Railway coupling by country

Summary

The railcar couplers or couplings listed, described, and depicted below are used worldwide on legacy and modern railways. Compatible and similar designs are frequently referred to using widely differing make, brand, regional or nick names, which can make describing standard or typical designs confusing. Dimensions and ratings noted in these articles are usually of nominal or typical components and systems, though standards and practices also vary widely with railway, region, and era. Transition between incompatible coupler types may be accomplished using Dual or Compromise couplings or a Barrier wagon.

Coupler typesEdit

AfricaEdit

AlgeriaEdit

  • English, Russian couplers on 1,435 mm (4 ft 8+12 in) standard gauge track[6]
  • English couplers on 1,055 mm (3 ft 5+12 in) gauge track[6]

AngolaEdit

BotswanaEdit

  • AAR Couplers

BeninEdit

Burkina Faso and Côte d'IvoireEdit

CameroonEdit

  • Russian couplers[6]

Congo~BrazzavilleEdit

Democratic Republic of the CongoEdit

  • AAR couplers

EgyptEdit

  • English couplers on historic stock
  • AAR couplers on modern stock[9][10][11][12]

EritreaEdit

EthiopiaEdit

GabonEdit

  • Russian couplers

GhanaEdit

  • Norwegian couplers on historic stock
  • AAR couplers on modern stock

KenyaEdit

  • AAR and Norwegian couplers on Narrow Gauge railways
  • AAR Alliance couplers on Standard Gauge railways

Liberia (Bong)Edit

  • Link and pin couplers

MalawiEdit

MaliEdit

MauritaniaEdit

  • AAR couplers
  • Russian couplers[16][circular reference]

MoroccoEdit

  • English couplers[17]

MozambiqueEdit

NigeriaEdit

SenegalEdit

  • English couplers on freight and passenger stock
  • Norwegian couplers on Indian Stock[21]

South AfricaEdit

SudanEdit

TanzaniaEdit

  • Norwegian couplers on 1,000 mm (3 ft 3+38 in) gauge track[8]
  • AAR couplers on 1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in) gauge track
  • AAR couplers on 1,435 mm (4 ft 8+12 in) gauge track.

TogoEdit

  • Center buffer and side chain couplers
  • Norwegian couplers on Indian Stock

TunisiaEdit

  • English couplers

UgandaEdit

  • narrow gauge : Norwegian.
  • standard gauge : AAR couplers.

AsiaEdit

BangladeshEdit

  • AAR couplers on 5 ft 6 in (1,676 mm) Stock
  • Norwegian couplers on 1,000 mm (3 ft 3+38 in) Stock[6]

CambodiaEdit

  • English couplers on older stock
  • AAR couplers on newer stock

ChinaEdit

  • AAR couplers on passenger and freight stock
  • Scharfenberg couplers on high speed (CRH) and subway trains

Hong KongEdit

IndiaEdit

  • English couplers on historic stock
  • AAR couplers on modern stock[32]
  • Norwegian couplers on 1,000 mm (3 ft 3+38 in) gauge track[33]
  • ABC couplers on narrow gauge stock
  • Schaku Couplers in Suburban EMU and DEMU trains
  • Scharfenberg Couplers are also used in rapid transit transports like metros

IndonesiaEdit

  • English couplers on 1435 mm gauge historic stock of Nederlandsch-Indische Spoorweg Maatschappij (Dutch East Indies Railway Company)
  • Norwegian couplers on 1067 mm gauge historic stock of The Dutch East Indies National Railway Company and the majority of the Dutch East Indies Private Railway and Tramway Companies
  • AAR couplers and Shibata couplers on modern stock
  • Scharfenberg couplers for the future Jakarta - Bandung high speed rail and Soekarno Hatta Airport skytrain.
  • Shibata couplers (based on Scharfenberg couplers) for Jakarta LRT

IranEdit

  • English, Russian (C-AKv) combo couplers on freight and passenger stock
  • Scharfenberg couplers on passenger stock

IraqEdit

  • English couplers on historic stock
  • English, Russian (C-AKv) combo couplers on modern stock[34][35]

IsraelEdit

  • English couplers on freight and passenger stock
  • Scharfenberg couplers on passenger stock

JapanEdit

  • English couplers on historic stock
  • AAR couplers on freight and passenger stock
  • Shibata couplers (based on Scharfenberg couplers) on passenger stock

North KoreaEdit

  • AAR couplers on standard gauge stock
  • Reduced-size Janney (AAR) couplers on narrow gauge stock
  • Scharfenberg couplers on Pyongyang Metro stock

South KoreaEdit

  • English, link and pin couplers on historic stock
  • AAR couplers on modern stock[36]
  • Shibata couplers (based on Scharfenberg couplers) on Subways and metro car

MalaysiaEdit

  • Norwegian couplers on historic stock
  • AAR couplers on modern stock
  • Scharfenberg couplers on ERL, LRT, MRT and Monorail.

PakistanEdit

PhilippinesEdit

  • English couplers on Manila Railway rolling stock, as well as historic Manila Railroad stock before 1932.
  • AAR couplers on Manila Railroad stock after 1932 and on all Philippine National Railways narrow-gauge rolling stock.
    • Type E on historic stock and on the PNR 5000 class.
    • Type F interlocking couplers on upcoming PNR narrow-gauge flatcars.[37]
    • Type H tightlock coupling on most PNR rolling stock starting with the 900 class.
  • Link-and-pin couplers on the Hawaiian Philippine Company of Negros Island.[38]
  • Scharfenberg couplers on the MRT Line 3.

RussiaEdit

  • Russian couplers on domestic stock (with side buffers on passenger coaches)
  • English couplers on Euro Stock (exchanged on the border)
  • Scharfenberg couplers on some passenger unit trains (Velaro, Desiro) and on all subway systems

SingaporeEdit

Sri LankaEdit

  • Buffers and AAR couplers

TaiwanEdit

ThailandEdit

  • AAR couplers on all SRT rolling stock
  • Norwegian couplers on historic stock
  • Scharfenberg couplers on mass-transit trains
  • Wedge Lock, Ward couplers on London Underground stock
  • Narrow gauge lines use a mixture of couplings.

TurkeyEdit

  • English couplers on older stock
  • Scharfenberg couplers on passenger stock
  • Russian (C-AKv) couplers on newer stock

VietnamEdit

  • AAR couplers on both 1,000 mm (3 ft 3+38 in) and 1,435 mm (4 ft 8+12 in) rolling stock

EuropeEdit

AustriaEdit

  • English couplers on standard gauge stock
  • Scharfenberg couplers on passenger units
  • Bosna or Scharfenberg couplers on narrow gauge stock

BelgiumEdit

FinlandEdit

  • English (UIC) couplers on passenger cars and most freight cars and on historical locomotives
  • Russian SA3 couplers on Russian cars and some heavy-duty freight cars
  • "Unilink" (SA3 clone with UIC-style screw link) or "Vapiti" (SA3 clone with movable link arm for English couplers) couplers on the majority of locomotives; compatible with SA3 and English (UIC) center hook
  • Scharfenberg (some made by Dellner) couplers on multiple unit passenger stock

FranceEdit

  • English couplers on freight and passenger stock
  • Scharfenberg couplers on passenger stock (multiple units and high speed trains only)
  • Russian couplers on unit ore trains

GermanyEdit

  • English couplers on freight and passenger stock
  • Scharfenberg couplers on passenger stock
  • AK69e and C-AKv couplers on unit ore trains
  • AK69e and Russian SA-3 mixed in trains via Mukran ferry terminal
  • Scharfenberg or central buffer couplers on narrow gauge stock

GreeceEdit

  • English on freight and passenger stock
  • Scharfenberg on passenger stock
  • Center buffer and side chains on narrow gauge stock

HungaryEdit

  • English on freight and passenger stock
  • Scharfenberg on multiple units (in some cases jointly with side buffers)
  • BSI with side buffers on BDVmot electric multiple units
  • Link-and-pin on narrow gauge stock

ItalyEdit

  • English couplers on standard gauge stock
  • Scharfenberg couplers on some EMU/DMU and FS Class E.464

NetherlandsEdit

  • English couplers on freight and passenger stock
  • BSI, Scharfenberg couplers on passenger stock
  • Russian couplers on unit ore trains

NorwayEdit

  • English couplers on freight and passenger stock
  • Norwegian couplers on historic stock, narrow gauge only
  • Scharfenberg couplers on passenger stock (multiple units)
  • Russian SA3 couplers on unit ore trains (Ofoten Line)

PolandEdit

  • English couplers on freight and passenger stock
  • Scharfenberg couplers on passenger stock
  • Russian couplers on unit ore trains and Russian interchange stock

PortugalEdit

  • English couplers on freight and loco hauled passenger stock
  • Scharfenberg couplers on multiple unit passenger stock

RomaniaEdit

  • English on freight and passenger stock
  • Scharfenberg on Siemens Desiro multiple units and some ex-German rail buses
  • Link-and-pin on narrow gauge stock

RussiaEdit

  • Russian SA3 couplers on domestic stock (with side buffers on passenger coaches)
  • English couplers on Euro Stock (exchanged on the border)
  • Scharfenberg couplers on some passenger unit trains (Velaro, Desiro) and on all subway systems

SpainEdit

  • English couplers on freight and loco hauled passenger stock
  • Scharfenberg couplers on multiple unit passenger stock
  • Alliance couplers on freight stock in narrow gauge
  • BSI couplers on multiple unit passenger stock (only in Catalonian Railways: FGC)

SwedenEdit

  • English couplers on freight and passenger stock
  • Scharfenberg couplers on passenger stock
  • Russian couplers on iron ore trains (Iron Ore Line)
  • Variant of Norwegian couplers on historic (museum) narrow-gauge stock

SwitzerlandEdit

  • English couplers on standard gauge stock
  • GFV, Schwab, Scharfenberg or BSI couplers on passenger units
  • AK69e couplers within BLS EW III sets
  • GF, GFV or center buffer couplers on meter and narrow gauge stock

UkraineEdit

  • Russian (SA3) couplers on broad gauge rolling stock
  • Combined Russian/English couplers on SUW2000 gauge-changing coaches
  • Scharfenberg couplers on some EMU trains
  • Central buffer and chain couplers on narrow gauge rolling stock

United KingdomEdit

  • BSI couplers on most diesel multiple unit types, but also Dellner and Scharfenberg on some more recent types
  • AAR Type H "Tightlock" coupling heads on 1970s to early 2000s electric multiple units
  • Scharfenberg-type coupling heads (often Dellner) on most new electric multiple units, with a variety of electrical connection systems
  • English couplings, AAR couplers on some freight stock, most locomotive-hauled passenger stock has a 23rd size Janney/Buckeye coupler[citation needed]
  • Wedgelock, Ward couplers on London Underground stock
  • Narrow gauge lines use a mixture of couplings

North AmericaEdit

CanadaEdit

  • AAR couplers on traditional stock
  • Scharfenberg, Wedge Lock, H2C couplers on transit stock

MexicoEdit

  • AAR couplers on traditional stock
  • Scharfenberg couplers on passenger stock

United StatesEdit

OceaniaEdit

AustraliaEdit

  • English, Norwegian couplers on historic stock
  • AAR couplers on freight and passenger stock
  • Scharfenberg couplers on passenger stock

New ZealandEdit

South AmericaEdit

ArgentinaEdit

  • English couplers on 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) and on 1,435 mm (4 ft 8+12 in) standard gauge[6]
  • AAR couplers on 1,000 mm (3 ft 3+38 in) metre gauge[6] and some passenger (FIAT 7131 DMUs) and freight rolling stock on standard and broad gauge.
  • Small knucle with slot for link-and-pin couples on 750 mm (2 ft 5+12 in)
  • Shibata semi-automatic couplers on EMUs made by Toshiba - Marubeni Corp. (1956 D.F. Sarmiento Ry., 1962 Gral. B. Mitre Ry., 1973 Gral. Urquiza Ry. and 1983 Gral. Roca Ry. EMUs).
  • Scharfenberg-type semi-automatic couplers (Dellner) on modern EMUs, DMUs and some passenger rolling stock In General San Martín Ry..
  • Bell-and-hook couplers on various narrow-gauge tourist railways (Pierda Baya Ry., Austral Fueguino Ry. and Económico Sud Ry.).

BrazilEdit

ChileEdit

  • AAR couplers[6]
  • English (UIC) couplers in coaches and locomotives bought from Spain
  • Scharfenberg couplers in passenger units bought from Spain

ParaguayEdit

  • English couplers[45]

UruguayEdit

  • English couplers[45]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "ABC Couplers". Retrieved 4 November 2014.
  2. ^ ABC couplers Archived 2009-05-21 at the Wayback Machine
  3. ^ "Coupler conversion". Retrieved 4 November 2014.
  4. ^ "Centre Buffer Coupler of AAR type". Retrieved 4 November 2014.
  5. ^ "Ward coupler". Retrieved 4 November 2014.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Jane's World Railways 2002–2003 p5
  7. ^ "Angola's railways back on track". BBC News. 16 September 2010.
  8. ^ a b "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-03-14. Retrieved 2013-12-27.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  9. ^ "Rail pictures". Retrieved 4 November 2014.
  10. ^ "Rail pictures". Retrieved 4 November 2014.
  11. ^ http://www.besco.in/clients.htm[dead link]
  12. ^ "RailPictures.Net Photo: 3864 Egyptian railways (ENR) EMD G22W-AC at Kafr el Shiekh, Egypt by mohamed". Retrieved 4 November 2014.
  13. ^ "Il Materiale Rotabile". Retrieved 16 October 2011.
  14. ^ "The Franco-Ethiopian Railway — Djibouti to Addis-Ababa". Retrieved 4 November 2014.
  15. ^ a b "trans zambesia locomotive, AEI, malawi locomotive, nigeria locomotive". Retrieved 4 November 2014.
  16. ^ SA3 coupler
  17. ^ "IN NORTHERN AFRICA". Retrieved 4 November 2014.
  18. ^ "Standard Gauge: Work begins on Ebute Meta ultra-modern railway station – NRC – the Eagle Online". 8 August 2018. Archived from the original on 2019-07-06.
  19. ^ "Archived copy". www.topforge.co.uk. Archived from the original on 23 June 2008. Retrieved 12 January 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  20. ^ "Archived copy". www.localhistory.scit.wlv.ac.uk. Archived from the original on 21 May 2009. Retrieved 12 January 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  21. ^ "The Railways of Mali and Senegal 2007". Retrieved 4 November 2014.
  22. ^ Espitalier, T.J.; Day, W.A.J. (1943). The Locomotive in South Africa - A Brief History of Railway Development. Chapter I - The Period of the 4 ft. 8½ in. Gauge. South African Railways and Harbours Magazine, June 1943. pp. 437-440.
  23. ^ Espitalier, T.J.; Day, W.A.J. (1944). The Locomotive in South Africa - A Brief History of Railway Development. Chapter III - Natal Government Railways (Continued). South African Railways and Harbours Magazine, September 1944. p. 669.
  24. ^ a b c Suid-Afrikaanse Vervoerdienste (South African Transport Services) (1983). Passassierswa- en Trokhandboek (Passenger Carriage and Truck Manual), Vol 1, Hoofstukke 1-15 (Chapters 1-15). South African Transport Services, 1983. Chapter 13.
  25. ^ Espitalier, T.J.; Day, W.A.J. (1944). The Locomotive in South Africa - A Brief History of Railway Development. Chapter II - The Cape Government Railways (Continued). South African Railways and Harbours Magazine, April 1944. pp. 253-257.
  26. ^ Holland, D. F. (1972). Steam Locomotives of the South African Railways. Vol. 2: 1910-1955 (1st ed.). Newton Abbott, England: David & Charles. pp. 51–52, 117–118. ISBN 978-0-7153-5427-8.
  27. ^ South African Railways & Harbours/Suid Afrikaanse Spoorweë en Hawens (15 Aug 1941). Locomotive Diagram Book/Lokomotiefdiagramboek, 2'0" & 3'6" Gauge/Spoorwydte, Steam Locomotives/Stoomlokomotiewe. SAR/SAS Mechanical Department/Werktuigkundige Dept. Drawing Office/Tekenkantoor, Pretoria. pp. 6a-7a, 25.
  28. ^ At least some versions of the automatic couplers used in South Africa follows the Henricot coupler patent and not the AAR version. The following note is given on drawing CME10719-478/68 "Automatic Coupler, type MS (127 mm x 140 mm)", also referred to as SASKOP (Suid-Afrikaanse Spoorweë Koppelaar - South African Railways Coupler): "The copyright in this drawing vests in "Société Anonyme Usines Emile Henricot of Court-Saint-Étienne", Belgium. The said company is also the owner of the patent in respect of the automatic coupler covered by this drawing."
  29. ^ Pivnic, Les. "Soul of A Railway, System 7, Natalspruit to Vereeniging – Part 1".
  30. ^ Locopage
  31. ^ "Tamil Nadu / Tiruchi News : Rs. 80-crore target for railway spares export". The Hindu. 2004-11-11. Archived from the original on 12 March 2005. Retrieved 4 November 2014.
  32. ^ a b "Centre Buffer coupler of AAR type". Retrieved 4 November 2014.
  33. ^ "[IRFCA] Indian Railways FAQ: Rolling Stock – II". Retrieved 4 November 2014.
  34. ^ Jane's World Railways 1969/1970 pp 594/595
  35. ^ http://www.ajg41.clara.co.uk/iraq/links.html[dead link]
  36. ^ Railway Gazette International Aug 2008 p517
  37. ^ Procurement of Eight (8) Units Flats Cars (Re-bid) (Report). Philippine National Railways. 30 June 2021.
  38. ^ "Steam Locomotives Operated by Hawaiian-Philippine Company". www.internationalsteam.co.uk. 13 May 2003. Retrieved 23 August 2021.
  39. ^ "Connect and Protect. Coupler and Front End Systems" (PDF). Voith.
  40. ^ Aida, Teruyuki; Nishimi, Yusuke; Yamaguchi, Atsunori; Oonuma, Noriaki. "History and Future Prospects of Rolling Stock Parts" (PDF). Japan Steel Works Industrial Machinery Dept., Hiroshima Plant. JSW began to consider coupler device for overseas, and delivered our products to Singapore for new transportation systems in 2000.
  41. ^ a b 蘇, 昭旭 (2017). 世界鐵道與火車百科. Taiwan: 人人出版. ISBN 9789864610884.
  42. ^ OTIS Wang. "臺北捷運C381型高運量電聯車". 雪花台灣.
  43. ^ Jane's World Railways 1969/1970 pp 501 thru 504
  44. ^ Railway Gazette International April 2009, p61
  45. ^ a b "trains-worldexpresses.com". Retrieved 4 November 2014.

External linksEdit

  •   Media related to Rolling stock by country at Wikimedia Commons