RAF Wattisham

Summary

Royal Air Force Station Wattisham or more simply RAF Wattisham (ICAO: EGUW) is a former Royal Air Force station located in East Anglia just outside the village of Wattisham, south of Stowmarket in Suffolk, England. During the Cold War it was a major front-line air force base, operating Quick Reaction Alert (South), before closing in 1993 and is now operated by the British Army as Wattisham Airfield.

RAF Wattisham
Ensign of the Royal Air Force.svg Twelfth Air Force - Emblem.png Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png
Wattisham, Suffolk in England
A McDonnell Douglas F-4J(UK) Phantom of No. 74 Squadron which was based at RAF Wattisham.
A McDonnell Douglas F-4J(UK) Phantom of No. 74(Fighter) Squadron which was based at RAF Wattisham.
Station badge
Supra mare supra terramque
(Latin for 'Above the sea and above the land')
RAF Wattisham is located in Suffolk
RAF Wattisham
RAF Wattisham
Location in Suffolk
Coordinates52°07′41″N 0°57′22″E / 52.128°N 0.956°E / 52.128; 0.956
TypeRoyal Air Force flying station
Area409 hectares
Site information
OperatorMinistry of Defence
Controlled byRoyal Air Force (1939–1942 and 1946–1993)
United States Army Air Forces (1942–1946)
ConditionClosed
Site history
Built1938 (1938)
Built byJohn Laing & Son Ltd
In use1939–1993 (1993)
FateTransferred to the British Army's Army Air Corps and became Wattisham Airfield.
Airfield information
IdentifiersICAO: EGUW, WMO: 03590
Elevation89 metres (292 ft) AMSL
Runways
Direction Length and surface
05/23 2,424 metres (7,953 ft) Asphalt

HistoryEdit

Royal Air Force useEdit

RAF Wattisham opened on 5 April 1939 as a medium bomber station, the squadrons there being equipped with Bristol Blenheim bombers.[1] Part of No. 2 Group, No. 107 Squadron and No. 110 Squadron were stationed there on the outbreak of war as No. 83 Wing.[2] On 4 September 1939, just 29 hours after the declaration of war, bombers from Wattisham took off on the first attack of the war, against enemy shipping in Wilhelmshaven harbour.[1]

In September 1942, the base was handed over to the United States Army Air Forces.[1]

United States Army Air Forces useEdit

 
27 May 1944 Aerial photograph of RAF Wattisham the control tower and airfield code are in front of the four C-Type hangars on the right.
 
Aerial photograph of the USAAF 4th Strategic Air Depot at RAF Wattisham looking north, 3 April 1946

Wattisham was assigned USAAF designation Station 377 and Station 470, and work began on building concrete runways with the intention of adapting the airfield for heavy bomber use. However, plans were apparently changed when it was evident that there would be sufficient heavy bomber airfields available for the USAAF, and it was decided that Wattisham would remain an air depot and also house a fighter unit.[3]

Work ceased on the runways leaving only the E-W with a concrete surface and short stretches of the other two. The main SW-NE runway was finished off with steel matting while the remaining NW-SE runway continued to be grass-surfaced for most of its length.[3]

68th Observation GroupEdit

Between October and December 1942 the 68th Observation Group operated the Bell P-39D Airacobra from Wattisham.[4]

4th Strategic Air DepotEdit

The 4th Strategic Air Depot (originally the 3rd Advanced Air Depot and then 3rd Technical Air Depot) serviced many types of aircraft but, by late 1943, was concentrating on fighter types. An additional technical area with four T2 hangars, some eighteen hardstands and a taxiway loop joining the airfield perimeter track, were constructed on the south side of the airfield. An engineering complex in temporary buildings was built around this area, chiefly in the village of Nedging Tye.[3]

The 4th Strategic Air Depot installation was officially named Hitcham, which was actually the name of a village two miles to the north-west of the site, to differentiate it from the fighter station using the same airstrip.[3] The base was, by 1944, responsible for the maintenance of all American fighters in the UK.[citation needed]

479th Fighter GroupEdit

Along with the depot maintenance mission, Wattisham also hosted an Eighth Air Force fighter group, the 479th Fighter Group, arriving from Santa Maria AAF, California, on 15 May 1944.[5] The group was part of the 65th Fighter Wing of the VIII Fighter Command.[6] Aircraft of the group had no cowling color markings as did other Eighth Air Force fighter groups and were marked only with colored tail rudders. The initial inventory of the P-38's, many of which were hand-me-downs from other groups painted in olive drab camouflage, used geometric symbols on the tail to identify squadrons, white for camouflaged aircraft and black for unpainted (natural metal finish) Lightnings.[citation needed]

The group consisted of the following squadrons:

The 479th FG escorted heavy bombers during operations against targets on the continent, strafed targets of opportunity, and flew fighter-bomber, area and counter-air patrol missions. Engaged primarily in escort activities and fighter sweeps until the Normandy invasion in June 1944.[5]

 
North American P-51B-5 Mustang 42-7040 from the 434th Fighter Squadron in June 1945. This P-51B was previously assigned to the 361st FG at RAF Bottisham and was a replacement for low-hour P-51s reassigned from the group.

The group patrolled the beachhead during the invasion, strafed and dive-bombed troops, bridges, locomotives, railway cars, barges, vehicles, airfields, gun emplacements, flak towers, ammunition dumps, power stations and radar sites while on escort or fighter-bomber missions as the Allies drove across France during the summer and fall of 1944. The unit flew area patrols to support the breakthrough at Saint-Lô in July and the airborne attack on the Netherlands in September.[5]

The 479th Fighter Group received a Distinguished Unit Citation (DUC) for the destruction of numerous aircraft on airfields in France on 18 August and 5 September and during aerial battle near Münster on 26 September. The unit continued escort and fighter-bomber activities from October to mid-December 1944. It converted to P-51s between 10 September and 1 October, using both types on missions until conversion was completed.[5]

The group participated in the Battle of the Bulge (December 1944-January 1945) by escorting bombers to and from targets in the battle area and by strafing transportation targets while on escort duty. From February to April 1945 it continued to fly escort missions, but also provided area patrols to support the airborne attack across the Rhine in March.[5]

The unit returned to Camp Kilmer, New Jersey, in November 1945,[8] and was inactivated in December 1945.[5] Among the notable pilots of the 479th were its second group commander, Col. Hubert Zemke,[8] and an ace, Major Robin Olds.[citation needed]

Legacy The United States Air Force 479th Tactical Fighter Wing at George AFB, California, (1952–1971) was bestowed the lineage, honors and history of the World War II USAAF 479th Fighter Group. The 479th TFW deployed personnel and aircraft to Key West NAS, Florida, in response to the 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis and deployed squadrons frequently to Southeast Asia during the Vietnam War. Later, the 479th Tactical Training Wing at Holloman AFB, New Mexico, (1977–1991) provided pilot training.[citation needed]

The 479th Fighter Group at Moody AFB, Georgia, (2000–2007) and since 2009 at NAS Pensacola, Florida, currently as the 479th Flying Training Group.[citation needed]

Back to Royal Air Force controlEdit

1946–1975Edit

In 1946, the base was returned to the Royal Air Force. No. 266 Squadron, with the Gloster Meteor F.3, was stationed there from 4 November to 5 December 1946 and from 4 January to 16 April 1947.[9]

The Air Ministry Servicing Development Unit formed here on 1 January 1947 with a number of aircraft including the Avro York I, Hawker Tempest V, Gloster Meteor F.4 & T.7, Avro Anson T.20 and the de Havilland Vampire F.3.[10] The squadron disbanded on 1 June 1950 at RAF Wittering.[11] In the mid 1950s, the Black Arrows display team 111 squadron operated out of Wattisham, flying Hawker Hunters.

 
English Electric Lightning F.1A of the Wattisham Target Facilities Flight in 1971.

In 1949, new runways were laid,[citation needed] and the following year No. 152 Squadron arrived with Meteor NF.12 night fighters,[12] In 1954, Hawker Hunters, from No. 257 and 263 Squadrons, the UK's next generation fighter after the Meteor, arrived to secure Wattisham's future as a major fighter station.[13][14] The Station Commander, Group Captain Edwards, had artificial legs, like Douglas Bader before him. The Wing Commander was one of the four Sowerey brothers, all of which held senior RAF posts.[citation needed] The Officer Commanding No. 257 Squadron was Major Howard E Tanner, a USAF exchange pilot.

There was also a Station Flight which received and serviced visiting aircraft and also had its own aircraft for various purposes. These included a de Havilland Vampire, a de Havilland Dragon Rapide and a Hunter used by the Station Flight commander.[citation needed]

The Black Arrows aerobatic display team flying the Hunter moved to Wattisham from RAF North Weald with air displays becoming a regular feature from 1959.[4]

In the late 1950s, the Cold War began to develop and so the RAF began to develop Britain's air defence. So, in 1960, the station was equipped with the very latest in British fighter aircraft: the English Electric Lightning. The combination of the capabilities of this plane and Wattisham's location near the East Anglian coast was very suitable for countering the threats faced from the east. The airfield quickly became one of, if not the front-line airbase in the UK. So throughout the Cold War Wattisham operated its 'QRA' or Quick Reaction Alert Sheds where live armed jets were on standby at all times and it was also a major 'Blacktop' diversion runway.[citation needed]

1976–1992Edit

On 25 February 1976, 13 McDonnell Douglas Phantom FGR.2s of No. 23(Fighter) Squadron arrived to replace the Lightnings.[15] No. 56(F) Squadron followed on 9 July, arriving with their Phantoms from RAF Coningsby.[16] From Wattisham, the Phantoms continued the role of playing a major part in defending Britain's airspace which largely involved intercepting the Soviet Tupolev Tu-95 Bear aircraft, as part of Quick Reaction Alert (South). Between 4 November and early December 1976, No. 23(F) Squadron deployed to RAF Luqa, Malta, for an Armament Practice Camp (APC).[17] No. 56(F) Squadron deployed for an APC at RAF Luqa between 13 October and November 1977.[17]

 
No. 56 (Fighter) Squadron McDonnell Douglas Phantom FGR.2 XT903 at RAF Wattisham, 1992.

On 1 June 1979, Wattisham-based Phantom FGR.2 XV424 from No. 56(F) Squadron was used to re-enact the transatlantic flight of Alcock and Brown, crewed by pilot Squadron Leader A. J. N. "Tony" Alcock and navigator Flight Lieutenant W. N. "Norman" Browne.[18]

Following the Falklands War, it was decided to base Phantoms on the Falklands Islands.[19] In March 1983, No. 23(F) Squadron relocated from RAF Wattisham to Port Stanley Airport, leaving the Firebirds as the sole based squadron.[20] On 19 October 1984, No. 74(F) Squadron stood-up at RAF Wattisham equipped with the unique McDonnell Douglas F-4J(UK) Phantom.[21] Delivered in three batches, the squadron was brought up to full strength of 15 jets on 5 January 1985.[22]

In 1990, the Options for Change defence review laid out the plan to withdraw the Phantoms from RAF service.[23] In January 1991, the Phantom F-4J(UK) was withdrawn from use, with the Tigers converting over to the Phantom FGR.2.[21] The disbandment of No. 228 OCU on 31 January 1991 at RAF Leuchars, saw the reformation of the Phantom Training Flight as part of No. 74(F) Squadron, operating until 31 December 1991.[24]

No. 56(F) Squadron disbanded on 31 July 1992, reforming as the Panavia Tornado F.3 OCU at RAF Coningsby.[25] No. 74(F) Squadron continued to operate at RAF Wattisham until disbanding on 1 October 1992.[26]

ClosureEdit

RAF Wattisham's future hung in the balance as a major air force base and it was decided that with the Cold War threat gone it was no longer needed by the RAF. Wattisham stood down as a fighter base on 31 October 1992. The station was transferred to the control of the British Army in September 1993.[27] The Army Air Corps soon moved in and it rapidly became a major Army airfield. The Royal Air Force returned to operate Westland Sea King Search and Rescue helicopters on the site of the former QRA hangars.

Former RAF unitsEdit

Squadron Present Aircraft Notes
No. XIII Squadron July 1941 – 1 August 1942 Bristol Blenheim Mk.IV Detachment from RAF Odiham[28]
No. XVII Squadron 9 September 1939 – 16 December 1939 Hawker Hurricane Mk.I Detachment from RAF Debden[29]
No. 18 Squadron 9 December 1941 – 24 August 1942 Bristol Blenheim Mk.IV Relocated to RAF West Raynham[30]
No. 23(Fighter) Squadron 25 February 1976 – 30 March 1983 McDonnell Douglas Phantom FGR.2 Relocated to Port Stanley, Falkland Islands [31]
No. XXV Squadron 1 March 1983 – 1 October 1989 Bristol Bloodhound 'C' Flight Detachment from RAF Wyton, disbanded [32]
No. 29(F) Squadron 10 May 1967 – 31 December 1974 English Electric Lightning F.3 Disbanded [33]
No. 34 Squadron 11 February 1949 – 20 July 1949 Supermarine Spitfire LF.16e / Miles Martinet TT.1 / North American Harvard T.2B / Airspeed Oxford T.2 / Bristol Beaufighter TT.10 Detachment from RAF Horsham St. Faith[34]
No. 41(F) Squadron 5 July 1958 – 31 December 1963 Gloster Javelin FAW.4/FAW.5/FAW.8 Disbanded [35]
No. 56(F) Squadron 10 July 1958 – 11 May 1967 Hawker Hunter F.5/F.6 (1958–1961) English Electric Lightning F.1A/F.3 (1960–1967) Relocated to RAF Akrotiri, Cyprus
No. 56(F) Squadron 21 January 1975 – 29 June 1976 English Electric Lightning F.3/F.6 Briefly relocated to RAF Coningsby to convert to the Phantom FGR.2
No. 56(F) Squadron 9 July 1976 – 31 July 1992 McDonnell Douglas Phantom FGR.2 Transferred to RAF Coningsby to form the Tornado F.3 Operational Conversion Unit [16]
No. 74(F) Squadron 19 October 1984 – 1 October 1992 McDonnell Douglas Phantom F-4J(UK) (1984–1991) Phantom FGR.2 (1991–1992) Disbanded (Included a Phantom Training Flight between 1 February 1991 and 31 December 1991) [24]
No. 85 Squadron 1 October 1989 – 1 July 1991 Bristol Bloodhound 'E' Flight Detachment from RAF West Raynham, disbanded [34]
No. 86 Squadron 3 March 1941 – 15 May 1941 Bristol Blenheim Mk.IV Relocated to RAF North Coates[36]
No. 107 Squadron 11 May 1939 – 3 March 1941 Bristol Blenheim Mk.I/Mk.IV Relocated to RAF Leuchars[37]
No. 110 (Hyderabad) Squadron 11 May 1939 – 17 March 1942 Bristol Blenheim Mk.IV Relocated to RAF Drigh Road[38]
No. 111(F) Squadron 18 June 1958 – 30 September 1974 Hawker Hunter F.5/F.6 (1958–1961) English Electric Lightning F.1A/F.3 (1960–1974) Disbanded [39]
No. 114 (Hong Kong) Squadron 31 May 1940 – 10 June 1940 Bristol Blenheim Mk.IV Relocated to RAF Horsham St. Faith [40]
No. 152 Squadron 30 June 1954 – 18 June 1956 Gloster Meteor NF.12/NF.14 Relocated to RAF Stradishall[12]
No. 226 Squadron 27 May 1941 – 9 December 1941 Fairey Battle (May 1941) Bristol Blenheim Mk.IV (May–November 1941) Douglas Boston Mk.III (November–December 1941) Relocated to RAF Swanton Morley[41]
No. 236 Squadron 9 February 1942 – 3 July 1942 Bristol Beaufighter Mk.Ic Relocated to RAF Oulton[42]
No. 257 Squadron 27 October 1950 – 10 June 1956 Gloster Meteor F.8 Relocated to RAF Wymeswold
No. 257 Squadron 15 January 1957 – 31 March 1957 Hawker Hunter F.2 Disbanded [13]
No. 263 Squadron 22 November 1950 – 10 June 1956 Gloster Meteor F.8 (1950–1955) Hawker Hunter F.2/F.5 (1955–1956) Relocated to RAF Wymeswold
No. 263 Squadron 15 January 1957 – 31 March 1957 Hawker Hunter F.6 Relocated to RAF Stradishall [14]
No. 266 Squadron 4 November 1946 – 5 December 1946 Gloster Meteor F.3 Relocated to RAF Boxted
No. 266 Squadron 4 January 1947 – 16 April 1947 Gloster Meteor F.3 Relocated to RAF Tangmere[9]
No. 504 Squadron 9 October 1939 – 24 December 1939 Hawker Hurricane Mk.I Detachment from RAF Debden [43]
No. 695 Squadron 7 May 1947 – 11 February 1949 Supermarine Spitfire LF.16e / Miles Martinet TT.1 / North American Harvard T.2B / Airspeed Oxford T.2 / Bristol Beaufighter TT.10 Detachment from RAF Horsham St. Faith, disbanded [34]
No. 8 Blind Approach Training Flight 18 January 1941 – 15 February 1941 Bristol Blenheim Mk.I Relocated to RAF Horsham St. Faith [44]
No. 17 Blind Approach Training Flight October 1941 Airspeed Oxford Mk.I Relocated to RAF Ipswich [45]
No. 1517 Beam Approach Training Flight October 1941 – 4 November 1941 [46]
No. 1517 Beam Approach Training Flight 19 May 1942 – 14 November 1942 [46]
Fighter Command School of Technical Training July 1947 – September 1949 [46]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  This article incorporates public domain material from the Air Force Historical Research Agency website http://www.afhra.af.mil/.

CitationsEdit

  1. ^ a b c Bowyer 1979, p. 205.
  2. ^ "Bomber Command - No. 2 Group". Royal Air Force. Archived from the original on 21 January 2013. Retrieved 14 February 2013.
  3. ^ a b c d Freeman 2001, p. 230.
  4. ^ a b Bowyer 1979, p. 206.
  5. ^ a b c d e f Maurer 1980, p. 351.
  6. ^ Maurer 1980, p. 403.
  7. ^ a b c Mighty Eighth. Stamford, Lincolnshire, England: Key Publishing Ltd. 2013. p. 90.
  8. ^ a b Maurer 1980, p. 352.
  9. ^ a b Jefford 2001, p. 81.
  10. ^ Lake 1999, p. 18.
  11. ^ Lake 1999, p. 19.
  12. ^ a b Jefford 2001, p. 63.
  13. ^ a b Jefford 2001, p. 79.
  14. ^ a b Jefford 2001, p. 80.
  15. ^ Eade, David. "The Wattisham Chronicles – Part five: Phantastic Phantom's arrival". Wattisham Aviation Society. Retrieved 24 February 2021.
  16. ^ a b Jefford 2001, p. 43.
  17. ^ a b "Armament Practice Camps – McD F-4 Phantom FG.1/FGR.2". Aviation in Malta. Retrieved 26 February 2021.
  18. ^ "McDONNELL DOUGLAS PHANTOM FGR2 XV424" (PDF). RAF Museum. Retrieved 26 February 2021.
  19. ^ "No. 23 Squadron". Air of Authority – A History of RAF Organisation. Retrieved 26 February 2021.
  20. ^ "23 Squadron". Royal Air Force. Archived from the original on 1 December 2017. Retrieved 26 February 2021.
  21. ^ a b "No. 74 (Trinidad) Squadron". Air of Authority – A History of RAF Organisation. Retrieved 26 February 2021.
  22. ^ Cossey, Bob. "The History of 74 (Fighter) Squadron". 74 Squadron Association. Retrieved 26 February 2021.
  23. ^ Tom King, Secretary of State for Defence (25 July 1990). "Defence (Options for Change)". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard). United Kingdom: House of Commons. col. 468–486.
  24. ^ a b Lake 1999, p. 215.
  25. ^ "No.56 Squadron". www.nationalcoldwarexhibition.org. Royal Air Force Museum. Retrieved 26 February 2021.
  26. ^ "74 Squadron". Royal Air Force. Archived from the original on 1 August 2017. Retrieved 24 February 2021.
  27. ^ March, Peter R. (1998). Brace by Wire to Fly-By-Wire – 80 Years of the Royal Air Force 1918–1998. RAF Fairford: Royal Air Force Benevolent Fund Enterprises. p. 160. ISBN 1-899808-06-X.
  28. ^ Jefford 2001, p. 28.
  29. ^ Jefford 2001, p. 29.
  30. ^ Jefford 2001, p. 30.
  31. ^ Jefford 2001, p. 32.
  32. ^ Jefford 2001, p. 33.
  33. ^ Jefford 2001, p. 34.
  34. ^ a b c "RAF Wattisham". Air of Authority - A History of RAF Organisation. Retrieved 24 February 2021.
  35. ^ Jefford 2001, p. 39.
  36. ^ Jefford 2001, p. 51.
  37. ^ "No. 107 Squadron (RAF): Second World War". History of War. Retrieved 24 February 2021.
  38. ^ "No. 110 Squadron (RAF): Second World War". History of War. Retrieved 24 February 2021.
  39. ^ Jefford 2001, p. 56.
  40. ^ Jefford 2001, p. 57.
  41. ^ Jefford 2001, p. 73.
  42. ^ Jefford 2001, p. 75.
  43. ^ Jefford 2001, p. 95.
  44. ^ Lake 1999, p. 37.
  45. ^ Lake 1999, p. 38.
  46. ^ a b c "Wattisham". Airfields of Britain Conservation Trust. Retrieved 14 February 2013.

BibliographyEdit

  • Bowyer,M,J,F. Action Stations: Wartime military airfields of East Anglia 1939-1945 v. 1. Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, Patrick Stephens Ltd, 1979. ISBN 0-85059-335-2.
  • Freeman, R. Airfields of the Eighth - Then and Now. After the Battle. London, UK: Battle of Britain International Ltd., 2001. ISBN 0-9009-13-09-6.
  • Freeman, Roger A., The Mighty Eighth, The Colour Record, 1991
  • Jefford, C.G. RAF Squadrons, a Comprehensive Record of the Movement and Equipment of all RAF Squadrons and their Antecedents since 1912. Shrewsbury, Shropshire, UK: Airlife Publishing, 2001. ISBN 1-84037-141-2.
  • Lake, A. "Flying Units of the RAF".Shrewsbury, Shropshire, UK: Airlife Publishing, 1999. ISBN 1-84037-086-6.
  • Maurer, M. Air Force Combat Units of World War II. USAF Historical Division. Washington D.C., USA: Zenger Publishing Co., Inc, 1980. ISBN 0-89201-092-4.
  • 479th Fighter Group on www.littlefriends.co.uk
  • www.controltowers.co.uk Wattisham
  • USAAS-USAAC-USAAF-USAF Aircraft Serial Numbers--1908 to present

External linksEdit

  • Wattisham Station Heritage Museum
  • History of Wattisham Airbase
  • History of Wattisham
  • Another history
  • 29 Squadron Lightnings 1967-69