TEN THOUSAND SIGN U+060A Po, other Arabic
؍ ARABIC DATE SEPARATOR U+060D Po, other Arabic
؞ ARABIC TRIPLE DOT PUNCTUATION MARK U+061E Po, other Arabic
٪ ARABIC PERCENT SIGN U+066A Po, other Arabic
٫ ARABIC DECIMAL SEPARATOR U+066B Po, other Arabic
٬ ARABIC THOUSANDS SEPARATOR U+066C Po, other Arabic
٭ ARABIC FIVE POINTED STAR U+066D Po, other Arabic
۔ ARABIC FULL STOP U+06D4 Po, other Arabic
𑜼 AHOM SIGN SMALL SECTION U+1173C Po, other Ahom
𑜽 AHOM SIGN SECTION U+1173D Po, other Ahom
𑜾 AHOM SIGN RULAI U+1173E Po, other Ahom
𐬹 AVESTAN ABBREVIATION MARK U+10B39 Po, other Avestan
𐬺 TINY TWO DOTS OVER ONE DOT PUNCTUATION U+10B3A Po, other Avestan
𐬻 SMALL TWO DOTS OVER ONE DOT PUNCTUATION U+10B3B Po, other Avestan
𐬼 LARGE TWO DOTS OVER ONE DOT PUNCTUATION U+10B3C Po, other Avestan
𐬽 LARGE ONE DOT OVER TWO DOTS PUNCTUATION U+10B3D Po, other Avestan
𐬾 LARGE TWO RINGS OVER ONE RING PUNCTUATION U+10B3E Po, other Avestan
𐬿 LARGE ONE RING OVER TWO RINGS PUNCTUATION U+10B3F Po, other Avestan
BALINESE PANTI U+1B5A Po, other Balinese
BALINESE PAMADA U+1B5B Po, other Balinese
BALINESE WINDU U+1B5C Po, other Balinese
BALINESE CARIK PAMUNGKAH U+1B5D Po, other Balinese
BALINESE CARIK SIKI U+1B5E Po, other Balinese
BALINESE CARIK PAREREN U+1B5F Po, other Balinese
BALINESE PAMENENG U+1B60 Po, other Balinese
BAMUM NJAEMLI U+A6F2 Po, other Bamum
BAMUM FULL STOP U+A6F3 Po, other Bamum
BAMUM COLON U+A6F4 Po, other Bamum
BAMUM COMMA U+A6F5 Po, other Bamum
BAMUM SEMICOLON U+A6F6 Po, other Bamum
BAMUM QUESTION MARK U+A6F7 Po, other Bamum
𖫵 BASSA VAH FULL STOP U+16AF5 Po, other Bassa Vah
BATAK SYMBOL BINDU NA METEK U+1BFC Po, other Batak
BATAK SYMBOL BINDU PINARBORAS U+1BFD Po, other Batak
BATAK SYMBOL BINDU JUDUL U+1BFE Po, other Batak
᯿ BATAK SYMBOL BINDU PANGOLAT U+1BFF Po, other Batak
BENGALI ABBREVIATION SIGN U+09FD Po, other Bengali
𑱁 BHAIKSUKI DANDA U+11C41 Po, other Bhaiksuki
𑱂 BHAIKSUKI DOUBLE DANDA U+11C42 Po, other Bhaiksuki
𑱃 BHAIKSUKI WORD SEPARATOR U+11C43 Po, other Bhaiksuki
𑱄 BHAIKSUKI GAP FILLER-1 U+11C44 Po, other Bhaiksuki
𑱅 BHAIKSUKI GAP FILLER-2 U+11C45 Po, other Bhaiksuki
𑁇 BRAHMI DANDA U+11047 Po, other Brahmi
𑁈 BRAHMI DOUBLE DANDA U+11048 Po, other Brahmi
𑁉 BRAHMI PUNCTUATION DOT U+11049 Po, other Brahmi
𑁊 BRAHMI PUNCTUATION DOUBLE DOT U+1104A Po, other Brahmi
𑁋 BRAHMI PUNCTUATION LINE U+1104B Po, other Brahmi
𑁌 BRAHMI PUNCTUATION CRESCENT BAR U+1104C Po, other Brahmi
𑁍 BRAHMI PUNCTUATION LOTUS U+1104D Po, other Brahmi
BUGINESE PALLAWA U+1A1E Po, other Buginese
BUGINESE END OF SECTION U+1A1F Po, other Buginese
CANADIAN SYLLABICS FULL STOP U+166E Po, other Canadian Aboriginal
𑅀 CHAKMA SECTION MARK U+11140 Po, other Chakma
𑅁 CHAKMA DANDA U+11141 Po, other Chakma
𑅂 CHAKMA DOUBLE DANDA U+11142 Po, other Chakma
𑅃 CHAKMA QUESTION MARK U+11143 Po, other Chakma
CHAM PUNCTUATION SPIRAL U+AA5C Po, other Cham
CHAM PUNCTUATION DANDA U+AA5D Po, other Cham
CHAM PUNCTUATION DOUBLE DANDA U+AA5E Po, other Cham
CHAM PUNCTUATION TRIPLE DANDA U+AA5F Po, other Cham
COPTIC OLD NUBIAN FULL STOP U+2CF9 Po, other Coptic
COPTIC OLD NUBIAN DIRECT QUESTION MARK U+2CFA Po, other Coptic
COPTIC OLD NUBIAN INDIRECT QUESTION MARK U+2CFB Po, other Coptic
COPTIC OLD NUBIAN VERSE DIVIDER U+2CFC Po, other Coptic
COPTIC FULL STOP U+2CFE Po, other Coptic
⳿ COPTIC MORPHOLOGICAL DIVIDER U+2CFF Po, other Coptic
𒑰 CUNEIFORM PUNCTUATION SIGN OLD ASSYRIAN WORD DIVIDER U+12470 Po, other Cuneiform
𒑱 CUNEIFORM PUNCTUATION SIGN VERTICAL COLON U+12471 Po, other Cuneiform
𒑲 CUNEIFORM PUNCTUATION SIGN DIAGONAL COLON U+12472 Po, other Cuneiform
𒑳 CUNEIFORM PUNCTUATION SIGN DIAGONAL TRICOLON U+12473 Po, other Cuneiform
𒑴 CUNEIFORM PUNCTUATION SIGN DIAGONAL QUADCOLON U+12474 Po, other Cuneiform
SLAVONIC ASTERISK U+A673 Po, other Cyrillic
CYRILLIC KAVYKA U+A67E Po, other Cyrillic
𐕯 CAUCASIAN ALBANIAN CITATION MARK U+1056F Po, other Caucasian Albanian
DEVANAGARI ABBREVIATION SIGN U+0970 Po, other Devanagari
DEVANAGARI SIGN PUSHPIKA U+A8F8 Po, other Devanagari
DEVANAGARI GAP FILLER U+A8F9 Po, other Devanagari
DEVANAGARI CARET U+A8FA Po, other Devanagari
DEVANAGARI SIGN SIDDHAM U+A8FC Po, other Devanagari
𑥄 DIVES AKURU DOUBLE DANDA U+11944 Po, other Dives Akuru
𑥅 DIVES AKURU GAP FILLER U+11945 Po, other Dives Akuru
𑥆 DIVES AKURU END OF TEXT MARK U+11946 Po, other Dives Akuru
𑠻 DOGRA ABBREVIATION SIGN U+1183B Po, other Dogra
𛲟 DUPLOYAN PUNCTUATION CHINOOK FULL STOP U+1BC9F Po, other Duployan
ETHIOPIC SECTION MARK U+1360 Po, other Ethiopic
ETHIOPIC WORDSPACE U+1361 Po, other Ethiopic
ETHIOPIC FULL STOP U+1362 Po, other Ethiopic
ETHIOPIC COMMA U+1363 Po, other Ethiopic
ETHIOPIC SEMICOLON U+1364 Po, other Ethiopic
ETHIOPIC COLON U+1365 Po, other Ethiopic
ETHIOPIC PREFACE COLON U+1366 Po, other Ethiopic
ETHIOPIC QUESTION MARK U+1367 Po, other Ethiopic
ETHIOPIC PARAGRAPH SEPARATOR U+1368 Po, other Ethiopic
GURMUKHI ABBREVIATION SIGN U+0A76 Po, other Gurmukhi
GUJARATI ABBREVIATION SIGN U+0AF0 Po, other Gujarati
׀ HEBREW PUNCTUATION PASEQ U+05C0 Po, other Hebrew
׃ HEBREW PUNCTUATION SOF PASUQ U+05C3 Po, other Hebrew
׆ HEBREW PUNCTUATION NUN HAFUKHA U+05C6 Po, other Hebrew
׳ HEBREW PUNCTUATION GERESH U+05F3 Po, other Hebrew
״ HEBREW PUNCTUATION GERSHAYIM U+05F4 Po, other Hebrew
𐡗 IMPERIAL ARAMAIC SECTION SIGN U+10857 Po, other Imperial Aramaic
JAVANESE LEFT RERENGGAN U+A9C1 Po, other Javanese
JAVANESE RIGHT RERENGGAN U+A9C2 Po, other Javanese
JAVANESE PADA ANDAP U+A9C3 Po, other Javanese
JAVANESE PADA MADYA U+A9C4 Po, other Javanese
JAVANESE PADA LUHUR U+A9C5 Po, other Javanese
JAVANESE PADA WINDU U+A9C6 Po, other Javanese
JAVANESE PADA PANGKAT U+A9C7 Po, other Javanese
JAVANESE PADA LINGSA U+A9C8 Po, other Javanese
JAVANESE PADA LUNGSI U+A9C9 Po, other Javanese
JAVANESE PADA ADEG U+A9CA Po, other Javanese
JAVANESE PADA ADEG ADEG U+A9CB Po, other Javanese
JAVANESE PADA PISELEH U+A9CC Po, other Javanese
JAVANESE TURNED PADA PISELEH U+A9CD Po, other Javanese
JAVANESE PADA TIRTA TUMETES U+A9DE Po, other Javanese
JAVANESE PADA ISEN-ISEN U+A9DF Po, other Javanese
𑂻 KAITHI ABBREVIATION SIGN U+110BB Po, other Kaithi
𑂼 KAITHI ENUMERATION SIGN U+110BC Po, other Kaithi
𑂾 KAITHI SECTION MARK U+110BE Po, other Kaithi
𑂿 KAITHI DOUBLE SECTION MARK U+110BF Po, other Kaithi
𑃀 KAITHI DANDA U+110C0 Po, other Kaithi
𑃁 KAITHI DOUBLE DANDA U+110C1 Po, other Kaithi
KANNADA SIGN SIDDHAM U+0C84 Po, other Kannada
KAYAH LI SIGN SHYA U+A92F Po, other Kayah Li
𐩐 KHAROSHTHI PUNCTUATION DOT U+10A50 Po, other Kharoshthi
𐩑 KHAROSHTHI PUNCTUATION SMALL CIRCLE U+10A51 Po, other Kharoshthi
𐩒 KHAROSHTHI PUNCTUATION CIRCLE U+10A52 Po, other Kharoshthi
𐩓 KHAROSHTHI PUNCTUATION CRESCENT BAR U+10A53 Po, other Kharoshthi
𐩔 KHAROSHTHI PUNCTUATION MANGALAM U+10A54 Po, other Kharoshthi
𐩕 KHAROSHTHI PUNCTUATION LOTUS U+10A55 Po, other Kharoshthi
𐩖 KHAROSHTHI PUNCTUATION DANDA U+10A56 Po, other Kharoshthi
𐩗 KHAROSHTHI PUNCTUATION DOUBLE DANDA U+10A57 Po, other Kharoshthi
𐩘 KHAROSHTHI PUNCTUATION LINES U+10A58 Po, other Kharoshthi
KHMER SIGN KHAN U+17D4 Po, other Khmer
KHMER SIGN BARIYOOSAN U+17D5 Po, other Khmer
KHMER SIGN CAMNUC PII KUUH U+17D6 Po, other Khmer
KHMER SIGN BEYYAL U+17D8 Po, other Khmer
KHMER SIGN PHNAEK MUAN U+17D9 Po, other Khmer
KHMER SIGN KOOMUUT U+17DA Po, other Khmer
𑈸 KHOJKI DANDA U+11238 Po, other Khojki
𑈹 KHOJKI DOUBLE DANDA U+11239 Po, other Khojki
𑈺 KHOJKI WORD SEPARATOR U+1123A Po, other Khojki
𑈻 KHOJKI SECTION MARK U+1123B Po, other Khojki
𑈼 KHOJKI DOUBLE SECTION MARK U+1123C Po, other Khojki
𑈽 KHOJKI ABBREVIATION SIGN U+1123D Po, other Khojki
LEPCHA PUNCTUATION TA-ROL U+1C3B Po, other Lepcha
LEPCHA PUNCTUATION NYET THYOOM TA-ROL U+1C3C Po, other Lepcha
LEPCHA PUNCTUATION CER-WA U+1C3D Po, other Lepcha
LEPCHA PUNCTUATION TSHOOK CER-WA U+1C3E Po, other Lepcha
᰿ LEPCHA PUNCTUATION TSHOOK U+1C3F Po, other Lepcha
LIMBU EXCLAMATION MARK U+1944 Po, other Limbu
LIMBU QUESTION MARK U+1945 Po, other Limbu
LISU PUNCTUATION COMMA U+A4FE Po, other Lisu
LISU PUNCTUATION FULL STOP U+A4FF Po, other Lisu
𐤿 LYDIAN TRIANGULAR MARK U+1093F Po, other Lydian
𑅴 MAHAJANI ABBREVIATION SIGN U+11174 Po, other Mahajani
𑅵 MAHAJANI SECTION MARK U+11175 Po, other Mahajani
𑻷 MAKASAR PASSIMBANG U+11EF7 Po, other Makasar
𑻸 MAKASAR END OF SECTION U+11EF8 Po, other Makasar
𐫰 MANICHAEAN PUNCTUATION STAR U+10AF0 Po, other Manichaean
𐫱 MANICHAEAN PUNCTUATION FLEURON U+10AF1 Po, other Manichaean
𐫲 MANICHAEAN PUNCTUATION DOUBLE DOT WITHIN DOT U+10AF2 Po, other Manichaean
𐫳 MANICHAEAN PUNCTUATION DOT WITHIN DOT U+10AF3 Po, other Manichaean
𐫴 MANICHAEAN PUNCTUATION DOT U+10AF4 Po, other Manichaean
𐫵 MANICHAEAN PUNCTUATION TWO DOTS U+10AF5 Po, other Manichaean
𐫶 MANICHAEAN PUNCTUATION LINE FILLER U+10AF6 Po, other Manichaean
𑱰 MARCHEN HEAD MARK U+11C70 Po, other Marchen
𑱱 MARCHEN MARK SHAD U+11C71 Po, other Marchen
𖺗 MEDEFAIDRIN COMMA U+16E97 Po, other Medefaidrin
𖺘 MEDEFAIDRIN FULL STOP U+16E98 Po, other Medefaidrin
𖺙 MEDEFAIDRIN SYMBOL AIVA U+16E99 Po, other Medefaidrin
𖺚 MEDEFAIDRIN EXCLAMATION OH U+16E9A Po, other Medefaidrin
MEETEI MAYEK CHEIKHAN U+AAF0 Po, other Meetei Mayek
MEETEI MAYEK AHANG KHUDAM U+AAF1 Po, other Meetei Mayek
MEETEI MAYEK CHEIKHEI U+ABEB Po, other Meetei Mayek
𑙁 MODI DANDA U+11641 Po, other Modi
𑙂 MODI DOUBLE DANDA U+11642 Po, other Modi
𑙃 MODI ABBREVIATION SIGN U+11643 Po, other Modi
MONGOLIAN BIRGA U+1800 Po, other Mongolian
MONGOLIAN ELLIPSIS U+1801 Po, other Mongolian
MONGOLIAN COLON U+1804 Po, other Mongolian
MONGOLIAN SIBE SYLLABLE BOUNDARY MARKER U+1807 Po, other Mongolian
MONGOLIAN MANCHU COMMA U+1808 Po, other Mongolian
MONGOLIAN MANCHU FULL STOP U+1809 Po, other Mongolian
MONGOLIAN NIRUGU U+180A Po, other Mongolian
𑙠 MONGOLIAN BIRGA WITH ORNAMENT U+11660 Po, other Mongolian
𑙡 MONGOLIAN ROTATED BIRGA U+11661 Po, other Mongolian
𑙢 MONGOLIAN DOUBLE BIRGA WITH ORNAMENT U+11662 Po, other Mongolian
𑙣 MONGOLIAN TRIPLE BIRGA WITH ORNAMENT U+11663 Po, other Mongolian
𑙤 MONGOLIAN BIRGA WITH DOUBLE ORNAMENT U+11664 Po, other Mongolian
𑙥 MONGOLIAN ROTATED BIRGA WITH ORNAMENT U+11665 Po, other Mongolian
𑙦 MONGOLIAN ROTATED BIRGA WITH DOUBLE ORNAMENT U+11666 Po, other Mongolian
𑙧 MONGOLIAN INVERTED BIRGA U+11667 Po, other Mongolian
𑙨 MONGOLIAN INVERTED BIRGA WITH DOUBLE ORNAMENT U+11668 Po, other Mongolian
𑙩 MONGOLIAN SWIRL BIRGA U+11669 Po, other Mongolian
𑙪 MONGOLIAN SWIRL BIRGA WITH ORNAMENT U+1166A Po, other Mongolian
𑙫 MONGOLIAN SWIRL BIRGA WITH DOUBLE ORNAMENT U+1166B Po, other Mongolian
𑙬 MONGOLIAN TURNED SWIRL BIRGA WITH DOUBLE ORNAMENT U+1166C Po, other Mongolian
𖩮 MRO DANDA U+16A6E Po, other Mro
𖩯 MRO DOUBLE DANDA U+16A6F Po, other Mro
𑊩 MULTANI SECTION MARK U+112A9 Po, other Multani
MYANMAR SIGN LITTLE SECTION U+104A Po, other Myanmar
MYANMAR SIGN SECTION U+104B Po, other Myanmar
MYANMAR SYMBOL LOCATIVE U+104C Po, other Myanmar
MYANMAR SYMBOL COMPLETED U+104D Po, other Myanmar
MYANMAR SYMBOL AFOREMENTIONED U+104E Po, other Myanmar
MYANMAR SYMBOL GENITIVE U+104F Po, other Myanmar
߷ NKO SYMBOL GBAKURUNEN U+07F7 Po, other N'Ko
߸ NKO COMMA U+07F8 Po, other N'Ko
߹ NKO EXCLAMATION MARK U+07F9 Po, other N'Ko
𑧢 NANDINAGARI SIGN SIDDHAM U+119E2 Po, other Nandinagari
𑑋 NEWA DANDA U+1144B Po, other Newa
𑑌 NEWA DOUBLE DANDA U+1144C Po, other Newa
𑑍 NEWA COMMA U+1144D Po, other Newa
𑑎 NEWA GAP FILLER U+1144E Po, other Newa
𑑏 NEWA ABBREVIATION SIGN U+1144F Po, other Newa
𑑚 NEWA DOUBLE COMMA U+1145A Po, other Newa
𑑛 NEWA PLACEHOLDER MARK U+1145B Po, other Newa
𑑝 NEWA INSERTION SIGN U+1145D Po, other Newa
OL CHIKI PUNCTUATION MUCAAD U+1C7E Po, other Ol Chiki
᱿ OL CHIKI PUNCTUATION DOUBLE MUCAAD U+1C7F Po, other Ol Chiki
𐏐 OLD PERSIAN WORD DIVIDER U+103D0 Po, other Old Persian
𐩿 OLD SOUTH ARABIAN NUMERIC INDICATOR U+10A7F Po, other Old South Arabian
𖬷 PAHAWH HMONG SIGN VOS THOM U+16B37 Po, other Pahawh Hmong
𖬸 PAHAWH HMONG SIGN VOS TSHAB CEEB U+16B38 Po, other Pahawh Hmong
𖬹 PAHAWH HMONG SIGN CIM CHEEM U+16B39 Po, other Pahawh Hmong
𖬺 PAHAWH HMONG SIGN VOS THIAB U+16B3A Po, other Pahawh Hmong
𖬻 PAHAWH HMONG SIGN VOS FEEM U+16B3B Po, other Pahawh Hmong
𖭄 PAHAWH HMONG SIGN XAUS U+16B44 Po, other Pahawh Hmong
PHAGS-PA SINGLE HEAD MARK U+A874 Po, other Phags-pa
PHAGS-PA DOUBLE HEAD MARK U+A875 Po, other Phags-pa
PHAGS-PA MARK SHAD U+A876 Po, other Phags-pa
PHAGS-PA MARK DOUBLE SHAD U+A877 Po, other Phags-pa
𐤟 PHOENICIAN WORD SEPARATOR U+1091F Po, other Phoenician
𐮙 PSALTER PAHLAVI SECTION MARK U+10B99 Po, other Psalter Pahlavi
𐮚 PSALTER PAHLAVI TURNED SECTION MARK U+10B9A Po, other Psalter Pahlavi
𐮛 PSALTER PAHLAVI FOUR DOTS WITH CROSS U+10B9B Po, other Psalter Pahlavi
𐮜 PSALTER PAHLAVI FOUR DOTS WITH DOT U+10B9C Po, other Psalter Pahlavi
REJANG SECTION MARK U+A95F Po, other Rejang
SAMARITAN PUNCTUATION NEQUDAA U+0830 Po, other Samaritan
SAMARITAN PUNCTUATION AFSAAQ U+0831 Po, other Samaritan
SAMARITAN PUNCTUATION ANGED U+0832 Po, other Samaritan
SAMARITAN PUNCTUATION BAU U+0833 Po, other Samaritan
SAMARITAN PUNCTUATION ATMAAU U+0834 Po, other Samaritan
SAMARITAN PUNCTUATION SHIYYAALAA U+0835 Po, other Samaritan
SAMARITAN ABBREVIATION MARK U+0836 Po, other Samaritan
SAMARITAN PUNCTUATION MELODIC QITSA U+0837 Po, other Samaritan
SAMARITAN PUNCTUATION ZIQAA U+0838 Po, other Samaritan
SAMARITAN PUNCTUATION QITSA U+0839 Po, other Samaritan
SAMARITAN PUNCTUATION ZAEF U+083A Po, other Samaritan
SAMARITAN PUNCTUATION TURU U+083B Po, other Samaritan
SAMARITAN PUNCTUATION ARKAANU U+083C Po, other Samaritan
SAMARITAN PUNCTUATION SOF MASHFAAT U+083D Po, other Samaritan
SAMARITAN PUNCTUATION ANNAAU U+083E Po, other Samaritan
SAURASHTRA DANDA U+A8CE Po, other Saurashtra
SAURASHTRA DOUBLE DANDA U+A8CF Po, other Saurashtra
𑇅 SHARADA DANDA U+111C5 Po, other Sharada
𑇆 SHARADA DOUBLE DANDA U+111C6 Po, other Sharada
𑇇 SHARADA ABBREVIATION SIGN U+111C7 Po, other Sharada
𑇈 SHARADA SEPARATOR U+111C8 Po, other Sharada
𑇍 SHARADA SUTRA MARK U+111CD Po, other Sharada
𑇛 SHARADA SIGN SIDDHAM U+111DB Po, other Sharada
𑇝 SHARADA CONTINUATION SIGN U+111DD Po, other Sharada
𑇞 SHARADA SECTION MARK-1 U+111DE Po, other Sharada
𑇟 SHARADA SECTION MARK-2 U+111DF Po, other Sharada
𑗁 SIDDHAM SIGN SIDDHAM U+115C1 Po, other Siddham
𑗂 SIDDHAM DANDA U+115C2 Po, other Siddham
𑗃 SIDDHAM DOUBLE DANDA U+115C3 Po, other Siddham
𑗄 SIDDHAM SEPARATOR DOT U+115C4 Po, other Siddham
𑗅 SIDDHAM SEPARATOR BAR U+115C5 Po, other Siddham
𑗆 SIDDHAM REPETITION MARK-1 U+115C6 Po, other Siddham
𑗇 SIDDHAM REPETITION MARK-2 U+115C7 Po, other Siddham
𑗈 SIDDHAM REPETITION MARK-3 U+115C8 Po, other Siddham
𑗉 SIDDHAM END OF TEXT MARK U+115C9 Po, other Siddham
𑗊 SIDDHAM SECTION MARK WITH TRIDENT AND U-SHAPED ORNAMENTS U+115CA Po, other Siddham
𑗋 SIDDHAM SECTION MARK WITH TRIDENT AND DOTTED CRESCENTS U+115CB Po, other Siddham
𑗌 SIDDHAM SECTION MARK WITH RAYS AND DOTTED CRESCENTS U+115CC Po, other Siddham
𑗍 SIDDHAM SECTION MARK WITH RAYS AND DOTTED DOUBLE CRESCENTS U+115CD Po, other Siddham
𑗎 SIDDHAM SECTION MARK WITH RAYS AND DOTTED TRIPLE CRESCENTS U+115CE Po, other Siddham
𑗏 SIDDHAM SECTION MARK DOUBLE RING U+115CF Po, other Siddham
𑗐 SIDDHAM SECTION MARK DOUBLE RING WITH RAYS U+115D0 Po, other Siddham
𑗑 SIDDHAM SECTION MARK WITH DOUBLE CRESCENTS U+115D1 Po, other Siddham
𑗒 SIDDHAM SECTION MARK WITH TRIPLE CRESCENTS U+115D2 Po, other Siddham
𑗓 SIDDHAM SECTION MARK WITH QUADRUPLE CRESCENTS U+115D3 Po, other Siddham
𑗔 SIDDHAM SECTION MARK WITH SEPTUPLE CRESCENTS U+115D4 Po, other Siddham
𑗕 SIDDHAM SECTION MARK WITH CIRCLES AND RAYS U+115D5 Po, other Siddham
𑗖 SIDDHAM SECTION MARK WITH CIRCLES AND TWO ENCLOSURES U+115D6 Po, other Siddham
𑗗 SIDDHAM SECTION MARK WITH CIRCLES AND FOUR ENCLOSURES U+115D7 Po, other Siddham
𝪇 SIGNWRITING COMMA U+1DA87 Po, other SignWriting
𝪈 SIGNWRITING FULL STOP U+1DA88 Po, other SignWriting
𝪉 SIGNWRITING SEMICOLON U+1DA89 Po, other SignWriting
𝪊 SIGNWRITING COLON U+1DA8A Po, other SignWriting
𝪋 SIGNWRITING PARENTHESIS U+1DA8B Po, other SignWriting
SINHALA PUNCTUATION KUNDDALIYA U+0DF4 Po, other Sinhala
𐽕 SOGDIAN PUNCTUATION TWO VERTICAL BARS U+10F55 Po, other Sogdian
𐽖 SOGDIAN PUNCTUATION TWO VERTICAL BARS WITH DOTS U+10F56 Po, other Sogdian
𐽗 SOGDIAN PUNCTUATION CIRCLE WITH DOT U+10F57 Po, other Sogdian
𐽘 SOGDIAN PUNCTUATION TWO CIRCLES WITH DOTS U+10F58 Po, other Sogdian
𐽙 SOGDIAN PUNCTUATION HALF CIRCLE WITH DOT U+10F59 Po, other Sogdian
𑪚 SOYOMBO MARK TSHEG U+11A9A Po, other Soyombo
𑪛 SOYOMBO MARK SHAD U+11A9B Po, other Soyombo
𑪜 SOYOMBO MARK DOUBLE SHAD U+11A9C Po, other Soyombo
𑪞 SOYOMBO HEAD MARK WITH MOON AND SUN AND TRIPLE FLAME U+11A9E Po, other Soyombo
𑪟 SOYOMBO HEAD MARK WITH MOON AND SUN AND FLAME U+11A9F Po, other Soyombo
𑪠 SOYOMBO HEAD MARK WITH MOON AND SUN U+11AA0 Po, other Soyombo
𑪡 SOYOMBO TERMINAL MARK-1 U+11AA1 Po, other Soyombo
𑪢 SOYOMBO TERMINAL MARK-2 U+11AA2 Po, other Soyombo
SUNDANESE PUNCTUATION BINDU SURYA U+1CC0 Po, other Sundanese
SUNDANESE PUNCTUATION BINDU PANGLONG U+1CC1 Po, other Sundanese
SUNDANESE PUNCTUATION BINDU PURNAMA U+1CC2 Po, other Sundanese
SUNDANESE PUNCTUATION BINDU CAKRA U+1CC3 Po, other Sundanese
SUNDANESE PUNCTUATION BINDU LEU SATANGA U+1CC4 Po, other Sundanese
SUNDANESE PUNCTUATION BINDU KA SATANGA U+1CC5 Po, other Sundanese
SUNDANESE PUNCTUATION BINDU DA SATANGA U+1CC6 Po, other Sundanese
SUNDANESE PUNCTUATION BINDU BA SATANGA U+1CC7 Po, other Sundanese
܀ SYRIAC END OF PARAGRAPH U+0700 Po, other Syriac
܁ SYRIAC SUPRALINEAR FULL STOP U+0701 Po, other Syriac
܂ SYRIAC SUBLINEAR FULL STOP U+0702 Po, other Syriac
܃ SYRIAC SUPRALINEAR COLON U+0703 Po, other Syriac
܄ SYRIAC SUBLINEAR COLON U+0704 Po, other Syriac
܅ SYRIAC HORIZONTAL COLON U+0705 Po, other Syriac
܆ SYRIAC COLON SKEWED LEFT U+0706 Po, other Syriac
܇ SYRIAC COLON SKEWED RIGHT U+0707 Po, other Syriac
܈ SYRIAC SUPRALINEAR COLON SKEWED LEFT U+0708 Po, other Syriac
܉ SYRIAC SUBLINEAR COLON SKEWED RIGHT U+0709 Po, other Syriac
܊ SYRIAC CONTRACTION U+070A Po, other Syriac
܋ SYRIAC HARKLEAN OBELUS U+070B Po, other Syriac
܌ SYRIAC HARKLEAN METOBELUS U+070C Po, other Syriac
܍ SYRIAC HARKLEAN ASTERISCUS U+070D Po, other Syriac
TAI THAM SIGN WIANG U+1AA0 Po, other Tai Tham
TAI THAM SIGN WIANGWAAK U+1AA1 Po, other Tai Tham
TAI THAM SIGN SAWAN U+1AA2 Po, other Tai Tham
TAI THAM SIGN KEOW U+1AA3 Po, other Tai Tham
TAI THAM SIGN HOY U+1AA4 Po, other Tai Tham
TAI THAM SIGN DOKMAI U+1AA5 Po, other Tai Tham
TAI THAM SIGN REVERSED ROTATED RANA U+1AA6 Po, other Tai Tham
TAI THAM SIGN KAAN U+1AA8 Po, other Tai Tham
TAI THAM SIGN KAANKUU U+1AA9 Po, other Tai Tham
TAI THAM SIGN SATKAAN U+1AAA Po, other Tai Tham
TAI THAM SIGN SATKAANKUU U+1AAB Po, other Tai Tham
TAI THAM SIGN HANG U+1AAC Po, other Tai Tham
TAI THAM SIGN CAANG U+1AAD Po, other Tai Tham
TAI VIET SYMBOL HO HOI U+AADE Po, other Tai Viet
TAI VIET SYMBOL KOI KOI U+AADF Po, other Tai Viet
𑿿 TAMIL PUNCTUATION END OF TEXT U+11FFF Po, other Tamil
TELUGU SIGN SIDDHAM U+0C77 Po, other Telugu
THAI CHARACTER FONGMAN U+0E4F Po, other Thai
THAI CHARACTER ANGKHANKHU U+0E5A Po, other Thai
THAI CHARACTER KHOMUT U+0E5B Po, other Thai
TIBETAN MARK INITIAL YIG MGO MDUN MA U+0F04 Po, other Tibetan
TIBETAN MARK CLOSING YIG MGO SGAB MA U+0F05 Po, other Tibetan
TIBETAN MARK CARET YIG MGO PHUR SHAD MA U+0F06 Po, other Tibetan
TIBETAN MARK YIG MGO TSHEG SHAD MA U+0F07 Po, other Tibetan
TIBETAN MARK SBRUL SHAD U+0F08 Po, other Tibetan
TIBETAN MARK BSKUR YIG MGO U+0F09 Po, other Tibetan
TIBETAN MARK BKA- SHOG YIG MGO U+0F0A Po, other Tibetan
TIBETAN MARK INTERSYLLABIC TSHEG U+0F0B Po, other Tibetan
TIBETAN MARK DELIMITER TSHEG BSTAR U+0F0C Po, other Tibetan
TIBETAN MARK SHAD U+0F0D Po, other Tibetan
TIBETAN MARK NYIS SHAD U+0F0E Po, other Tibetan
TIBETAN MARK TSHEG SHAD U+0F0F Po, other Tibetan
TIBETAN MARK NYIS TSHEG SHAD U+0F10 Po, other Tibetan
TIBETAN MARK RIN CHEN SPUNGS SHAD U+0F11 Po, other Tibetan
TIBETAN MARK RGYA GRAM SHAD U+0F12 Po, other Tibetan
TIBETAN MARK GTER TSHEG U+0F14 Po, other Tibetan
TIBETAN MARK PALUTA U+0F85 Po, other Tibetan
TIBETAN MARK BSKA- SHOG GI MGO RGYAN U+0FD0 Po, other Tibetan
TIBETAN MARK MNYAM YIG GI MGO RGYAN U+0FD1 Po, other Tibetan
TIBETAN MARK NYIS TSHEG U+0FD2 Po, other Tibetan
TIBETAN MARK INITIAL BRDA RNYING YIG MGO MDUN MA U+0FD3 Po, other Tibetan
TIBETAN MARK CLOSING BRDA RNYING YIG MGO SGAB MA U+0FD4 Po, other Tibetan
TIBETAN MARK LEADING MCHAN RTAGS U+0FD9 Po, other Tibetan
TIBETAN MARK TRAILING MCHAN RTAGS U+0FDA Po, other Tibetan
TIFINAGH SEPARATOR MARK U+2D70 Po, other Tifinagh
𑓆 TIRHUTA ABBREVIATION SIGN U+114C6 Po, other Tirhuta
𐎟 UGARITIC WORD DIVIDER U+1039F Po, other Ugaritic
VAI COMMA U+A60D Po, other Vai
VAI FULL STOP U+A60E Po, other Vai
VAI QUESTION MARK U+A60F Po, other Vai
𑨿 ZANABAZAR SQUARE INITIAL HEAD MARK U+11A3F Po, other Zanabazar Square
𑩀 ZANABAZAR SQUARE CLOSING HEAD MARK U+11A40 Po, other Zanabazar Square
𑩁 ZANABAZAR SQUARE MARK TSHEG U+11A41 Po, other Zanabazar Square
𑩂 ZANABAZAR SQUARE MARK SHAD U+11A42 Po, other Zanabazar Square
𑩃 ZANABAZAR SQUARE MARK DOUBLE SHAD U+11A43 Po, other Zanabazar Square
𑩄 ZANABAZAR SQUARE MARK LONG TSHEG U+11A44 Po, other Zanabazar Square
𑩅 ZANABAZAR SQUARE INITIAL DOUBLE-LINED HEAD MARK U+11A45 Po, other Zanabazar Square
𑩆 ZANABAZAR SQUARE CLOSING DOUBLE-LINED HEAD MARK U+11A46 Po, other Zanabazar Square
MANDAIC PUNCTUATION U+085E Po, other Mandaic

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica: "Punctuation.
  2. ^ Oxford English Dictionary, definition 2a.
  3. ^ Truss, Lynne (2003). Eats, Shoots & Leaves: The Zero Tolerance Approach to Punctuation. Profile Books. ISBN 1-86197-612-7.
  4. ^ 林清源,《簡牘帛書標題格式研究》台北: 藝文印書館,2006。(Lin Qingyuan, Study of Title Formatting in Bamboo and Silk Texts Taipei: Yiwen Publishing, 2006.) ISBN 957-520-111-6.
  5. ^ The History of the Song Dynasty (1346) states 「凡所讀書,無不加標點。」 (Among those who read texts, there are none who do not add punctuation).
  6. ^ Byrne, Eugene. "Q&A: When were punctuation marks first used?". History Extra. BBC. Retrieved 14 February 2017.
  7. ^ E. Otha Wingo, Latin Punctuation in the Classical Age (The Hague, Netherlands: De Gruyter, 1972), 22.
  8. ^ The Latin names for the marks: subdistinctio, media distinctio, and distinctio.
  9. ^ Truss, Lynn (2004). Eats, Shoots & Leaves. New York: Gotham Books. p. 71. ISBN 1-59240-087-6.
  10. ^ Parkes, M. B. (1991). "The Contribution of Insular Scribes of the Seventh and Eighth Centuries to the 'Grammar of Legibility'". Scribes, Scripts and Readers: Studies in the Communication, Presentation and Dissemination of Medieval Texts. London: Hambledon Press. pp. 1–18.
  11. ^ "Paleography: How to Read Medieval Handwriting". Harvard University. Archived from the original on 8 December 2015. Retrieved 13 November 2017.
  12. ^ Raymond Clemens & Timothy Graham, Introduction to Manuscript Studies (Ithaca–London: Cornell UP, 2007), 84–6.
  13. ^ Truss, Lynne (2004). Eats, Shoots & Leaves: The Zero Tolerance Approach to Punctuation. New York: Gotham Books. p. 77. ISBN 1-59240-087-6.
  14. ^ Truss, Lynn (2004). Eats, Shoots & Leaves: The Zero Tolerance Approach to Punctuation. New York: Gotham Books. pp. 77–78. ISBN 1-59240-087-6.
  15. ^ Truss, Lynn (2004). Eats, Shoots & Leaves: The Zero Tolerance Approach to Punctuation. New York: Gotham Books. p. 112. ISBN 1-59240-087-6.
  16. ^ Truss, Lynn (2004). Eats, Shoots & Leaves: The Zero Tolerance Approach to Punctuation. New York: Gotham Books. pp. 112–113. ISBN 1-59240-087-6.
  17. ^ Iona and Peter Opie (1943) I Saw Esau.
  18. ^ MacKellar, Thomas (1885). The American Printer: A Manual of Typography, Containing Practical Directions for Managing all Departments of a Printing Office, As Well as Complete Instructions for Apprentices: With Several Useful Tables, Numerous Schemes for Imposing Forms in Every Variety, Hints to Authors, Etc (Fifteenth – Revised and Enlarged ed.). Philadelphia: MacKellar, Smiths & Jordan. p. 63.
  19. ^ See e.g. Morse code
  20. ^ Chelsea, Lee. "Punctuating Around Quotation Marks". APA Style. American Psychological Association. Retrieved 16 February 2017.
  21. ^ Bryan, Chloe. "Why people leave a space before punctuation in texts". Mashable. Retrieved 10 June 2022.
  22. ^ Tetteroo, Jeroen. "Designer's Style Guide to French Translation for Canada". LanguageSolutions. Retrieved 10 June 2022.
  23. ^ Put, Olga. "What Is the Upside-Down Question Mark in Spanish?". Spanish Academy. Retrieved 10 June 2022.
  24. ^ "Punctuation in Different Languages". TranslateMedia. Retrieved 10 June 2022.
  25. ^ Prasoon, Shrikant (2015). English Grammar and Usage. New Delhi: V & S Publishers. pp. Chapter 6. ISBN 978-93-505742-6-3.
  26. ^ Haley, Allan (June 2001). "The Interrobang Is Back". fonthaus.com. Archived from the original on 7 May 2008. Retrieved 3 December 2010.
  27. ^ Bazin, Hervé (1966), Plumons l'oiseau, Paris (France): Éditions Bernard Grasset, p. 142
  28. ^ Revised preliminary proposal to encode six punctuation characters introduced by Hervé Bazin in the UCS by Mykyta Yevstifeyev and Karl Pentzlin, 28 Feb. 2012
  29. ^ "European Patent Office publication".
  30. ^ Australian Official Journal of Patents, 27 January 1994
  31. ^ CIPO – Patent – 2102803 – Financial Transactions Archived 2 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine

Further readingEdit

External linksEdit

  • Larry Trask: Guide to Punctuation A helpful online resource
  • History of Punctuation, in French Helpful photographs of early punctuation
  • Punctuation Marks in English: Clarity in Expression
  • Unicode reference tables:
    • Unicode collation charts—including punctuation marks, sorted by shape
    • "General punctuation U2000" (PDF).
    • "CJK Symbols and Punctuation U3000" (PDF).
    • "CJK Compatibility Forms UFE30" (PDF).
    • "Small Form Variants UFE50" (PDF).
    • "Halfwidth and Fullwidth Forms UFF00" (PDF).
  • Ethiopic script
  • Automatic Recovery of Capitalization and Punctuation of Automatic Speech Transcripts
  • English Punctuation Rules
  • Punctuation marks with independent clauses, by Jennifer Frost

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