Rubidium chloride is the chemical compound with the formula RbCl. This alkali metal halide salt is composed of rubidium and chlorine, and finds diverse uses ranging from electrochemistry to molecular biology.
3D model (JSmol)
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
|Molar mass||120.921 g/mol|
|Appearance||white crystals |
|Density||2.80 g/cm3 (25 °C) |
2.088 g/mL (750 °C)
|Melting point||718 °C (1,324 °F; 991 K)|
|Boiling point||1,390 °C (2,530 °F; 1,660 K)|
|77 g/100mL (0 °C) |
91 g/100 mL (20 °C)
130 g/100 mL (100 °C)
|Solubility in methanol||1.41 g/100 mL|
Refractive index (nD)
Heat capacity (C)
|52.4 J K−1 mol−1|
|95.9 J K−1 mol−1|
Std enthalpy of
|NFPA 704 (fire diamond)|
|Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):|
LD50 (median dose)
|4440 mg/kg (rat)|
|Safety data sheet (SDS)||Fisher Scientific|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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In its gas phase, RbCl is diatomic with a bond length estimated at 2.7868 Å. This distance increases to 3.285 Å for cubic RbCl, reflecting the higher coordination number of the ions in the solid phase.
The sodium chloride (NaCl) polymorph is most common. A cubic close-packed arrangement of chloride anions with rubidium cations filling the octahedral holes describes this polymorph. Both ions are six-coordinate in this arrangement. This polymorph's lattice energy is only 3.2 kJ/mol less than the following structure's.
At high temperature and pressure, RbCl adopts the caesium chloride (CsCl) structure (NaCl and KCl undergo the same structural change at high pressures). Here, the chloride ions form a simple cubic arrangement with chloride anions occupying the vertices of a cube surrounding a central Rb+. This is RbCl's densest packing motif. Because a cube has eight vertices, both ions' coordination numbers equal eight. This is RbCl's highest possible coordination number. Therefore, according to the radius ratio rule, cations in this polymorph will reach their largest apparent radius because the anion-cation distances are greatest.
The sphalerite polymorph of rubidium chloride has not been observed experimentally. This is consistent with the theory; the lattice energy is predicted to be nearly 40.0 kJ/mol smaller in magnitude than those of the preceding structures.
Because RbCl is hygroscopic, it must be protected from atmospheric moisture, e.g. using a desiccator. RbCl is primarily used in laboratories. Therefore, numerous suppliers (see below) produce it in smaller quantities as needed. It is offered in a variety of forms for chemical and biomedical research.
Rubidium chloride reacts with sulfuric acid to give rubidium hydrogen sulfate.