Royal Norwegian Air Force

Summary

Royal Norwegian Air Force
Luftforsvaret
Royal Norwegian Air Force logo.svg
Badge of the Royal Norwegian Air Force
Founded10 November 1944; 76 years ago (1944-11-10)
Country Norway
TypeAir force
RoleAerial warfare
Size3,650
123 aircraft [1]
Part ofNorwegian Armed Forces
Motto(s)Norwegian: Konge, Folk og Fedreland
"For King, People and Fatherland"
Websiteforsvaret.no/luftforsvaret Edit this at Wikidata
Commanders
Commander-in-ChiefHM King Harald V
Chief of the Air ForceMajor General Rolf Folland
(11 August 2021 – present) [2]
Insignia
RoundelRoundel of Norway.svg Roundel of Norway – Low Visibility – Type 2.svg
Aircraft flown
Electronic
warfare
Dassault Falcon 20
FighterF-16, F-35
HelicopterAW 101, Sea King, Bell 412, NH90
PatrolP-3 Orion
TrainerSaab Safari
TransportC-130J-30

The Royal Norwegian Air Force (RNoAF) (Norwegian: Luftforsvaret) is the air force of Norway. It was established as a separate arm of the Norwegian Armed Forces on 10 November 1944. The RNoAF's peacetime establishment is approximately 2,430 employees (officers, enlisted staff and civilians). 600 personnel also serve their draft period in the RNoAF. After mobilization the RNoAF would consist of approximately 5,500 personnel.

The infrastructure of the RNoAF includes seven airbases (at Ørland, Rygge, Andøya, Evenes, Bardufoss, Bodø and Gardermoen), one control and reporting centre (at Sørreisa) and three training centres at Værnes in Trondheim, Kjevik in Kristiansand and at KNM Harald Haarfagre/Madlaleiren in Stavanger.

History

Conception

Military flights started on 1 June 1912. The first plane, HNoMS Start, was bought with money donated by the public and piloted by Hans Dons, second in command of Norway's first submarine HNoMS Kobben (A-1).[3] Until 1940 most of the aircraft belonging to the Navy and Army air forces were domestic designs or built under license agreements, the main bomber/scout aircraft of the Army air force being the Dutch-originated Fokker C.V.

World War II

Build-up for World War II

Gloster Gladiator 423 in 1938–1940

Before 1944, the Air Force were divided into the Norwegian Army Air Service (Hærens Flyvevaaben) and the Royal Norwegian Navy Air Service (Marinens Flyvevaaben).

In the late 1930s, as war seemed imminent, more modern aircraft were bought from abroad, including twelve Gloster Gladiator fighters from the UK, and six Heinkel He 115s from Germany. Considerable orders for aircraft were placed with United States companies during the months prior to the invasion of Norway on 9 April 1940.

The most important of the US orders were two orders for comparatively modern Curtiss P-36 Hawk monoplane fighters. The first was for 24 Hawk 75A-6 (with 1200 hp Pratt & Whitney R-1830-SC3-G Twin Wasp engines), 19 of which were delivered before the invasion. Of these 19, though, none were operational when the attack came. A number were still in their shipping crates in Oslo harbour, while others stood at the Kjeller aircraft factory, flight ready, but none combat ready. Some of the Kjeller aircraft had not been fitted with machine guns, and those that had been fitted still lacked gun sights.

The ship with the last five 75A-6s that were bound for Norway was diverted to the United Kingdom, where they were taken over by Royal Air Force (RAF). All 19 Norwegian P-36s that were captured by the German invaders were later sold by the German authorities to the Finnish Air Force, which was to use them to good effect during the Continuation War.

The other order for P-36s was for 36 Hawk 75A-8 (with 1200 hp Wright R-1820-95 Cyclone 9 engines), none of which were delivered in time for the invasion, but were delivered to "Little Norway" near Toronto, Ontario, Canada. There they were used for training Norwegian pilots until the USAAF took over the aircraft and used them under the designation P-36G.

Also ordered prior to the invasion were 24 Northrop N-3PB float planes built in on Norwegian specifications for a patrol bomber. The order was made on 12 March 1940 in an effort to replace the Royal Norwegian Navy Air Service's obsolete MF.11 biplane patrol aircraft. None of the type were delivered by 9 April and when they became operational with the 330 (Norwegian) Squadron in May 1941 they were stationed at Reykjavík, Iceland performing anti-submarine and convoy escort duties.

1937–1940 aircraft marking

Escape and exile

The unequal situation led to the rapid defeat of the Norwegian air forces, even though seven Gladiators from Jagevingen (the fighter wing) defended Fornebu airport against the attacking German forces with some success—claiming two Bf 110 heavy fighters, two He 111 bombers and one Junkers Ju 52 transport. Jagevingen lost two Gladiators to ground strafing while they were rearming on Fornebu and one in the air, shot down by Future Experte Helmut Lent, injuring the sergeant pilot. After the withdrawal of allied forces, the Norwegian Government ceased fighting in Norway and evacuated to the United Kingdom on 10 June 1940.

DH.82A Tiger Moth in Royal Norwegian Air Force markings

Only aircraft of the Royal Norwegian Navy Air Service had the range to fly all the way from their last remaining bases in Northern Norway to the UK. Included amongst the Norwegian aircraft that reached the British Isles were four German-made Heinkel He 115 seaplane bombers, six of which were bought before the war and two more were captured from the Germans during the Norwegian Campaign. One He 115 also escaped to Finland before the surrender of mainland Norway, as did three M.F. 11s; landing on Lake Salmijärvi in Petsamo. A captured Arado Ar 196 originating from the German heavy cruiser Admiral Hipper was also flown to Britain for testing.

For the Norwegian Army Air Service aircraft the only option for escape was Finland, where the planes would be interned but at least not fall into the hands of the Germans. In all two Fokker C.V.s and one de Havilland Tiger Moth made it across the border and onto Finnish airfields just before the capitulation of mainland Norway. All navy and army aircraft that fled to Finland were pressed into service with the Finnish Air Force,[4] while most of the aircrew eventually ended up in "Little Norway".

The Army and Navy air services established themselves in Britain under the command of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Norwegian air and ground crews operated as part of the British Royal Air Force, in both wholly Norwegian squadrons and also in other squadrons and units such as RAF Ferry Command and RAF Bomber Command. In particular, Norwegian personnel operated two squadrons of Supermarine Spitfires: RAF 132 (Norwegian) Wing consisted of No. 331 (Norwegian) Squadron and RAF No. 332 (Norwegian) Squadron. Both planes and running costs were financed by the exiled Norwegian government.

In the autumn of 1940, a Norwegian training centre known as "Little Norway" was established next to Toronto Island Airport, Canada.

The Royal Norwegian Air Force (RNoAF) was established by a royal decree on 1 November 1944, thereby merging the Army and Navy air forces. No. 331 (Norwegian) Squadron defended London from 1941 and was the highest scoring fighter squadron in South England during the war.

Up until 8 May 1945, 335 persons had lost their lives while taking part in the efforts of the RNoAF.

Post-war air force

Royal Norwegian Air Force Spitfire

After the war the Spitfire remained in service with the RNoAF into the fifties.

In 1947, the Surveillance and Control Division acquired its first radar system, and around the same time the RNoAF got its first jet fighters in the form of de Havilland Vampires.

In 1949 Norway co-founded NATO, and soon afterwards received American aircraft through the MAP (Military Aid Program). The expansion of the Air Force happened at a very rapid pace as the Cold War progressed. Throughout the Cold War the Norwegian Air Force was only one of two NATO air forces—Turkey being the other—with a responsibility for an area with a land border with the Soviet Union, and Norwegian fighter aircraft had on average 500–600 interceptions of Soviet aircraft each year.[5]

In 1959, the Anti-Aircraft Artillery was integrated into the Royal Norwegian Air Force.

In 1999, Norway participated with six[6] F-16s during the NATO bombing of Yugoslavia.[7]

21st century RNoAF

In October 2002, a tri-national force of 18 Norwegian, Danish, and Dutch F-16 fighter-bombers, with one Dutch Air Force KC-10A tanker, flew to the Manas Air Base in Kyrgyzstan, to support the NATO ground forces in Afghanistan as a part of the Operation Enduring Freedom. One of the missions was Operation Desert Lion.[8]

On 27–28 January, Norwegian F-16s bombed Hezb-e Islami Gulbuddin Fighters in the Adi Ghar Mountains during the beginnings of Operation Mongoose.

In 2004, four F-16s participated on NATO's Baltic Air Policing operation.

Since February, 2006, eight Royal Netherlands Air Force F-16s, joined by four Royal Norwegian Air Force F-16s, have been supporting NATO International Security Assistance Force ground troops mostly in the southern provinces of Afghanistan. The air detachment is known as the 1st Netherlands-Norwegian European Participating Forces Expeditionary Air Wing (1 NLD/NOR EEAW).[9]

2010s

In 2011, a detachment of F-16s were sent to enforce the Libyan no-fly zone. In a statement, Foreign Minister Jonas Gahr Støre condemned the violence against "peaceful protesters in Libya, Bahrain and Yemen", saying the protests "are an expression of the people's desire for more participatory democracy. The authorities must respect fundamental human rights such as political, economic and social rights. It is now vital that all parties do their utmost to foster peaceful dialogue on reforms".[10] On 19 March 2011, the Norwegian government authorized the Royal Norwegian Air Force for deployment in Libya. Norway approved six F-16 fighters and personnel. The deployment started on 21 March and operated from the Souda Air Base in Souda Bay on Crete.[11]

On 24 March 2011, F-16s from the Royal Norwegian Air Force were assigned to the United States Africa Command during Operation Odyssey Dawn.[12][13] On 25 March 2011, laser-guided bombs were launched from F-16s of the Royal Norwegian Air Force against Libyan tanks and during the night towards 26 March an airfield was bombed. Forces were also deployed to Operation Unified Protector on 26 March 2011.[14][15]

By July 2011, the Norwegian F-16's had dropped close to 600 bombs, some 17% of the total bombs dropped at that time.[16][17][18] It was Norwegian F-16s that on the night towards 26 April, bombed Gaddafis headquarter in Tripoli.[17][19][20][21]

From September to December 2011, the Air Force contributed personnel and one P-3 Orion to Operation Ocean Shield. Operating from the Seychelles, the aircraft searched for pirates in the Somali Basin.[22][23]

In April 2016 the life of a patient, at the hospital in Bodø, was saved when specialised medical equipment was ferried halfway across Norway, in less than half an hour, by an Air Force F-16 jet from Værnes Air Station.[24]

On 29 March 2017, Norway signed a contract for five P-8As, to be delivered between 2022 and 2023.[25]

On 3 November 2017, RNoAF took delivery of the first F-35A Lightning II.[26]

2020s

In March 2021, RNoAF participated in Icelandic Air Policing with four F-35A Lightning II and 130 military personnel.[27]

Plans

The RNoAF will conduct several investments in the coming years. First the European helicopter NH-90 will be introduced to replace the Lynx helicopters as a ship-borne helicopter, the Air Force also have bought an additional 16 search and rescue AgustaWestland AW101 helicopters to replace its aging Sea King helicopters. The aging F-16AM fighter will be replaced from 2016. On 20 November 2008, Prime Minister Jens Stoltenberg announced that the F-35A was the only fighter fulfilling all the Norwegian requirements and thus the preferred choice. Stoltenberg stated that cooperation with the Nordic countries on defence and security would continue independently of the F-35 purchase.[28]

According to the 2012 White paper, a number of changes are proposed:[29]

  • A National Air Operations Centre will be established at Reitan, outside Bodø.
  • The Control and Reporting Centre at Mågerø will be closed.
  • Ørland will become the main operating base for the F-35 as well as NASAMS and the deployable base defence units.
  • Evenes will house a Quick Reaction Alert detachment when the F-35 replaces the F-16.
  • As F-16 operations wind down in the early 2020s, Bodø will close as an Air Station.
  • The Royal Norwegian Air Force participates in the EATC led acquisition by The Royal Netherlands Air Force with one Airbus 330 MRTT Tanker & Transport Aircraft based at Eindhoven Airbase as part of the NATO 8 x A330 MRTT Fleet.
  • Helicopter operations will be consolidated at Bardufoss with detachments:
  • The two DA-20 aircraft will move from Rygge to Gardermoen. 720 Squadron will be merged with 339 Squadron at Bardufoss, and Rygge will close as an Air Station.[30]

On 7 June 2012, the United States' Defense Security Cooperation Agency notified Congress today of a possible Foreign Military Sale to the Government of Norway for two C-130J-30 United States Air Force (USAF) baseline aircraft and associated parts, equipment, logistical support and training for an estimated cost of $300 million.[31]

In 2016, research was started to consider the Boeing P-8A Poseidon MMA to replace the aging six P-3C Orion and two Falcon 20 aircraft by 2020 - 2025. In November 2016 the intention to acquire five was confirmed. On 5 March 2018, United States Department of Defense announced the award of a contract to Boeing that includes five P-8A Poseidons for RNoAF.[32][33][34]

Organization

Royal Norwegian Air Force locations 2018:
  • Red pog.svg F-16A MLU Falcon
  • Blue 0080ff pog.svg P-3C/N
  • Pink pog.svg Helicopters
  • Green pog.svg Other flying units
  • Lightgreen pog.svg Control and reporting centre
  • Steel pog.svg Other air stations
  • Blue pog.svg Naval base
  • Yellow pog.svg RAT-31SL/N radar station
  • Orange pog.svg SINDRE I radar station
An F-16AM landing at RIAT 2014
A Norwegian Dassault Falcon 20

The RNoAF is organized in five Air Wings. These are divided into a total of one Control and Reporting Centre, nine flying squadrons as well as two ground based air defense units. The former distinctiontion between a Main Air Station (hovedflystasjon) and an Air Station (flystasjon) was replaced by a new distinction between an Air Force Station (flystasjon) and an Air Force Base (Luftforsvarets base).

  • 131 Air Wing, in Sørreisa[35]
  • 132 Air Wing (132 Luftving), HQ at Ørland Air Station
    • Ørland Air Station (Ørland flystasjon)
      • 332 Squadron (332 skvadron), with F-35A Lightning II
      • Testing, Training and Tactics Development Squadron (Testing, trening og taktikk skvadron), with F-35A Lightning II
      • Aircraft Maintenance Group Ørland (Vedlikeholdsgruppen Ørland)
      • Air Defence Battalion NASAMS III (Luftvernbataljonen NASAMS III)
      • Base Defense Squadron (Baseforsvarsskvadron)
      • Base Operations Group Ørland (Basegruppen Ørland)
      • Air Force Logistical Base (Logbase Luft)
      • NATO Airborne Early Warning Force – Forward Operating Location, for E-3A Sentry
    • Bodø Air Force Base Force Base Bodø (Luftforsvarets base Bodø)
  • Maritime Helicopter Wing (Maritim helikopterving), HQ at Bardufoss Air Station
  • 133 Air Wing, HQ at Evenes Air Station (moved over from Andøya Air Station)
    • Evenes Air Station (Evenes flystasjon) - The 333 Squadron will move to Evenes with the introduction of the P-8A Poseidon. The air station will also provide a forward deployment location for the F-35A fighters of the 132nd Air Wing. The expansion of Evenes Air Station and its increased importance will see the base field its own air defence battalion of NASAMS III, independent from the one in Ørland and its own base defence squadron.[36] When Evenes expands to its planned capability, the base will have the following composition:
      • Evenes Staff Unit (Stab Evenes)
      • 333 Squadron (333 skvadron), with 5 Boeing P-8A Poseidon aircraft in the ASW, maritime patrol, ELINT and EW roles
      • Aircraft Maintenance Squadron (Vedlikeholdsskvadron)
      • Air Defence Battalion (Luftvernbataljon) (separate from the Air Defence Battalion at Ørland air base)
      • Base Defence Squadron (Baseforsvarsskvadron)
      • Base Operations Squadron (Baseskvadron)
      • Base [Staff] Department(Baseavdeling)
      • In addition to the strictly Air Force units Evenes Air Station will also house small contingents (personnel numbers in brackets) of the Norwegian Cyber Defence Force (CYFOR) (20), Norwegian Armed Forces Logistics Organisation (FLO) (30) and the Norwegian Defence Estates Agency (Forsvarsbygg) (20) for a total planned personnel of 651 people at the base.[37]
    • Andøya Station Group (Stasjonsgruppe Andøya) at Andøya Air Force Base (Luftforsvarets base Andøya)
  • 134 Air Wing, at Rygge Air Station
    • Rygge Air Station (Rygge flystasjon)
      • 339 Special Operations Aviation Squadron (339 skvadron), with Bell 412 SP (Special forces support)
      • Special Operations Air Task Group
    • Gardermoen Station Group (Stasjonsgruppe Gardermoen) at Air Force Base Gardermoen (Luftforsvarets base Gardermoen), the military section of Oslo - Gardermoen IAP (The 135th Air Wing was disbanded in August 2018 and absorbed into the 134th Air Wing.)
  • Rescue Helicopter Service (Redningshelikoptertjenesten), HQ at Stavanger - Sola Air Station - In Norway air rescue is a domain of the Ministry of Justice and [Crisis Reaction] Readiness (Justis- og beredskapsdepartementet), which also finances these activities, including the funding for the acquisition of aerial assets (the old Sea King helicopters and their AW101 replacement are owned by the justice ministry). The Rescue Helicopter Service is the operational component, organised, manned and operated by the Air Force on behalf of the Ministry of Justice. Rescue helicopters maintain 15 minute readiness.
  • Royal Norwegian Air Force Academy, in Trondheim
  • Air force schools (Luftforsvarets skoler):
    • Air Force Air Operational Training and Certification Center (Luftforsvarets flyoperative trenings- og sertifiseringssenter), formerly Air Force Air Tactical School (Luftforsvarets flytaktiske skole), at Rygge
    • Air Force Flight Training School (Luftforsvarets flygeskole), at Bardufoss, listed above under the Bardufoss Air Station, Maritime Helicopter Wing entry.
    • Air Defence Tactical School (Luftverntaktisk skole), at Ørland
    • Air Force Base Defence Tactical School (Luftforsvarets baseforsvarstaktiske skole), at Værnes
    • Air Force Control and Reporting School (Luftforsvarets kontroll- og varslingsskole), at Sørreisa
    • Air Force Flight Technical School (Luftforsvarets tekniske skole), at Kjevik
    • Air Force Specialists School (Luftforsvarets spesialistskole), at Kjevik
    • Air Warfare School (Luftkrigsskolen), at Trondheim. In 2018 the Air Warfare School (Air Force Officer School) became part of the Armed Forces Academy (Forsvarets Høgskole) and thus no longer part of the Air Force. Listed above as the Royal Norwegian Air Force Academy.

Aircraft

A Westland Sea King
A Norwegian C-130J

Current inventory

Aircraft Origin Type Variant In service Notes
Combat Aircraft
F-16 Fighting Falcon United States multirole F-16A 44[38]
F-35 Lightning II United States multirole F-35A 21 21 on order[39]
Electronic Warfare
Falcon 20 France electronic warfare 200 2[38]
Maritime Patrol
P-3 Orion United States ASW / patrol P-3C/N 6[38]
Boeing P-8 United States ASW / patrol 5 on order[38]
Transport
Lockheed C-130J United States tactical airlift 4[38]
Helicopters
Bell 412 United States utility 18[38]
NHIndustries NH90 Italy ASW 11[38] 3 on order
Westland Sea King United Kingdom SAR / utility Mk. 43 12[38]
AgustaWestland AW101 United Kingdom SAR / utility 9[38] 7 on order - Sea King replacement[40]
Trainer Aircraft
Saab MFI-15 Safari Sweden basic trainer 16[38]
F-35 Lightning II United States trainer F-35A 10[39] providing conversion training at Luke AFB[41]
F-16 Fighting Falcon United States conversion trainer F-16B 9[38]

Note: Norway is part of several multi national services and has availability of using the services including three C-17 Globemaster III's that are available through the Heavy Airlift Wing based in Hungary.[42] Also four Airbus A330 MRTT is available through the Multinational Multi-Role Tanker Transport Fleet.

Retired

Previous aircraft flown by the Air Force included the North American F-86K, Republic F-84, F-104 Starfighter, Northrop F-5, Lockheed T-33, Fairchild PT-26, Catalina PB5Y-A, Douglas C-47
DHC-3 Otter, Noorduyn Norseman, Cessna O-1, Bell UH-1B, and the Bell 47G helicopter.[43][44]

See also

References

  1. ^ "World Air Forces 2016". Flightglobal: 25. Archived from the original on 24 June 2016. Retrieved 8 December 2016.
  2. ^ Forsvaret: [1] (in Norwegian)
  3. ^ Official Norwegian Defence Force website: History of the Royal Norwegian Air Force Archived 2006-05-07 at the Wayback Machine (in Norwegian)
  4. ^ "Finnish Air Force Aircraft of WWII". Retrieved 4 November 2017.[dead link]
  5. ^ "The Norwegian Air Force chief's address to Oslo Military Society in 2004". Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 4 November 2017.
  6. ^ https://fhs.brage.unit.no/fhs-xmlui/bitstream/handle/11250/2390086/MS-316-blapdf.pdf?sequence=3&isAllowed=y
  7. ^ "The Guard at NATO's Northern Gate".
  8. ^ John Pike. "OEF – Operation Desert Lion". Archived from the original on 25 December 2014. Retrieved 24 December 2014.
  9. ^ "Dutch MoD on the 1 NLD/NOR EEAW". Archived from the original on 27 May 2008. Retrieved 4 November 2017.
  10. ^ "Norway condemns violence in Libya, Bahrain and Yemen". Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 19 February 2011. Archived from the original on 12 October 2012. Retrieved 22 February 2011.
  11. ^ Kristoffer Egeberg keg@dagbladet.no På Twitter: @InfoKeg (20 March 2011). "Vet ikke hvilke farer som møter dem – nyheter". Dagbladet.no. Archived from the original on 25 April 2011. Retrieved 27 November 2013.
  12. ^ "Her flyr norske jagerfly mot Libya – VG Nett om Libya". Vg.no. 1 January 1970. Archived from the original on 10 September 2011. Retrieved 27 November 2013.
  13. ^ kl.12:18 (24 March 2011). "To norske F16-fly har tatt av fra Souda Bay-basen – nyheter". Dagbladet.no. Archived from the original on 27 April 2011. Retrieved 27 November 2013.
  14. ^ Jonas Sverrisson Rasch jon@dagbladet.no PÅ KRETA (26 March 2011). "Norske fly bombet flybase i Libya i natt – nyheter". Dagbladet.no. Archived from the original on 14 October 2012. Retrieved 27 November 2013.
  15. ^ Martin Skjæraasen. "Norske fly i kamphandlinger i Libya – Aftenposten". Aftenposten.no. Archived from the original on 10 October 2012. Retrieved 27 November 2013.
  16. ^ Jonas Sverrisson Rasch jon@dagbladet.no (15 April 2011). "Norske fly har aldri bombet så mye – nyheter". Dagbladet.no. Archived from the original on 18 April 2011. Retrieved 27 November 2013.
  17. ^ a b "Bekrefter norske bomber over Tripoli – VG Nett om Libya". Vg.no. 1 January 1970. Archived from the original on 2 December 2013. Retrieved 27 November 2013.
  18. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 April 2012. Retrieved 5 April 2012.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  19. ^ ESPEN RØST ero@dagbladet.no (26 April 2011). "Norske F16-fly angrep Kadhafis hovedkvarter – nyheter". Dagbladet.no. Archived from the original on 2 December 2013. Retrieved 27 November 2013.
  20. ^ "Hardball with Chris Matthews". MSNBC. 4 June 2012. Archived from the original on 5 November 2012. Retrieved 27 November 2013.
  21. ^ Toralf Sandø; Ingeborg Eliassen. "Amerikanske medier: Norske F16-fly angrep Gadafis hovedkvarter – Aftenposten". Aftenposten.no. Archived from the original on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 27 November 2013.
  22. ^ "Norsk bidrag til Operation Ocean Shield". Archived from the original on 25 December 2014. Retrieved 24 December 2014.
  23. ^ "Norwegian Orion found pirates". Archived from the original on 27 October 2013. Retrieved 4 November 2017.
  24. ^ Will Worley. "F16 fighter jet saves patient's life by flying medical equipment across Norway". The Independent. Archived from the original on 22 April 2016. Retrieved 23 April 2016.
  25. ^ "Norge har inngått kontrakt om kjøp av fem nye P-8A Poseidon maritime patruljefly". Regjeringen.no. 29 March 2017. Archived from the original on 30 March 2017.
  26. ^ "De første F-35 flyene har landet i Norge". NRK.no. 3 November 2017.
  27. ^ "Iceland Air Policing".
  28. ^ "The Joint Strike Fighter recommended to replace the F-16". Norwegian Prime Minister's Office. 20 November 2008. Archived from the original on 21 May 2011. Retrieved 21 November 2008.
  29. ^ Forsvarsdepartementet (23 March 2012). "Et Forsvar for vår tid". 2012 White Paper. Regjeringen. Archived from the original on 26 May 2012. Retrieved 22 April 2012.
  30. ^ "Norway reduces airbase close to capital Oslo". AIRheads↑FLY. Archived from the original on 7 December 2014. Retrieved 24 December 2014.
  31. ^ [2] Archived July 22, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  32. ^ "First contract for Norwegian P-8 Poseidon". Air Forces Monthly. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
  33. ^ "Initial Contract Awarded for Norway's Five P-8A Poseidons". Warnesy'ss World of Military Aviation. 10 March 2018. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
  34. ^ https://forsvaret.no/forsvarsmateriell/p-8
  35. ^ "Front page". Mil.no. Archived from the original on 8 December 2010. Retrieved 27 November 2013.
  36. ^ "Evenes". Forsvaret (in Norwegian Nynorsk). Retrieved 28 June 2021.
  37. ^ Holmelin, Erik. "Planmessige utfordringer for Evenes av Luftforsvarets etablering av Evenes Flystasjon (Planned Measures for Evenes for the Establishing of Evenes Air Station by the Air Force), page 10: Tabell 2.1. Luftforsvarets planer for oppbemanning på Evenes fordelt på funksjoner. Kilde: Luftforsvaret" (PDF).
  38. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "World Air Forces 2021". Flightglobal Insight. 2021. Retrieved 4 July 2021.
  39. ^ a b "Norway gets three new F-35A's". www.tu.no. 2021. Retrieved 2 August 2021.
  40. ^ "Third Norwegian AW101 handed over". Air Forces Monthly. July 2018. p. 13.
  41. ^ "Fighter aircraft for the Armed Forces". regjeringen.no. 2017. Retrieved 2 August 2021.
  42. ^ "Heavy Airlift Wing". Strategic Airlift Capability Program. Retrieved 17 April 2020.
  43. ^ "World Air Forces 1955 pg. 652". flightglobal.com. Archived from the original on 17 January 2018. Retrieved 14 January 2018.
  44. ^ "World Air Forces 1975 pg. 307". flightglobal.com. Archived from the original on 17 January 2018. Retrieved 14 January 2018.

Bibliography

  • Owers, Colin (Spring 1994). "Fokker's Fifth: The C.V Multi-role Biplane". Air Enthusiast. No. 53. pp. 60–68. ISSN 0143-5450.

External links

  • Norwegian Defence 2005 – Facts from the Ministry of Defence
  • RNoAF Equipment Facts (in English)
  • History of the Royal Norwegian Air Force (Norwegian)
  • Norwegian Aviation Museum
  • ML407 – The Norwegian Story
  • Norwegian Air Force – Air Show in Kristiansand
  • RNoAF English pages