SOM (missile)


The SOM (Turkish: Satha Atılan Orta Menzilli Mühimmat) is a next-generation autonomous, stealth, high precision cruise missile developed by TÜBİTAK SAGE, Defence Research and Development Institute of Turkey.[6] It was first revealed during the 100th anniversary celebrations of the Turkish Air Force at the Çiğli Air Base in İzmir, on 4 June 2011. Developed since 2006, the SOM is Turkey's first domestic guided missile for striking both stationary and moving targets at a stand-off distance of over 180 kilometers.[7][8] Although being developed by TÜBİTAK SAGE which still holds authority over the design of the missile, ROKETSAN has been given the role of manufacturing and marketing the missile for export.[9]

SOM Cruise Missile
SOM cruise missile mockup on MSPO 2014.jpeg
SOM cruise missile mockup exhibited during MSPO 2017 at Kielce, Poland.
TypeAir-launched cruise missile
Anti-ship missile
Place of originTurkey
Service history
In serviceSince 2017
Used byTurkish Air Force
Production history
SOM-J is manufactured by TÜBİTAK SAGE and ROKETSAN in Turkey.
MassSOM-A: 620 kilograms (1,367 lb)
SOM-B1: 620 kilograms (1,367 lb)
SOM-B2: 660 kilograms (1,455 lb)
SOM-J: 500 kilograms (1,102 lb)
Length3,657 millimetres (12.0 ft)[1]
Warhead230 kilograms (507 lb)
SOM-A: High Explosive Blast-Fragmentation Warhead
SOM-B1: High Explosive Blast-Fragmentation Warhead
SOM-B2: Dual Stage Tandem Penetrating Warhead
SOM-J: Semi-Armor Piercing Warhead

EngineKale KTJ-3200[2]
2.5-3.3 kN
Wingspan2.6 metres (8.53 ft)
SOM-A, B1, B2: >250 km (130 nmi)[3]
SOM-J: 275 km (148 nmi)
Flight altitudeTerrain hugging
Sea skimming
Maximum speed 623 knots (0.94 Mach)
Terrain Referenced Navigation
Image Based Navigation
Automatic Target Recognition
Imaging Infrared Seeker[4]
Accuracy5 metres (16 ft) CEP
F-16 Fighting Falcon
F-4 Phantom II
TAI Hürjet
Bayraktar Akıncı
Bayraktar MIUS[5]


The SOM stand-off cruise missile is a family of launch and leave precision strike weapons against both land or sea targets. It uses GPS as its primary mode of guidance complemented by an advanced Inertial Navigation System and a radar-based Terrain Referenced Navigation system, allowing the missile to skim the terrain during its flight in order to evade local defence systems. According to the developer, it features advanced geometry and aerodynamics over similar missile systems, as well as lightweight composite components that minimize the radar cross-section of the missile. A terminal stage infrared imager detects the individual target by matching its signature with a pre-loaded database of similar targets allowing for precision strike. It can also be used to provide image-based midcourse navigation by taking snapshots of waypoints and comparing them against predicted position to update the navigation system. Thus, if GPS capability is denied or degraded, the missile can follow its waypoints using infrared based terrain updates. The missile includes a two-way datalink that makes possible to change the task in flight.[8][10][11] The basic design of the missile includes a fuselage designed specifically to fit in the internal weapons bays of the Joint Strike Fighter.[11] It is intended to achieve high accuracy in striking military targets like command and control facilities, SAM sites, parked aircraft and surface ships.[12]



According to the TUBITAK-SAGE officials, the initial demonstration flights of the prototypes were completed successfully. The missile made its first guided flight on 9 August 2011 over the Black Sea. Covering more than 100 nautical miles using GPS/INS guidance, the missile successfully hit its target with high accuracy. It was planned to assess the design aspects of the missile by conducting about 30 test flights. The delivery of a first batch of missiles to the Turkish Air Force would take place by the end of 2011, following more complicated live firing tests planned for the rest of the year.[8][10][11]

In 2013 SOM successfully hit its target from a 800km distance.[citation needed]


While initially the range of the missile was announced to be 100 nmi, debates arose in local press around the missile's real range after Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan unexpectedly set objectives for the development of a missile with a range of 2,500 km (1,300 nmi) at the plenary session of the High Science and Technology Council on 28 December 2011.[13] Shortly after, head of the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TÜBİTAK) Yücel Altınbaşak informed that they set a task to develop the missile to 2,500 km (1,300 nmi) within 2 years. "The SOM missile is currently tested for 300 km (160 nmi) range and successfully achieved 10 m (33 ft) precision goal, demonstrating around 5 m (16 ft) accuracy in live fires. We are planning to start 500 km (270 nmi) range tests this year. Later the range will be extended to 1,500 km (810 nmi) and finally to 2,500 km (1,300 nmi) in 2014", he said.[14][15]


On 26 October 2018, Turkey's defence industry authority announced that the missile entered serial production phase with Roketsan.[16]


TUBITAK-SAGE developed the missile in three configurations with varying warheads and guidance/communication packages:[17]

  • SOM-A: Basic air force variant, designed to engage a military target in simple strike mode by using the coordinates of the given target at the terminal stage.[citation needed]
  • SOM-B1: Advanced air force variant that engages a military target in precision strike mode using imaging infrared matching at the terminal stage.[citation needed]
  • SOM-B2: Special air force variant featuring a dual-stage penetrator warhead which is designed to engage strategic and well-protected assets in precision strike mode.[citation needed]
  • SOM-J: Designed specifically for use in the internal carriage bay of the F-35 Lightning II by a teaming partnership between TÜBİTAK SAGE and ROKETSAN. It is more compact with folding control surfaces and a booster (rocketry).[citation needed]
  • SOM-C1 and C2: Developed specifically to target mobile surface ships, for anti-ship role.[citation needed]

SOM-B1, B2 and J variants feature a data-link for man-in-the-loop update of a waypoint and terminal stage of the missile.[citation needed]

Foreign PartnershipsEdit

F-35 Lightning IIEdit

On 24 October 2014 Roketsan and Lockheed Martin entered into a teaming agreement whereby the parties would modify, produce and market jointly a new variant of the SOM missile, dubbed SOM-J, for use in the internal carriages of the F-35.[18][19][20][21][22] The SOM was one of two cruise missiles to be integrated with the F-35, the other being the Joint Strike Missile developed by Kongsberg Defence & Aerospace of Norway.[23]

As of 2019, the status of further integration has been put in doubt following Turkey's expulsion from the F-35 program as a result of its purchase of the Russian S-400 air-defense system.[24][25]


  •   Turkey: The SOM missile has been integrated for use on TAI produced Turkish Air Force F-16 Fighting Falcon and Turkish Air Force operated F-4E 2020.[1] Also planned to be used on the Bayraktar Akıncı UCAV. It is estimated that so far, a total of 495+ Stand-Off Missile (SOM) ALCMs have been ordered under two separate contracts (80+415)[26]
  •   Azerbaijan: Azerbaijan Air Force (AAF) has bought SOM missiles from the Turkish company of Roketsan.[27]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ a b Pocock, Chris. "Turkey's Own Cruise Missile Makes First Flight". Aviation International News online. Archived from the original on 25 September 2011. Retrieved 19 September 2015.
  2. ^ "Undersecretariat for Defence Industries Shared KTJ 3200 Engine's Video". C4 Defence News Online. Retrieved 21 June 2018.
  3. ^ "'Bizim Patriot' üretime hazır". Hurriyet. Retrieved 8 October 2015.
  4. ^ "Roketsan Introducing Precision Missile". Military Technology Magazine. Retrieved 8 October 2015.
  5. ^ "Turkey to deploy MIUS unmanned combat aircraft from LHD Anadolu". 22 July 2021.
  6. ^ TÜBİTAK SAGE Stand-off Missile (product page)[dead link]
  7. ^ "TÜBITAK-SAGE Press Release" (PDF). Retrieved 4 May 2012.[dead link]
  8. ^ a b c Turkey reveals stand-off missile bunker buster.[dead link] TRDefence. Retrieved 6 June 2015
  9. ^ (in English) David Donald UAE is first export success for CIRIT .[dead link] Jane's. Retrieved 20 February 2015
  10. ^ a b "Yerli seyir füzesi, 180 kilometreden hedefini vuracak". Hurriyet (in Turkish). 4 June 2011. Retrieved 13 July 2021.
  11. ^ a b c Turkey's Stand-Off Missile is revealed.[dead link] Janes's DSEi2011 Exhibition News. 14 September 2011
  12. ^ "DSEi: Turkish cruise missile design breaks cover". Flight Global. 14 September 2011. Retrieved 13 July 2021.
  13. ^ (in Turkish) Bülent Aydemir, Türk füzesi: Hedef menzil 2500 km. HT Gazete. 29 December 2011. Retrieved 1 February 2012
  14. ^ (in Turkish) Ahmet Dirican, TUBITAK 2014 hedefi. HT Gazete. 14 January 2012. Retrieved 1 February 2012
  15. ^ Ümit Enginsoy, Turkey aims to increase ballistic missile ranges. Hürriyet Daily News. 1 February 2012
  16. ^ "SOM mühimmatı için seri üretim imzası" [Signing ceremony for the serial production of SOM stand-off missile] (PDF) (Press release) (in Turkish). Ankara, Turkey: Directorate for Defence Industries of the Republic of Turkey. 26 October 2018. Retrieved 26 October 2018.
  17. ^ (in Turkish) Alpaslan Düven (DHA), DESi2011 News İşte Türkiye'nin ilk seyir füzesi and Stand Video. Hurriyet. Retrieved 14 September 2011
  18. ^ "Lockheed Martin Teams with Roketsan of Turkey on New Standoff Missile for the F-35". Retrieved 8 October 2015.[dead link]
  19. ^ "Lockheed Martin announces Roketsan teaming on new F-35 standoff missile". Retrieved 8 October 2015.[dead link]
  20. ^ "Roketsan, Lockheed partner new F-35 air-to-surface standoff missile". Retrieved 8 October 2015.
  21. ^ Tamir Eshel (24 October 2014). "Turkey, US to modify the SOM cruise missile for use with F-35". Retrieved 8 October 2015.
  22. ^ "The Aviationist » Photo shows F-35 SOM-J Air-Launched Cruise Missile separation tests in wind tunnel". The Aviationist. 22 October 2014. Retrieved 8 October 2015.
  23. ^[dead link]
  24. ^ Mehta, Aaron (17 July 2019). "Turkey officially kicked out of F-35 program, costing US half a billion dollars". Defense News. Archived from the original on 18 July 2019. Retrieved 22 October 2021.
  25. ^ "US-Turkish Cruise Missile SOM-J May be a Victim of F-35 No-sale Fallout". Overt Defense. 16 August 2019. Archived from the original on 22 October 2021. Retrieved 22 October 2021.
  26. ^ "". Twitter. Retrieved 22 August 2021. {{cite web}}: External link in |title= (help)
  27. ^ "Azerbaijan has bought SOM missile from Turkey". Archived from the original on 26 June 2018.