Ranks and insignia of NATO navies enlisted

Summary

This table shows the ranks and insignia of NCOs and Seaman in the navies of member countries of NATO. NATO maintains a "standard rank scale" in an attempt to match every member country's military rank to corresponding ranks used by the other members. The rank categories were established in the document STANAG 2116, formally titled NATO Codes for Grades of Military Personnel.

Other Ranks (OR 1–9)

NATO code OR-9 OR-8 OR-7 OR-6 OR-5 OR-4 OR-3 OR-2 OR-1
 Albanian Naval Force[1][2]
Navy-ALB-OR-9.svg Navy-ALB-OR-8.svg Navy-ALB-OR-7.svg Navy-ALB-OR-6.svg Navy-ALB-OR-5.svg Navy-ALB-OR-01.svg Navy-ALB-OR-01.svg Navy-ALB-OR-01.svg Navy-ALB-OR-01.svg
Kryekapter Kapter Rreshter Tetar Nëntetar Ushtar IV Ushtar III Ushtar II Ushtar I


 Belgian Navy[3]
Navy-BEL-OR-09a maitre principal chef.svg Navy-BEL-OR-09b maitre principal.svg Navy-BEL-OR-08 1er maitre-chef.svg Navy-BEL-OR-07 1er maitre.svg Navy-BEL-OR-06a maitre chef.svg Navy-BEL-OR-06b maitre.svg Navy-BEL-OR-05 2e maitre.svg Navy-BEL-OR-04a 1er quartier-maitre-chef.svg Navy-BEL-OR-04b quartier-maitre-chef.svg Navy-BEL-OR-03 quartier-maitre.svg Navy-BEL-OR-02 1er matelot.svg Navy-BEL-OR-01 matelot.svg
Oppermeester-Chef Oppermeester Eerste meesterchef Eerste meester Meester-chef Meester Tweede meester Eerste kwartiermeester-chef Kwartiermeester-chef Kwartiermeester Eerste matroos Matroos
Maître principal-Chef Maître-principal Premier-maître chef Premier maître Maître-chef Maître Second-maître 1er Quartier-maître-chef Quartier-maître-chef Quartier maître Premier matelot Matelot
Chefhauptmeister Hauptmeister Erster Chefmeister Erster Meister Meister-Chef Meister Zweiter Meister 1er Oberquartiermeister Oberquartiermeister Quartiermeister 1er Matrose Matrose


 Bulgarian Navy[4]
Bulgaria-Navy-OR-9.svg Bulgaria-Navy-OR-8.svg Bulgaria-Navy-OR-7.svg Bulgaria-Navy-OR-6.svg Bulgaria-Navy-OR-5.svg Bulgaria-Navy-OR-4.svg Bulgaria-Navy-OR-1.svg
Офицерски кандидат
Ofitserski kandidat
Мичман
Mičman
Главен старшина
Glaven starshina
Старшина 1 степен
Starshina 1 stepen
Старшина 2 степен
Starshina 2 stepen
Старши матрос
Starshi matros
Матрос
Matros


 Royal Canadian Navy[5]
Canadian RCN OR-10.svg Canadian RCN OR-9c.svg Canadian RCN OR-9b.svg Canadian RCN OR-9a.svg Canadian RCN OR-8.svg Canadian RCN OR-7.svg Canadian RCN OR-6.svg
Canadian RCN OR-5.svg Canadian RCN OR-4.svg Canadian RCN OR-3.svg Canadian RCN OR-2.svg
Canadian Forces
chief warrant officer
Command chief petty officer 1st class Senior appointment
chief petty officer 1st class
Chief petty officer 1st class Chief petty officer 2nd class Petty officer 1st class Petty officer 2nd class Master sailor Sailor 1st class Sailor 2nd class Sailor 3rd class
Adjudant-chef
des Forces canadiennes
Premier maître de 1re classe du commandement Premier maître de 1re classe – nomination supérieure Premier maître de 1re classe Premier maître de 2e classe Maître de 1re classe Maître de 2e classe Matelot-chef Matelot de 1re classe Matelot de 2e classe Matelot de 3e classe


 Croatian Navy[6]
Rukav zimske odore časničkog namjesnika HRM.svg Rukav zimske odore stožernog narednika HRM.svg Rukav zimske odore nadnarednika HRM.svg Rukav zimske odore narednika HRM.svg Rukav zimske odore desetnika HRM.svg Rukav zimske odore skupnika HRM.svg Rukav zimske odore razvodnika HRM.svg Rukav zimske odore pozornika HRM.svg No insignia
Časnički namjesnik Stožerni narednik Nadnarednik Narednik Desetnik Skupnik Razvodnik Pozornik Mornar


Czech Republic Czech Republic No navy
NATO code OR-9 OR-8 OR-7 OR-6 OR-5 OR-4 OR-3 OR-2 OR-1
 Royal Danish Navy[7]
Rank insignia of Søværnschefsergent of the Royal Danish Navy.svg Rank insignia of chefsergent of the Royal Danish Navy.svg Rank insignia of seniorsergent of the Royal Danish Navy.svg Rank insignia of oversergent of the Royal Danish Navy.svg Rank insignia of sergent of the Royal Danish Navy.svg Rank insignia of værnepligtig sergent of the Royal Danish Navy.svg Rank insignia of korporal of the Royal Danish Navy.svg Rank insignia of marinespecialist of the Royal Danish Navy.svg Rank insignia of marineoverkonstabel of the Royal Danish Navy.svg Rank insignia of marinekonstabel of the Royal Danish Navy.svg
Søværnschefsergent Chefsergent Seniorsergent Oversergent Sergent Sergent SØ Korporal Marinespecialist Marineoverkonstabel Marinekonstabel


 Estonian Navy[8]
Estonia-Navy-OR-9b.svg Estonia-Navy-OR-9a.svg Estonia-Navy-OR-8.svg Estonia-Navy-OR-7.svg Estonia-Navy-OR-6.svg Estonia-Navy-OR-5.svg Estonia-Navy-OR-4b.svg Estonia-Navy-OR-4a.svg Estonia-Navy-OR-2.svg Estonia-Navy-OR-1.svg
Ülemveebel Staabiveebel Vanemveebel Veebel Nooremveebel Vanemmaat Maat Nooremmaat Vanemmadrus Madrus


 French Navy[9]
French Navy-Rama NG-SO5.svg French Navy-Rama NG-SO4.svg French Navy-Rama NG-SO3.svg French Navy-Rama NG-SO2.svg French Navy-Rama NG-SO1.svg French Navy-Rama NG-M3.svg French Navy-Rama NG-M2.svg French Navy-Rama NG-M1.svg French Navy-Rama NG-M0.svg
Major Maître principal Premier maître Maître Second-maître Quartier-maître de 1ère classe Quartier-maître de 2ème classe Matelot breveté Matelot


 German Navy[10]
MDS 35 Oberstaabsbootsmann 20.svg MDS 34 Staabsbootsmann 10.svg MDS 33 Hauptbootsmann 70.svg MDS 32 Oberbootsmann 60.svg MDS 31 Bootsmann 30.svg MDS 22 Obermaat 30.svg MDS 21 Maat 10.svg MDS 16 Oberstabsgefreiter 70 L.svg MDS 15 Stabsgefreiter 60 L.svg MDS 14 Hauptgefreiter 50 L.svg MDS 13 Obergefreiter 30 L.svg MDS 12 Gefreiter 20 L.svg MDS 11 Matrose 10 L.svg
Oberstabs­bootsmann Stabs­bootsmann Haupt­bootsmann Ober­bootsmann Bootsmann Obermaat Maat Oberstabs­gefreiter Stabs­gefreiter Haupt­gefreiter Ober­gefreiter Gefreiter Matrose
 German Navy
(Officer designate)
MDS 33a Oberfähnrich zur See Trp.svg MDS 31a Fähnrich zur See Trp.svg MDS 21a Seekadett Trp.svg
Oberfähnrich zur See Fähnrich zur See Seekadett


 Hellenic Navy[11]
GR-Navy-Ανθυπασπιστής.svgGR-Navy-Ανθυπασπιστής-sleeve.svg GR-Navy-Μόνιμος Αρχικελευστής.svg GR-Navy-Αρχικελευστής ΕΜΘ.svg GR-Navy-Μόνιμος Επικελευστής.svg GR-Navy-Επικελευστής ΕΜΘ.svg GR-Navy-Μόνιμος Κελευστής.svg GR-Navy-Κελευστής ΕΜΘ.svg GR-Navy-Κελευστής ΕΠΟΠ.svg GR-Navy-Δίοπος ΕΠΟΠ.svg
male
GR-Navy-Δίοπος ΕΠΟΠ-female.svg
female
GR-Navy-Ναύτης ΕΠΟΠ.svg
male
GR-Navy-Ναύτης ΕΠΟΠ-female.svg
female
Ανθυπασπιστής[a]
Anthypaspistis
Αρχικελευστής
Archikelefstis
Επικελευστής
Epikelefstis
Κελευστής
Kelefstis
Δίοπος
Diopos
Ναύτης
Naftis
NATO code OR-9 OR-8 OR-7 OR-6 OR-5 OR-4 OR-3 OR-2 OR-1
Hungary Hungary No navy


 Icelandic Coast Guard[12]
Iceland-Navy-OR-9.svg Iceland-Navy-OR-7.svg Iceland-Navy-OR-5.svg Iceland-Navy-OR-3.svg Iceland-Navy-OR-2b.svg Iceland-Navy-OR-2a.svg Iceland-Navy-OR-1.svg
Yfir Bátsmaður MS-3 Bátsmaður MS-2 Bátsmaður MS-1 AS-4 AS-3 Háseti AS-2 AS-1


 Italian Navy[13][14]
Rank insignia of primo maresciallo luogotenente qualif sp of the Italian Navy.svg Rank insignia of primo maresciallo luogotenente of the Italian Navy.svg Rank insignia of primo maresciallo of the Italian Navy.svg Rank insignia of capo di prima classe of the Italian Navy.svg Rank insignia of capo di seconda classe of the Italian Navy.svg Rank insignia of capo di terza classe of the Italian Navy.svg Rank insignia of secondo capo scelto qualif sp of the Italian Navy.svg Rank insignia of secondo capo scelto of the Italian Navy.svg Rank insignia of secondo capo of the Italian Navy.svg Rank insignia of sergente of the Italian Navy.svg
Rank insignia of sottocapo di prima classe scelto qualif sp of the Italian Navy.svg Rank insignia of sottocapo di prima classe scelto of the Italian Navy.svg Rank insignia of sottocapo di prima classe of the Italian Navy.svg Rank insignia of sottocapo di seconda classe of the Italian Navy.svg Rank insignia of sottocapo di terza classe of the Italian Navy.svg
Sottocapo di Prima Classe Scelto q.s. Sottocapo di Prima Classe Scelto Sottocapo di Prima Classe Sottocapo di seconda Classe Sottocapo di terza Classe
Rank insignia of sottocapo of the Italian Navy.svg Rank insignia of comune di prima classe of the Italian Navy.svg No insignia
Primo luogotenente q.s.[b] Luogotenente Primo maresciallo Capo di prima classe Capo di seconda classe Capo di terza classe Secondo capo scelto q.s. Secondo capo scelto Secondo capo Sergente Sottocapo Comune di prima classe Comune di seconda classe


 Latvian Naval Forces[15]
Blank.svg Blank.svg Latvia-navy-1992 07.gif Latvia-navy-1992 06.gif Latvia-navy-1992 05.gif Latvia-navy-1992 04.gif Latvia-navy-1992 03.gif No insignia
Vecākais virsniekvietnieks Virsniekvietnieks Vecākais bocmanis Bocmanis Seržants Kaprālis Dižmatrozis Matrozis


 Lithuanian Naval Force[16]
OR-9 vyresnysis laivūnas.jpg OR-8 laivūnas.jpg OR-7 štabo laivūnas.jpg OR-6 vyresnysis seržantas.jpg OR-5 seržantas.jpg OR-4 grandinis.jpg OR-3 vyresnysis jūreivis.jpg OR-2 jūreivis.jpg OR-1 jaunesnysis jūreivis.jpg
Vyresnysis laivūnas Laivūnas Štabo laivūnas Vyresnysis seržantas Seržantas Grandinis Vyresnysis jūreivis Jūreivis Jaunesnysis jūreivis
NATO code OR-9 OR-8 OR-7 OR-6 OR-5 OR-4 OR-3 OR-2 OR-1
 Luxembourg No navy


 Montenegrin Navy[17]
09-Montenegro Navy-CWO.svg 08-Montenegro Navy-WO.svg 07-Montenegro Navy-SSFC.svg 06-Montenegro Navy-SSG.svg 05-Montenegro Navy-SFC.svg 04-Montenegro Navy-SGT.svg 03-Montenegro Navy-JSG.svg 02-Montenegro Navy-CPL.svg 01-Montenegro Navy-LCP.svg
Zastavnik 1 klase Zastavnik Stariji vodnik 1 klase Stariji vodnik Vodnik 1 klase Vodnik Mlađi vodnik Desetar Razvodnik


North Macedonia North Macedonia No navy


 Royal Netherlands Navy[18]
POR-Navy-OFD.svg
Netherlands-Navy-OR-7.svg Netherlands-Navy-OR-5.svg
Netherlands-Navy-OR-3.svg
Netherlands-Navy-OR-2b.svg Netherlands-Navy-OR-2a.svg Netherlands-Navy-OR-1.svg
Adjudant onderofficer/
Opperschipper (deckservice)
Sergeant-majoor/
Schipper (deckservice)
Sergeant/
Bootsman (deckservice)
Korporaal/
Kwartiermeester (deckservice)
Matroos/
Marinier der 1e klasse
Matroos/
Marinier der 2e klasse
Matroos/
Marinier der 3e klasse


 Royal Norwegian Navy[19]
Or9 sjø.png OR9 sjo.png Or8 sjø.png Or7 sjø.png Or6 sjø.png Or5 2 sjø.png Or5 1 sjø.png OR4b NOR - Konstabel kl 1.png OR4b NOR - Konstabel.png OR3b NOR - Ledende visekonstabel.png OR2b NOR - Visekonstabel.png Norway-Navy-OR-1b.svg Norway-Navy-OR-1a.svg
Sjefsmester Flaggmester Orlogsmester Flotiljemester Skvadronmester Senior kvartermester Kvartermester Ledende konstabel Konstabel Senior visekonstabel Visekonstabel Ledende menig Menig


Polish Navy[20]
POL PMW pagon1 starszy chorąży sztabowy marynarki.svg POL PMW pagon1 starszy chorąży marynarki.svg POL PMW pagon1 chorąży marynarki.svg POL PMW pagon1 młodszy chorąży marynarki.svg POL PMW pagon1 starszy bosman.svg POL PMW pagon1 bosman.svg POL PMW pagon1 bosmanmat.svg POL PMW pagon1 starszy mat.svg POL PMW pagon1 mat.svg POL PMW pagon1 starszy marynarz.svg POL PMW pagon1 marynarz.svg
Starszy chorąży sztabowy marynarki Starszy chorąży marynarki Chorąży marynarki Młodszy chorąży marynarki Starszy bosman Bosman Bosmanmat Starszy mat Mat Starszy marynarz Marynarz


 Portuguese Navy[21]
POR-Navy-OR9.svg POR-Navy-OR8.svg POR-Navy-OR7.svg Portugal-Navy-OR-6.svg Portugal-Navy-OR-5b.svg 6 - Primerio-subsargento.svg Portugal-Navy-OR-4b.svg Portugal-Navy-OR-4a.svg Portugal-Navy-OR-3.svg Portugal-Navy-OR-2.svg No insignia No insignia
Sargento-mor Sargento-chefe Sargento-ajudante Primeiro-sargento Segundo-sargento Subsargento Cabo-mor Cabo Primeiro-marinheiro Segundo-marinheiro Primeiro-grumete Segundo-grumete
NATO code OR-9 OR-8 OR-7 OR-6 OR-5 OR-4 OR-3 OR-2 OR-1
 Romanian Naval Forces[22]
Blank.svg Blank.svg Blank.svg Blank.svg Blank.svg Blank.svg Blank.svg Blank.svg Blank.svg Blank.svg Blank.svg
Plutonier adjutant principal Plutonier adjutant Plutonier-major Plutonier Sergent-major Sergent Caporal clasa I Caporal clasa a II-a Caporal clasa a III-a Fruntaş Soldat


Slovakia Slovakia No navy


 Slovenia Navy[23]
Slovenia-Navy-OR-9c.svg Slovenia-Navy-OR-9b.svg Slovenia-Navy-OR-9a.svg Slovenia-Navy-OR-8b.svg Slovenia-Navy-OR-8a.svg Slovenia-Navy-OR-7.svg Slovenia-Navy-OR-6.svg Slovenia-Navy-OR-5.svg Slovenia-Navy-OR-4.svg Slovenia-Navy-OR-3.svg Slovenia-Navy-OR-2.svg Slovenia-Navy-OR-1.svg
Višji štabni praporščak Štabni praporščak Višji praporščak Praporščak Višji štabni vodnik Štabni vodnik Višji vodnik Vodnik Naddesetnik Desetnik Poddesetnik Vojak


 Spanish Navy[24]
12arm.png 13arm.png 14arm.png 15arm.png 16arm.png 17arm.png 18arm.png 19arm.png 20arm.png 21arm.png
Suboficial mayor Subteniente Brigada Sargento primero Sargento Cabo mayor Cabo primero Cabo Marinero de primera Marinero


 Turkish Naval Forces[25]
Navy-TUR-OR-09.svg Navy-TUR-OR-08.svg Navy-TUR-OR-07a.svg Navy-TUR-OR-07b.svg Navy-TUR-OR-06a.svg Navy-TUR-OR-06b.svg Navy-TUR-OR-06c.svg TR-Armed Forces-OR5b.svg Navy-TUR-OR-05.svg Navy-TUR-OR-03.svg Navy-TUR-OR-04.svg No insignia
Astsubay kıdemli başçavuş Astsubay başçavuş Astsubay kıdemli üstçavuş Astsubay üstçavuş Astsubay kıdemli çavuş Astsubay çavuş Astsubay astçavuş Uzman çavuş Çavuş Uzman onbaşı Onbaşı Er


 Royal Navy[26]
British Royal Navy OR-9.svg British Royal Navy OR-8.svg British Royal Navy OR-7.svg British Royal Navy OR-6.svg
British Royal Navy OR-4.svg British Royal Navy OR-2.svg
Warrant officer class 1 Warrant officer class 2 Chief petty officer Petty officer Leading rate Able rate


 Corps of Royal Marines[27]
British Corps Regimental Sergeant Major.svg British Royal Marines OR-9.svg British Royal Marines OR-8.svg British Royal Marines OR-7.svg British Royal Marines OR-6.svg
British Royal Marines OR-4.svg British Royal Marines OR-3.svg No insignia
Warrant officer class 1 Warrant officer class 2 Colour sergeant Sergeant Corporal Lance corporal Marine


 United States Navy[28]
Insignia pending MCPON FMCPO FMCPO E-9 E-8 E-8 E-7 E-6 E-5 E-4 E-3 E-2 No insignia
Senior Enlisted Advisor to the Chairman Master Chief Petty Officer of the Navy Fleet/force master chief petty officer Command master chief petty officer Master chief petty officer Command senior chief petty officer Senior chief petty officer Chief petty officer Petty officer first class Petty officer second class Petty officer third class Seaman Seaman apprentice Seaman recruit


 United States Marine Corps[29]
USMC-E9-SEAC.svg USMC-E9-SGMMC.svg USMC-E9-SGM.svg USMC-E9-MGyS.svg USMC-E8-1SG.svg USMC-E8-MSG.svg USMC-E7.svg USMC-E6.svg USMC-E5.svg USMC-E4.svg USMC-E3.svg USMC-E2.svg No insignia
Senior Enlisted Advisor to the Chairman Sergeant Major of the Marine Corps Sergeant major Master gunnery sergeant First sergeant Master sergeant Gunnery sergeant Staff sergeant Sergeant Corporal Lance corporal Private first class Private


 U.S. Coast Guard
MCPOCG MCPOCG CMC MCPO E-8 E-7 E-6 E-5 E-4 E-3 E-2 E-2
Master Chief Petty Officer of the Coast Guard Master Chief Petty Officer of the Coast Guard Reserve Command master chief petty officer Master chief petty officer Senior chief petty officer Chief petty officer Petty officer first class Petty officer second class Petty officer third class Seaman Seaman apprentice Seaman recruit
NATO code OR-9 OR-8 OR-7 OR-6 OR-5 OR-4 OR-3 OR-2 OR-1

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Greece has only one level of Warrant Officer. According to the current issue (2021) of STANAG 2116, the Greek Warrant Officers are included in OR-9, however they are afforded the privileges of an officer. See STANAG 2116 note 29, page D-9
  2. ^ q.s. - (qualifica speciale - special rank)

References

  1. ^ "GRADAT, FORCA DETARE" (PDF). aaf.mil.al (in Albanian). Archived from the original on 28 April 2021. Retrieved 25 May 2021.
  2. ^ https://aaf.mil.al/english/index.php/komanda-e-fd/382-rank-insignias/2034-navy-forces-ranks
  3. ^ "Marinecomponent". mil.be (in Dutch). Archived from the original on 20 February 2005. Retrieved 25 November 2021.
  4. ^ "ЗАКОН ЗА ОТБРАНАТА И ВЪОРЪЖЕНИТЕ СИЛИ НА РЕПУБЛИКА БЪЛГАРИЯ". lex.bg (in Bulgarian). Глава седма. ВОЕННА СЛУЖБА. 12 May 2009. Retrieved 25 May 2021.
  5. ^ "Ranks and appointment". canada.ca. Government of Canada. Retrieved 28 May 2021.
  6. ^ "Oznake činova". osrh.hr (in Croatian). Republic of Croatia Armed Forces. 1 April 2019. Retrieved 26 May 2021.
  7. ^ "Søværnets Gradstegn" (PDF). forsvaret.dk (in Danish). Danish Defence. 2018. Retrieved 26 May 2021.
  8. ^ "Sümboolika: Mereväe Auastmed". mil.ee (in Estonian). Estonian Defence Forces. Retrieved 26 May 2021.
  9. ^ "Instruction n°1 DEF/EMM/RH/CPM relative aux uniformes et tenues dans la Marine du 15 juin 2004" (in French). 15 June 2004. pp. 3793–3867. Retrieved 4 June 2021.
  10. ^ "Dienstgradabzeichen Marine". bundeswehr.de (in German). Bundeswehr. Retrieved 30 May 2021.
  11. ^ "Διακριτικά Βαθμών Προσωπικού ΠΝ" [Insignia of Personnel Degrees]. hellenicnavy.gr (in Greek). Hellenic Navy. Retrieved 26 May 2021.
  12. ^ "LANDHELGISGÆSLA ÍSLANDS STÖÐUEINKENNI" (in Icelandic). Retrieved 11 June 2021.
  13. ^ "Sottufficiali". marina.difesa.it (in Italian). Ministry of Defence. Retrieved 26 September 2021.
  14. ^ "Graduati e Comuni". marina.difesa.it (in Italian). Ministry of Defence. Retrieved 26 September 2021.
  15. ^ "Pakāpju iedalījums". mil.lv/lv (in Latvian). Latvian National Armed Forces. Retrieved 26 May 2021.
  16. ^ "Karių laipsnių ženklai". kariuomene.kam.lt (in Lithuanian). Ministry of National Defence (Lithuania). Retrieved 26 May 2021.
  17. ^ "IV. Izgled Činova u Vojsci". Official Gazette of Montenegro (in Montenegrin). 50/10: 22–28. 16 August 2010. Retrieved 17 September 2021.
  18. ^ "De rangonderscheidingstekens van de krijgsmacht" (PDF) (in Dutch). Ministry of Defence (Netherlands). 19 December 2016. Retrieved 18 March 2021.
  19. ^ "Militære grader". forsvaret.no (in Norwegian). Norwegian Armed Forces. 4 February 2021. Retrieved 26 May 2021.
  20. ^ "Sposób noszenia odznak stopni wojskowych na umundurowaniu Marynarki Wojennej" (PDF). wojsko-polskie.pl (in Polish). Armed Forces Support Inspectorate. Retrieved 7 June 2021.
  21. ^ "Os Postos". marinha.pt (in Portuguese). Retrieved 26 February 2021.
  22. ^ "Grade militare (Military ranks)". defense.ro (in Romanian). Romanian Defence Staff. Retrieved 1 February 2021.
  23. ^ "Čini in razredi". slovenskavojska.si (in Slovenian). Slovenian Armed Forces. Retrieved 26 May 2021.
  24. ^ "Army Ranks & Insignia". ejercito.defensa.gob.es. Ministry of Defence (Spain). Retrieved 30 May 2021.
  25. ^ "RÜTBE VE SINIF İŞARETLERİ". Official navy (in Turkish). Retrieved 1 March 2021.
  26. ^ "Shaping your career". royalnavy.mod.uk. Royal Navy. Retrieved 24 September 2021.
  27. ^ "RM Officers & Other Ranks Badges of Rank". Royal Navy website. Archived from the original on 2008-10-07. Retrieved 2008-10-05.
  28. ^ "U.S. Military Rank Insignia". defense.gov. Department of Defense. Retrieved 13 January 2022.
  29. ^ "Ranks". marines.mil. U.S. Marine Corps. Retrieved 13 June 2021.
  • Davis, Brian L. (1989). NATO Forces: An Illustrated Reference to Their Organization and Insignia. Blandford Press. ISBN 978-0713717372.

External links

  • History of NATO – the Atlantic Alliance - UK Government site