Radio frequency (RF) is the oscillation rate of an alternating electric current or voltage or of a magnetic, electric or electromagnetic field or mechanical system in the frequency range from around 20 kHz to around 300 GHz. This is roughly between the upper limit of audio frequencies and the lower limit of infrared frequencies; these are the frequencies at which energy from an oscillating current can radiate off a conductor into space as radio waves. Different sources specify different upper and lower bounds for the frequency range.
Electric currents that oscillate at radio frequencies (RF currents) have special properties not shared by direct current or super low frequency alternating current used for electrical power distribution.
|ITU designation||IEEE bands|
|Below 3 Hz||>105 km||Tremendously low frequency||TLF||N/A|
|3–30 Hz||105–104 km||Extremely low frequency||ELF||N/A|
|30–300 Hz||104–103 km||Super low frequency||SLF||N/A|
|300–3000 Hz||103–100 km||Ultra low frequency||ULF||N/A|
|3–30 kHz||100–10 km||Very low frequency||VLF||N/A|
|30–300 kHz||10–1 km||Low frequency||LF||N/A|
|300 kHz – 3 MHz||1 km – 100 m||Medium frequency||MF||N/A|
|3–30 MHz||100–10 m||High frequency||HF||HF|
|30–300 MHz||10–1 m||Very high frequency||VHF||VHF|
|300 MHz – 3 GHz||1 m – 10 cm||Ultra high frequency||UHF||UHF, L, S|
|3–30 GHz||10–1 cm||Super high frequency||SHF||S, C, X, Ku, K, Ka|
|30–300 GHz||1 cm – 1 mm||Extremely high frequency||EHF||Ka, V, W, mm|
|300 GHz – 3 THz||1 mm – 0.1 mm||Tremendously high frequency||THF||N/A|
Frequencies of 1 GHz and above are conventionally called microwave, while frequencies of 30 GHz and above are designated millimeter wave. More detailed band designations are given by the standard IEEE letter- band frequency designations and the EU/NATO frequency designations.
Radio frequencies are used in communication devices such as transmitters, receivers, computers, televisions, and mobile phones, to name a few. Radio frequencies are also applied in carrier current systems including telephony and control circuits. The MOS integrated circuit is the technology behind the current proliferation of radio frequency wireless telecommunications devices such as cellphones.
Radio frequency (RF) energy, in the form of radiating waves or electrical currents, has been used in medical treatments for over 75 years, generally for minimally invasive surgeries using radiofrequency ablation including the treatment of sleep apnea.
Test apparatus for radio frequencies can include standard instruments at the lower end of the range, but at higher frequencies, the test equipment becomes more specialized.
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