STS-51-F

Summary

STS-51-F (also known as Spacelab 2) was the 19th flight of NASA's Space Shuttle program and the eighth flight of Space Shuttle Challenger. It launched from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, on 29 July 1985, and landed just under eight days later on 6 August 1985.

STS-51-F
STS-51-F Instrument Pointing System.jpg
Experiments in Challenger's payload bay
NamesSpace Transportation System-19
Spacelab 2
Mission typeAstronomical observations
OperatorNASA
COSPAR ID1985-063A
SATCAT no.15925
Mission duration7 days, 22 hours, 45 minutes, 26 seconds (achieved)
Distance travelled5,284,350 km (3,283,540 mi)
Orbits completed127
Spacecraft properties
SpacecraftSpace Shuttle Challenger
Launch mass114,693 kg (252,855 lb)
Landing mass98,309 kg (216,734 lb)
Payload mass16,309 kg (35,955 lb)
Crew
Crew size7
Members
Start of mission
Launch date29 July 1985, 21:00:00 UTC
RocketSpace Shuttle Challenger
Launch siteKennedy Space Center, LC-39A
ContractorRockwell International
End of mission
Landing date6 August 1985, 19:45:26 UTC
Landing siteEdwards Air Force Base,
Runway 23
Orbital parameters
Reference systemGeocentric orbit
RegimeLow Earth orbit
Perigee altitude312 km (194 mi)
Apogee altitude320 km (200 mi)
Inclination49.49°
Period90.90 minutes
Instruments
Carbonated Beverage Dispenser Evaluation
Infrared telescope (IRT)
Instrument Pointing System (IPS)
Plasma Diagnostics Package (PDP)
Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment
STS-51-F patch.svg
STS-51-F mission patch
STS-51-F crew.jpg
Front row (seated): C. Gordon Fullerton, Roy D. Bridges Jr.
Back row (standing): Anthony W. England, Karl G. Henize, F. Story Musgrave, Loren W. Acton, John-David F. Bartoe
← STS-51-G (18)
STS-51-I (20) →
 

While STS-51-F's primary payload was the Spacelab 2 laboratory module, the payload that received the most publicity was the Carbonated Beverage Dispenser Evaluation, which was an experiment in which both Coca-Cola and Pepsi tried to make their carbonated drinks available to astronauts.[1] A helium-cooled infrared telescope (IRT) was also flown on this mission, and while it did have some problems, it observed 60% of the galactic plane in infrared light.[2][3]

During launch Challenger experienced multiple sensor failures in its center RS-25 engine, which led to it shutting down and the shuttle had to perform an "Abort to Orbit" (ATO) emergency procedure. It is the only Shuttle mission to have carried out an abort after launching. As a result of the ATO, the mission was carried out at a slightly lower orbital altitude.

CrewEdit

Position Crew member
Commander C. Gordon Fullerton    
Second and last spaceflight
Pilot Roy D. Bridges Jr.  
Only spaceflight
Mission Specialist 1 Karl G. Henize  
Only spaceflight
Mission Specialist 2 F. Story Musgrave  
Second spaceflight
Mission Specialist 3 Anthony W. England  
Only spaceflight
Payload Specialist 1 Loren W. Acton  
Only spaceflight
Payload Specialist 2 John-David F. Bartoe  
Only spaceflight

Backup crewEdit

Position Astronaut
Payload Specialist 1 George W. Simon  
First spaceflight
Payload Specialist 2 Dianne K. Prinz  
First spaceflight

Crew seating arrangementsEdit

Seat[4] Launch Landing
 

Seats 1–4 are on the Flight Deck. Seats 5–7 are on the Middeck.
S1 Fullerton Fullerton
S2 Bridges Bridges
S3 Henize Henize
S4 Musgrave Musgrave
S5 England England
S6 Acton Acton
S7 Bartoe Bartoe

Crew notesEdit

As with previous Spacelab missions, the crew was divided between two 12-hour shifts. Acton, Bridges and Henize made up the "Red Team" while Bartoe, England and Musgrave comprised the "Blue Team"; commander Fullerton could take either shift when needed.[5] Challenger carried two Extravehicular Mobility Units (EMU) in the event of an emergency spacewalk, which would have been performed by England and Musgrave.[5]

LaunchEdit

 
Aborted launch attempt at T-3 seconds on 12 July 1985.
 
The control panel of the Shuttle on the STS-51-F mission, showing the selection of the Abort-to-Orbit (ATO) option.

STS-51-F's first launch attempt on 12 July 1985 was halted with the countdown at T−3 seconds after main engine ignition, when a malfunction of the number two RS-25 coolant valve caused an automatic launch abort. Challenger launched successfully on its second attempt on 29 July 1985, at 17:00 p.m. EDT, after a delay of 1 hour 37 minutes due to a problem with the table maintenance block update uplink.

At 3 minutes 31 seconds into the ascent, one of the center engine's two high-pressure fuel turbopump turbine discharge temperature sensors failed. Two minutes and twelve seconds later, the second sensor failed, causing the shutdown of the center engine. This was the only in-flight RS-25 failure of the Space Shuttle program. Approximately 8 minutes into the flight, one of the same temperature sensors in the right engine failed, and the remaining right-engine temperature sensor displayed readings near the redline for engine shutdown. Booster Systems Engineer Jenny M. Howard acted quickly to command the crew to inhibit any further automatic RS-25 shutdowns based on readings from the remaining sensors, preventing the potential shutdown of a second engine and a possible abort mode that may have resulted in the loss of crew and vehicle (LOCV).[6]

The failed RS-25 resulted in an Abort to Orbit (ATO) trajectory, whereby the shuttle achieved a lower-than-planned orbital altitude. The plan had been for a 385 km (239 mi) by 382 km (237 mi) orbit,[7] but the mission was carried out at 265 km (165 mi) by 262 km (163 mi).[8]

Attempt Planned Result Turnaround Reason Decision point Weather go (%) Notes
1 12 Jul 1985, 3:30:00 pm scrubbed technical 12 Jul 1985, 3:29 pm ​(T-0:03) Pad abort: malfunction in SSME #2 coolant valve shutdown of all three main engines[9][10]
2 29 Jul 1985, 5:00:00 pm success 17 days, 1 hour, 30 minutes 29 Jul 1985, 5:00 pm Launched after 1 hour 37 minute delay to resolve issue with table maintenance block update uplink. At T+343 seconds, SSME #1 shut down leading to ATO (Abort to Orbit).[8]

Mission summaryEdit

 
The Plasma Diagnostics Package (PDP) grappled by the Canadarm.
 
Space art for the Spacelab 2 mission, showing some of the various experiments in the payload bay.
 
Tony England drinks soda in space.
 
A view of the Sierra Nevada mountains and surroundings from Earth orbit, taken on the STS-51-F mission.

STS-51-F's primary payload was the laboratory module Spacelab 2. A special part of the modular Spacelab system, the "igloo", which was located at the head of a three-pallet train, provided on-site support to instruments mounted on pallets. The main mission objective was to verify performance of Spacelab systems, determine the interface capability of the orbiter, and measure the environment created by the spacecraft. Experiments covered life sciences, plasma physics, astronomy, high-energy astrophysics, solar physics, atmospheric physics and technology research. Despite mission replanning necessitated by Challenger's abort to orbit trajectory, the Spacelab mission was declared a success.

The flight marked the first time the European Space Agency (ESA) Instrument Pointing System (IPS) was tested in orbit. This unique pointing instrument was designed with an accuracy of one arcsecond. Initially, some problems were experienced when it was commanded to track the Sun, but a series of software fixes were made and the problem was corrected. In addition, Anthony W. England became the second amateur radio operator to transmit from space during the mission.

Spacelab Infrared TelescopeEdit

The Spacelab Infrared Telescope (IRT) was also flown on the mission.[3] The IRT was a 15.2 cm (6.0 in) aperture helium-cooled infrared telescope, observing light between wavelengths of 1.7 to 118 μm.[3] It was thought heat emissions from the Shuttle corrupting long-wavelength data, but it still returned useful astronomical data.[3] Another problem was that a piece of mylar insulation broke loose and floated in the line-of-sight of the telescope.[3] IRT collected infrared data on 60% of the galactic plane.[2] (see also List of largest infrared telescopes) A later space mission that experienced a stray light problem from debris was Gaia astrometry spacecraft launch in 2013 by the ESA - the source of the stray light was later identified as the fibers of the sunshield, protruding beyond the edges of the shield.[11]

Other payloadsEdit

The Plasma Diagnostics Package (PDP), which had been previously flown on STS-3, made its return on the mission, and was part of a set of plasma physics experiments designed to study the Earth's ionosphere. During the third day of the mission, it was grappled out of the payload bay by the Remote Manipulator System (Canadarm) and released for six hours.[12] During this time, Challenger maneuvered around the PDP as part of a targeted proximity operations exercise. The PDP was successfully grappled by the Canadarm and returned to the payload bay at the beginning of the fourth day of the mission.[12]

In a heavily publicized marketing experiment, astronauts aboard STS-51-F drank carbonated beverages from specially designed cans from Cola Wars competitors Coca-Cola and Pepsi.[13] According to Acton, after Coke developed its experimental dispenser for an earlier shuttle flight, Pepsi insisted to the Presidency of Ronald Reagan that Coke should not be the first cola in space. The experiment was delayed until Pepsi could develop its own system, and the two companies' products were assigned to STS-51-F.[14]

Red Team tested Coke, and Blue Team tested Pepsi. As part of the experiment, each team was photographed with the cola logo. Acton said that while the sophisticated Coke system "dispensed soda kind of like what we're used to drinking on Earth", the Pepsi can was a shaving cream can with the Pepsi logo on a paper wrapper, which "dispensed soda filled with bubbles" that was "not very drinkable".[14] Acton said that when he gives speeches in schools, audiences are much more interested in hearing about the cola experiment than in solar physics.[14] Post-flight, the astronauts revealed that they preferred Tang, in part because it could be mixed on-orbit with existing chilled-water supplies, whereas there was no dedicated refrigeration equipment on board to chill the cans, which also fizzed excessively in microgravity.

In an experiment during the mission, thruster rockets were fired at a point over Tasmania and also above Boston to create two "holes" – plasma depletion regions – in the ionosphere. A worldwide group of geophysicists collaborated with the observations made from Spacelab 2.[15]

LandingEdit

Challenger landed at Edwards Air Force Base, California, on 6 August 1985, at 12:45:26 p.m. PDT. Its rollout distance was 2,612 m (8,570 ft). The mission had been extended by 17 orbits for additional payload activities due to the Abort to Orbit. The orbiter arrived back at Kennedy Space Center on 11 August 1985.

Mission insigniaEdit

The mission insignia was designed by Houston, Texas artist Skip Bradley. Space Shuttle Challenger is depicted ascending toward the heavens in search of new knowledge in the field of solar and stellar astronomy, with its Spacelab 2 payload. The constellations Leo and Orion are shown in the positions they were in relative to the Sun during the flight. The nineteen stars indicate that the mission is the 19th shuttle flight.

Crew biosEdit

C. Gordon Fullerton died on 21 August 2013, aged 76.[16]

Karl Gordon Henize died 5 October 1993, aged 66, on an expedition to Mount Everest studying the effects of radiation from space.[17][18][19]

LegacyEdit

One of the purposes of the mission was to test how suitable the Shuttle was for conducting infrared observations, and the IRT was operated on this mission.[20] However, the orbiter was found to have some draw-backs for infrared astronomy, and this led to later infrared telescopes being free-flying from the Shuttle orbiter.[20]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "9 Weird Things That Flew on NASA's Space Shuttles - Final Shuttle Missions and NASA's Space Shuttle Souvenirs - NASA Shuttle Program". Space.com. 7 July 2011. Retrieved 5 February 2022.
  2. ^ a b "Archived copy of Infrared Astronomy From Earth Orbit". Archived from the original on 21 December 2016. Retrieved 10 December 2016.
  3. ^ a b c d e Kent, et al. – Galactic structure from the Spacelab infrared telescope (1992)
  4. ^ "STS-51F". Spacefacts. Retrieved 26 February 2014.
  5. ^ a b "Space Shuttle Mission STS-51F Press Kit" (PDF). NASA. 1985. Retrieved 1 March 2014.   This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  6. ^ Welch, Brian (9 August 1985). "Limits to inhibit" (PDF). Space News Roundup. Houston, Texas: NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center. pp. 1, 3. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 March 2009. Retrieved 10 January 2010.   This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  7. ^ "STS-51F Press Kit" (Press release). NASA. July 1985.   This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  8. ^ a b Robert D. Legler; Floyd V. Bennett (September 2011). "Space Shuttle Missions Summary" (PDF). NASA Scientific and Technical Information Program Office. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 January 2021.   This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  9. ^ "STS-51F Launch attempt #1". NASA. Archived from the original on 27 April 2020.   This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  10. ^ "Radio Coverage of STS-51F launch attempt 1". AP. Archived from the original on 23 November 2021.
  11. ^ "STATUS OF THE GAIA STRAYLIGHT ANALYSIS AND MITIGATION ACTIONS". ESA. 17 December 2014. Retrieved 5 February 2022.
  12. ^ a b "STS-51F National Space Transportation System Mission Report". NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center. September 1985. p. 2. Retrieved 1 March 2014.   This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  13. ^ Pearlman, Robert (31 May 2001). "A Brief History of Space Marketing". Space.com. Archived from the original on 14 February 2009. Retrieved 24 March 2014.
  14. ^ a b c "Loren Acton: The Coke and Pepsi Flight". Air & Space/Smithsonian. Smithsonian Institution. 18 November 2010. Archived from the original on 12 April 2022.
  15. ^ "Elizabeth A. Essex-Cohen Ionospheric Physics Papers". 2007. Retrieved 5 February 2022.
  16. ^ Robert Z. Pearlman (2013). "Gordon Fullerton, space shuttle test pilot, dies at 76". collectSPACE. Retrieved 21 August 2013.
  17. ^ Tom Read, Freefall, Pages 224-235 (Little Brown, Edition 1, 1998) ISBN 0-316-64303-3
  18. ^ "Orbituary: Karl Heinze". The Independent. 23 October 1993. Retrieved 5 February 2022.
  19. ^ "Former Astronaut Karl Henize dies on Mount Everest Expedition". NASA. 8 October 1993. Retrieved 5 February 2022.   This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  20. ^ a b "The Space Review: From Skylab to Shuttle to the Smithsonian". thespacereview.com. 16 October 2017. Retrieved 5 February 2022.

External linksEdit

  • NASA mission summary
  • Press Kit
  • STS-51F Video Highlights
  • Space Coke can
  • Carbonated Drinks in Space
  • YouTube: STS-51F launch, abort and landing
  • July 12 launch attempt
  • Space Shuttle Missions Summary