Republic of China Armed Forces rank insignia

Summary

The Republic of China Armed Forces in Taiwan has five rank schemes among different military branches, including Army,[1] Navy,[2] and Air Force.[3] The Marine Corps,[4] although being a part of the Navy, maintains a different insignia to other naval fleet personnel. The Military Police has insignia very similar to the Army, just with a slightly different green color. Under the current regulations, military ranks contain the following:

The official military rank names in Traditional Chinese are identical across all different military branches, but their English translations may be different.

History

Insignia of Generalissimo

The rank system of the Republic of China Armed Forces was originally based on that of the Wehrmacht of Germany (Weimar Republic and early era of Nazi Germany) during the era of Sino-German cooperation in the 1930s. Due to the German influence, the rank of one-star general or admiral does not use the French-style title of Brigadier General, but the German-style title of Major General (Army, Air force and Marines) or Rear Admiral (Navy).

After the government of the Republic of China relocated to Taiwan in December 1949, the military rank system had a large reform in 1956. The rank structure is getting closer to the one used by the United States Armed Forces.

Before 2000, Generalissimo (Chinese: 特級上將; pinyin: Tèjí Shàngjiàng; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Te̍k-kip Siōng-chiòng) was the highest military rank of the Armed Forces. It was bestowed only once, to Chiang Kai-shek in 1935. This rank was abolished since 2000.

The rank of full general (Chinese: 一級上將; pinyin: Yījí Shàngjiàng; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: It-kip Siōng-chiòng) was designed for the Chief of the General Staff and some senior military strategy advisors in the Office of the President. Since 2013, the new regulations have all these positions shall be with lower rank generals. The rank of full general will be granted only in wartime.[citation needed]

Officers

Level Generals Colonels Captains
Rank 一級上將 二級上將 中將 少將 上校 中校 少校 上尉 中尉 少尉
Mandarin Yījí Shàngjiàng Èrjí Shàngjiàng Zhōngjiàng Shaojiàng Shàngxiào Zhōngxiào Shàoxiào Shàngwèi Zhōngwèi Shàowèi Wèi
Taiwanese It-kip Siōng-chiòng Jī-kip Siōng-chiòng Tiong-chiòng Siáu-chiòng Siōng-hāu Tiong-hāu Siáu-hāu Siōng-ùi Tiong-ùi Siáu-ùi Ùi
Hakka Yit-khi̍p Song-chiông Ngi-khi̍p Song-chiông Chûng-chiông Seu-chiông Song-káu Chûng-káu Seu-káu Song-ví Chûng-ví Seu-ví
Equivalent
NATO Code
OF-9 OF-8 OF-7 OF-5 OF-4 OF-3 OF-2 OF-1
Republic of China Army
Rank Full general General Lieutenant
general
Major
general
Colonel Lieutenant
colonel
Major Captain First
lieutenant
Second
lieutenant
Third
lieutenant
Insignia Taiwan-army-OF-9b.svg Taiwan-army-OF-9a.svg Taiwan-army-OF-8.svg Taiwan-army-OF-7.svg Taiwan-army-OF-5.svg Taiwan-army-OF-4.svg Taiwan-army-OF-3.svg Taiwan-army-OF-2.svg Taiwan-army-OF-1b.svg Taiwan-army-OF-1a.svg Taiwan-army-OF-1.svg
Republic of China Military Police
Rank Lieutenant
general
Major
general
Colonel Lieutenant
colonel
Major Captain First
lieutenant
Second
lieutenant
Third
lieutenant
Insignia Taiwan-MP-OF-8.svg Taiwan-MP-OF-7.svg Taiwan-MP-OF-5.svg Taiwan-MP-OF-4.svg Taiwan-MP-OF-3.svg Taiwan-MP-OF-2.svg Taiwan-MP-OF-1c.svg Taiwan-MP-OF-1b.svg Taiwan-MP-OF-1a.svg
Republic of China Navy
Rank Full Admiral Admiral Vice
admiral
Rear
admiral
Captain Commander Lieutenant
commander
Lieutenant Lieutenant
(junior grade)
Ensign
Insignia Taiwan-navy-OF-9b.svg Taiwan-navy-OF-9a.svg Taiwan-navy-OF-8.svg Taiwan-navy-OF-7.svg Taiwan-navy-OF-5.svg Taiwan-navy-OF-4.svg Taiwan-navy-OF-3.svg Taiwan-navy-OF-2.svg Taiwan-navy-OF-1b.svg Taiwan-navy-OF-1a.svg
Republic of China Marine Corps
Rank General Lieutenant
general
Major
general
Colonel Lieutenant
colonel
Major Captain First
lieutenant
Second
lieutenant
Third
lieutenant
Insignia Taiwan-Marine-OF-9a.svg Taiwan-Marine-OF-8.svg Taiwan-Marine-OF-7.svg Taiwan-Marine-OF-5.svg Taiwan-Marine-OF-4.svg Taiwan-Marine-OF-3.svg Taiwan-Marine-OF-2.svg Taiwan-Marine-OF-1b.svg Taiwan-Marine-OF-1a.svg Taiwan-Marine-OF-1.svg
Republic of China Air Force
Rank Full general General Lieutenant
general
Major
general
Colonel Lieutenant
colonel
Major Captain First
lieutenant
Second
lieutenant
Third
lieutenant
Insignia Taiwan-airforce-OF-9b.svg Taiwan-airforce-OF-9a.svg Taiwan-airforce-OF-8.svg Taiwan-airforce-OF-7.svg Taiwan-airforce-OF-5.svg Taiwan-airforce-OF-4.svg Taiwan-airforce-OF-3.svg Taiwan-airforce-OF-2.svg Taiwan-airforce-OF-1b.svg Taiwan-airforce-OF-1a.svg Taiwan-airforce-OF-1.svg

Warrant Officers

Grade Rank Abbreviation Army Military Police Marine Corps Air Force
WO Warrant Officer
(准尉
Chunwèi)
WO Taiwan-army-WO-1.svg Taiwan-MP-WO-1.svg Taiwan-Marine-WO-1.svg Taiwan-airforce-WO-1.svg

Enlisted

Level Non-commissioned officers Enlisted personnels
Rank 一等士官長 二等士官長 三等士官長 上士 中士 下士 上等兵 一等兵 二等兵
Mandarin Yīděng Shìguānzhǎng Èrděng Shìguānzhǎng Sānděng Shìguānzhǎng Shàngshi Zhōngshi Xiàshi Shàngděng Bīng Yīděng Bīng Èrděng Bīng
Taiwanese It-téng Sū-koaⁿ-tiúⁿ Jī-téng Sū-koaⁿ-tiúⁿ Sàm-téng Sū-koaⁿ-tiúⁿ Siōng-sū Tiong-sū Hā-sū Siōng-téng Peng It-téng Peng Jī-téng Peng
Hakka Yit-tén Sṳ-kôn-chóng Ngi-tén Sṳ-kôn-chóng Sâm-tén Sṳ-kôn-chóng Song-sṳ Chûng-sṳ Ha-sṳ Song-tén Pîn Yit-tén Pîn Ngi-tén Pîn
Equivalent
NATO Code
OR-9 OR-8 OR-7 OR-6 OR-5 OR-4 OR-3 OR-2 OR-1
Republic of China Army
Rank First class
master sergeant
Second class
master sergeant
Third class
master sergeant
Staff sergeant Sergeant Corporal Private
specialist
Private
first class
Private
Insignia Taiwan-army-OR-9.svg Taiwan-army-OR-8.svg Taiwan-army-OR-7.svg Taiwan-army-OR-6.svg Taiwan-army-OR-5.svg Taiwan-army-OR-4.svg Taiwan-army-OR-3.svg Taiwan-army-OR-2.svg Taiwan-army-OR-1.svg
Republic of China Military Police
Rank First class
master sergeant
Second class
master sergeant
Third class
master sergeant
Staff sergeant Sergeant Corporal Private
specialist
Private
first class
Private
Insignia Taiwan-MP-OR-9.svg Taiwan-MP-OR-8.svg Taiwan-MP-OR-7.svg Taiwan-MP-OR-6.svg Taiwan-MP-OR-5.svg Taiwan-MP-OR-4.svg Taiwan-MP-OR-3.svg Taiwan-MP-OR-2.svg Taiwan-MP-OR-1.svg
Republic of China Navy
Rank First class
chief petty officer
Second class
chief petty officer
Third class
chief petty officer
Petty officer
first class
Petty officer
second class
Petty officer
third class
Seaman
specialist
Seaman
first class
Seaman
Insignia Taiwan-Navy-OR-9.svg Taiwan-Navy-OR-8.svg Taiwan-Navy-OR-7.svg Taiwan-Navy-OR-6.svg Taiwan-Navy-OR-5.svg Taiwan-Navy-OR-4.svg Taiwan-Navy-OR-3.svg Taiwan-Navy-OR-2.svg Taiwan-Navy-OR-1.svg
Republic of China Marine Corps
Rank First class
master sergeant
Second class
master sergeant
Third class
master sergeant
Staff Sergeant Sergeant Corporal Lance
corporal
Private
first class
Private
Insignia Taiwan-Marine-OR-9.svg Taiwan-Marine-OR-8.svg Taiwan-Marine-OR-7.svg Taiwan-Marine-OR-6.svg Taiwan-Marine-OR-5.svg Taiwan-Marine-OR-4.svg Taiwan-Marine-OR-3.svg Taiwan-Marine-OR-2.svg Taiwan-Marine-OR-1.svg
Republic of China Air Force
Rank First class
master sergeant
Second class
master sergeant
Third class
master sergeant
Staff Sergeant Sergeant Corporal Senior
airman
Airman
first class
Airman
Insignia Taiwan-airforce-OR-9.svg Taiwan-airforce-OR-8.svg Taiwan-airforce-OR-7.svg Taiwan-airforce-OR-6.svg Taiwan-airforce-OR-5.svg Taiwan-airforce-OR-4.svg Taiwan-airforce-OR-3.svg Taiwan-airforce-OR-2.svg Taiwan-airforce-OR-1.svg

Historic ranks

Officer rank

Rank group General/flag officers Field/senior officers Junior officers Officer cadet
特級上將 一級上將 二級上將 中將 少將 代將 上校 中校 少校 上尉 中尉 少尉 准尉 軍校生
Tèjí shàng jiàng Yījí shàng jiàng Èr jí shàng jiàng Zhōng jiàng Shào jiàng Dài jiāng Shàng xiào Zhōng xiào Shào xiào Shàng wèi Zhōng wèi Shào wèi Zhǔn wèi Jūnxiào shēng
Republic of China National Army
[5][6]
Tiwan-Army-OF-10 (1928).svg Tiwan-Army-OF-9 (1928).svg Tiwan-Army-OF-8 (1928).svg Tiwan-Army-OF-7 (1928).svg Tiwan-Army-OF-5 (1928).svg Tiwan-Army-OF-4 (1928).svg Tiwan-Army-OF-3 (1928).svg Tiwan-Army-OF-2 (1928).svg Tiwan-Army-OF-1b (1928).svg Tiwan-Army-OF-1a (1928).svg Tiwan-Army-WO (1928).svg Blank.svg
Republic of China Air Force
[5][6]
Tiwan-AirForce-OF-9 (1928).svg Tiwan-AirForce-OF-8 (1928).svg Tiwan-AirForce-OF-7 (1928).svg Tiwan-AirForce-OF-5 (1928).svg Tiwan-AirForce-OF-4 (1928).svg Tiwan-AirForce-OF-3 (1928).svg Tiwan-AirForce-OF-2 (1928).svg Tiwan-AirForce-OF-1c (1928).svg Tiwan-AirForce-OF-1b (1928).svg Tiwan-AirForce-OF-1a (1928).svg Blank.svg
Taiwan Republic of China Navy
[7]
Taiwan-navy-OF-9b.svg Taiwan-navy-OF-9a.svg Taiwan-navy-OF-8.svg Taiwan-navy-OF-7.svg Taiwan-Navy-OF-6 (1936).svg Taiwan-Navy-OF-5 (1936).svg Taiwan-Navy-OF-4 (1936).svg Taiwan-Navy-OF-3 (1936).svg Taiwan-Navy-OF-2 (1936).svg Taiwan-Navy-OF-1c (1936).svg Taiwan-Navy-OF-1b (1936).svg Taiwan-Navy-OF-1a (1936).svg Blank.svg

Other ranks

Rank group Non-commissioned officers Soldiers
上士 中士 下士 上等兵 一等兵 二等兵
Shàng shì Zhōng shì Xiàshì Shàngděngbīng Yī děng bīng Èrděngbīng
Republic of China National Army[6] Tiwan-Army-OR-6 (1928).svg Tiwan-Army-OR-5 (1928).svg Tiwan-Army-OR-4 (1928).svg Tiwan-Army-OR-3 (1928).svg Tiwan-Army-OR-2 (1928).svg Tiwan-Army-OR-1 (1928).svg

See also

References

Citations

  1. ^ Republic of China Army (Since 1981)
  2. ^ Republic of China Navy (Since 1981)
  3. ^ Republic of China Air Force (Since 1981)
  4. ^ Republic of China Marine Corps (Since 1981)
  5. ^ a b DI (15 June 2015). "World War 2 Allied Officers Rank Insignia". Daily Infographics. Archived from the original on 17 October 2017. Retrieved 6 May 2018.
  6. ^ a b c Mollo 2001, p. 192.
  7. ^ Mollo 2001, p. 194.

Sources

  • Mollo, Andrew (2001). The Armed Forces of World War II: Uniforms, Insignia & Organisation. Leicester: Silverdale books. ISBN 1-85605-603-1.

External links

  • Act of Commission for Officers and Noncommissioned Officers of the Armed Forces Commission Act for Officers and Noncommissioned Officers of the Armed Forces
  • Act of Military Service for Volunteer Enlisted Soldiers
  • The International Encyclopedia of Uniform Insignia around the World