Ramadanids / Ramazanoğulları

1352–1608
CapitalAdana
Common languagesTurkish
Religion
Sunni Islam
GovernmentEmirate
Bey 
• 1352
Ramazan Bey
• 1608
Pir Mansur Bey
Historical eraEarly Modern
• Established
1352
• Disestablished
1608
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Seljuq Turks
Ottoman Empire

The Ramazanid Principality, also known as the Ramadanid dynasty (Modern Turkish: Ramazanoğulları Beyliği), was an autonomous administration that existed from 1359 to 1608 in Cilicia, taking over the rule of the region from the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia. Ramadanid principality was a protectorate of Mamluk Sultanate until 1517, and then of Ottoman Empire.[1] The capital of the Principality was Adana.

History

Because of the Mongol invasion Turkmens started migrating into Anatolia in great numbers. The Mameluk sultan gave them the right to settle from Antioch to Gaza. In return Turkmens became a great help in battles against Crusaders and Mongols.

As a result of Abu Sa'id Bahadur Khan's death, Turkmens turned their eyes on Cilicia and they started to settle the provinces which they captured. With the help of the Mameluks in 1360 Adana and Tarsus were captured, leaving only a few castles to the Armenians. Ramazan Bey, from the Yuregir clan of Oghuz Turks had founded the emirate and made Elbistan the capital. However, after the conquest of Elbistan by the Emirate of Dulkadir, the capital was moved to Adana.

Ramazanid Emirate was established in Cilicia

In 1375, Ramadanids destroyed the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia in the name of the Mamluk sultan of Egypt, this became the core territory of the Ramadanids.

After the death of Ramazan Bey, his son Ibrahim Bey made alliance with the Karaman Emirate. Alaeddin Bey and Ibrahim Bey together tried to break the Mameluks' might in the province. After this alliance a great Mameluk army moved in and began to plunder but Ibrahim Bey's army achieved a great victory against the Mameluks in Belen. Also in this battle Temur Bey, the general of the Mameluks, had been captured. Yilboga, the amir of Aleppo moved on to the Turkmens after this defeat and he conquered Misis Castle.

Ramazanoğlu Hall

The Ramadanids played an important role in 15th century Ottoman-Mamluk relations, being a buffer state located in the Mamluk al-'Awasim frontier zone.

In 1516, Selim I incorporated the beylik into the Ottoman Empire after his conquest of the Mamluk state. The beys of Ramadanids held the administration of the Ottoman sanjak of Adana in a hereditary manner until 1608, with the last 92 years as a vassal of the Ottomans.

Architecture

Ramazanoğlu Hall, which is used currently as a cultural center, was the state residence of the Principality. Administration hall of the Principality does not exist today.

Rulers of Ramadanids

  1. Ramazan Bey (1352-1378)[2]
  2. İbrâhim Bey (1378-1383)
  3. Şihâbeddîn Ahmed Bey (1383-1416)
  4. İbrâhim II Bey (1416-1418)
  5. İzzeddîn Hamza Bey (1418-1426)
  6. Mehmet Bey (1426-1435)
  7. Eylûk Bey (1435-1439)
  8. Dündar Bey (1439-1470)
  9. Ömer Bey (1470-1485)
  10. Gıyâseddîn Halil Bey (1485-1510)
  11. Mahmûd Bey (I. 1510-1514- II. 1516-1517)
  12. Selim Bey (1514-1516)
  13. Kubad Paşa (1517-1520)
  14. Pîrî Mehmed Paşa (1520-1568)
  15. Derviş Bey (1568-1569)
  16. İbrahim III Bey (1569-1589)
  17. Mehmed II Bey (1589-1594)
  18. Pir Mansur Bey (1594-1608)

References

  1. ^ . Adanadan.biz http://adanadan.biz/icerik.asp?ICID=34. Retrieved 24 February 2020. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  2. ^ Yeni Rehber Ansiklopedisi, Türkiye Gazetesi, 1993 (in Turkish)

External links

  • http://www.enfal.de/starih45.htm (in Turkish)
  • http://www.dallog.net/beylikler/ramazan.htm (in Turkish)
  • http://www.turkiyat.selcuk.edu.tr/pdfdergi/s23/koca.pdf (in Turkish)