Salians
Salier

Reges salici
A great hall with a high arched ceiling braced with columns.
Crypt of the Speyer Cathedral: the Salian emperors' burial place.
Parent familyWidonids (?)
CountryHoly Roman Empire
Germany
Italy
Burgundy
Carinthia
Bavaria
Swabia
Place of originFranconia
FoundedEarly 10th century
FounderCount Werner
Final rulerEmperor Henry V
Final headEmperor Henry V
MembersPope Gregory V
Emperor Conrad II
Emperor Henry III
Emperor Henry IV
Connected familiesOttonian
Hohenstaufen
Babenberg
DistinctionsInvestiture Controversy
TraditionsRoman Catholicism
Dissolution1125

The Salian dynasty (German: Salier; also known as the Frankish dynasty after the family's Salian Frankish origin and position as dukes of Franconia) was a dynasty in the High Middle Ages. The dynasty provided four German Kings (1024–1125), all of whom went on to be crowned Holy Roman Emperor (1027–1125); as such, the term Salic dynasty is also used to refer to the Holy Roman Empire of the time as a separate term.

After the death of the last Saxon of the Ottonian Dynasty in 1024, the elective titles of King of the Germans and then three years later Holy Roman Emperor both passed to the first monarch of the Salian dynasty in the person of Conrad II, the only son of Count Henry of Speyer and Adelheid of Alsace (both territories in the Franconia of the day). He was elected German King in 1024 and crowned Holy Roman Emperor on 26 March 1027.

The four Salian kings of the dynasty—Conrad II, Henry III, Henry IV, and Henry V—ruled the Holy Roman Empire from 1027 to 1125 and firmly established their monarchy as a major European power. They achieved the development of a permanent administrative system based on a class of public officials answerable to the crown.

Origins and name

Family tree of the imperial dynasties of the Holy Roman Empire: Carolingians, Ottonians, Salians and Hohenstaufen.

Modern historians suppose that the Salians descended from the Widonids, a prominent noble kindred emerging in the 7th century. Their estates were located at the confluence of rivers Moselle and Saar and they supported the Carolingians. The Widonids' eastward expansion towards the river Rhine started after they founded Hornbach Abbey in the Bliesgau around 750. Hornbach remained their proprietary monastery and royal grants to the abbey established their presence in the Wormsgau. As time passed, several branches split off the Widonids. The late 9th-century Holy Roman Emperor Guy (or Wido) of Spoleto descended from one of these branches, the Lambertines. The Salians' forefathers remained in Rhenish Franconia. [1]

Wipo of Burgundy, the biographer of the first Salian monarch, Emperor Conrad II, described Conrad's father and uncle as "distinguished noble lords from Rhenish Franconia", but without calling them Salians around 1044. Wipo added that Conrad's mother, Adelaide of Metz, "supposedly descended from the ancient royal house of Troy". The statement made a connection between Conrad and the royal Merovingians who had claimed a Troyan ancestry for themselves. Historian Stefan Weinfurter proposes that the putative relatinship between the Salians and the Merovingians gave rise to the family name, because the Salian Franks had been the most renowned Frankish group. Their memory was preserved through a Frankish law code, known as Salic law. A less likely etimology links the appelation to the old German world sal ("lordship"), proposing that the name can be traced to the Salian monarchs' well-documented inclination towards hierarchical structures.[2]

The term reges salici (or Salian kings) was most probably coined early in the 12th century.[3] A list of monarchs and archbishop from Mainz, which was completed around 1139–40, is the first extant document to contain it. Bishop Otto of Freising, a maternal descendant of the Salian monarchs, also used the term in his Chronicle or History of the Two Cities in the middle of the 12th century.[4] In a narrow sense, only the four German monarchs who ruled from 1024 to 1125 could be called Salians, but the same appelation have already been expanded to their ancestors by modern historians.[3]

All male members of the family who were destined to a secular career were named Conrad or Henry. Emperor Conrad II's grandfather, Otto of Worms, established this tradition in the late 10th century. He named his eldest son, Henry of Worms, after his maternal great-grandfather, King Henry the Fowler; and he gave the name of his father, Conrad the Red, to one of his younger sons, Conrad of Carinthia. Conrad the Red was most probably named for King Conrad I of Germany.[5]

Early Salians

Werner

Map of Central Europe
Map of the Holy Roman Empire in the 10th and 11th centuries: Germany (blue), Italy (grey), Burgundy (orange to the West), Bohemia (orange to the East), Papal States (purple).

Count Werner who held estates in the Nahegau, Speyergau and Wormsgau early in the 10th century is the Salian monarchs' first certainly identified ancestor. His family links to the Widonids cannot be securely established, but his patrimonial lands and his close relationship with the Hornbach Abbey provide indirect evidence of his Widonid ancestry. He married a kinswoman, most probably a sister, of King Conrad I of Germany. This marriage alliance with the Conradines introduced Conrad as a leading name in his family.[6]

Conrad the Red

Werner's son, Conrad the Red, inherited his father Franconian estates. His family links with the Conradines facilitated his acquisition of large portions of their domains after King Otto I of Germany crushed their revolt in 939. The Conradines lost their preeminent position in Franconia and Conrad the Red emerged as Otto I's principal supporter in the region. He was awarded with the Duchy of Lotharingia in 944 or 945 and he married the King's daughter, Luidgard, in 947. The marriage forged a link between the royal Ottonian dynasty and the Salians. He lost Lotharingia after he joined a revolt against his father-in-law in 953 or 954. He died fighting against the invading Magyars in the Battle of Lech in 955. The contemporaneous Widukind of Corvey praised him for his bravery. He was buried in the Worms Cathedral, although mainly bishops and kings had so far been buried in cathedrals.[7][8]

Otto of Worms

Conrad the Red's son, Otto of Worms, founded favour with his maternal granfather, King (from 962 Emperor) Otto I. Still a minor, he was mentioned as a count in the Nahegau in 956. He also seized Wormsgau, Speyergau, Niddagau, Elsenzgau, Kraichgau and Pfinzgau, thus uniting almost all lands between the rivers Rhine and Neckar by the time Otto I deceased in 973. The parentage of his wife, Judith, is uncertain: she may have been related either to Arnulf, Duke of Bavaria, to Count Henry of Arlon, or to Burchard, Margrave in the Eastern Marches. Otto I's son and successor, Emperor Otto II, was obviously worried aboukt the concentration of lands in his nephew's hands in Franconia. The Emperor appointed Otto of Worms to administer the faraway Duchy of Carinthia and March of Verona in 978. The Emperor also persuaded Otto to cede his right to administer justice in Worms and also parts of his revenues in the town to the local bishop. Otto was persuaded to renounce Carinthia and Verona, but he was lavishly compensated with a large forest in Wasgau, the royal palace at Kaiserslautern and the properiatery rights over Weissenburg Abbey. He could also preserve the title of duke, thus he was the first duke to bear the title without ruling a duchy in Germany. Otto was the cousin of Otto III, Holy Roman Emperor, thus he had a strong claim to the throne after the Emperor's death, but he concluded an agreement with the Ottonian candidate, Henry of Bavaria in 1002. Henry restored Carinthia to Otto in 1002 and he ruled the duchy until his death in 1004.[9][10]

Dukes and bishops

Henry of Worms

A young man wearing tiara touches the head of a bearded man sitting on his side, with two men watching the scene.
Pope Gregory V annoints Emperor Otto III (a miniature by an unidentified author, c. 1450).

Henry was Otto of Worms's eldest son. His wife, Adelaide, was born into a prominent Lotharingian family, being the daughter of Richard, Count of Metz. Their son, Conrad, would be the first Salian monarch, but Henry could not transfer his seniority rights to his son, because he predeceased his father most probably in 990 or 991.[11][12]

Conrad of Carinthia

After Henry of Worms' premature death, his seniority rights shifted to his younger brother, Conrad, enabling him to inherit the major part of the patrimonial lands from his father.[13] Conrad married a daughter of Herman II, Duke of Swabia, Matilda most probably in 1002. Two years later, he succeeded his father as Duke of Carinthia—the duchy passed from father to son for the first time on this occasion. His rule in Carinthia is poorly documented and he died in 1011.[14]

Pope Gregory V

Bruno—the future Pope Gregory V—was a younger son of Otto of Worms.[12] His father's cousin, Otto III, placed him on the papal throne in 996, ignoring the provisions of his own Diploma Ottonianum on papal elections. Bruno, who was the first German pope, assumed his papal name in memory of Pope Gregory the Great. He crowned Otto III emperor on the Feast of the Ascension in the same year. The Roman aristocrat Crescentius the Younger expelled him from Rome, but the Emperor crushed the revolt and restored the papal throne to Gregory V. The Pope died at the age of twenty-six or twenty-seven in 999.[15][16]

William of Strasbourg

William was Otto of Worms' youngest son. After serving in the royal court as archchaplain to Queen Gisella, William was made bishop of Strasbourg in 1028 or 1029. The see of Strasbourg was one of the wealthiest German bishoprics. His tenure was almost uneventful and he died in 1046 or 1047.[17]

Conrad the Younger

Conrad, the elder son of Duke Conrad I of Carinthia and Matilda of Swabia, was born between 1002 and 1005. He was underage when his father died in 1011. He inherited his father's patrimonial lands, but Emperor Henry II made Adalbero of Eppelstein the new duke of Carinthia.[18][19] After Emperor Henry II died in 1024, both Conrad and his cousin, Conrad the Elder, laid claim to the throne and Conrad the Elder was elected the new monarch.[20]

Imperial Salians

Salian monarchy

After the death of the last Saxon Emperor Henry II the first Salian regent Conrad II was elected by the majority of the Prince-electors and was crowned German king in Mainz on 8 September 1024. Early in 1026 Conrad went to Milan, where Ariberto, archbishop of Milan, crowned him king of Italy. When Rudolph III, King of Burgundy died 1032, Conrad II also claimed this kingship on the basis of an inheritance Henry II had extorted from the former in 1006. Despite some opposition, the Burgundian and Provençal nobles paid homage to Conrad in Zürich in 1034. This Kingdom of Burgundy would become known as the Kingdom of Arles under Conrad's successors.

Already in 1028 Conrad II had his son Henry III elected and anointed king of Germany. Henry's tenure led to an overstatement of previously unknown sacral kingship. So during this reign Speyer Cathedral was expanded to be the largest church in Western Christendom. Henry's conception of a legitimate power of royal disposition in the duchies was successful against the dukes, and thus secured royal control. However, in Lorraine, this led to years of conflict, from which Henry emerged as the winner. But also in southern Germany a powerful opposition group was formed in the years 1052–1055. 1046 Henry ended the papal schism, freed the Papacy from dependence on the Roman nobility, and laid the basis for its universal applicability. His early death in 1056 was long regarded as a disaster for the Empire.

Speyer Cathedral, burial place of all Salian Emperors

The early Salians owed much of their success to their alliance with the Church, a policy begun by Otto I, which gave them the material support they needed to subdue rebellious dukes. In time, however, the Church came to regret this close relationship. The alliance broke down in 1075 during what came to be known as the Investiture Controversy (or Investiture Dispute), a struggle in which the reformist Pope, Gregory VII, demanded that Emperor Henry IV renounce his rights over the Church in Germany. The pope also attacked the concept of monarchy by divine right and gained the support of significant elements of the German nobility interested in limiting imperial absolutism. More important, the pope forbade ecclesiastical officials under pain of excommunication to support Henry as they had so freely done in the past. In the end, Henry IV journeyed to Canossa in northern Italy in 1077 to do penance and to receive absolution from the pope. However, he resumed the practice of lay investiture (appointment of religious officials by civil authorities) and arranged the election of an antipope (Antipope Clement III) in 1080.

The monarch's struggle with the papacy resulted in a war that ravaged through the Holy Roman Empire from 1077 until the Concordat of Worms in 1122. The reign of the last ruler of the Salian dynasty Henry V coincided with the final phase of the great Investiture Controversy, which had pitted pope against emperor. By the settlement of the Concordat of Worms, Henry V surrendered to the demands of the second generation of Gregorian reformers. This agreement stipulated that the pope would appoint high church officials but gave the German king the right to veto the papal choices. Imperial control of Italy was lost for a time, and the imperial crown became dependent on the political support of competing aristocratic factions. Feudalism also became more widespread as freemen sought protection by swearing allegiance to a lord. These powerful local rulers, having thereby acquired extensive territories and large military retinues, took over administration within their territories and organized it around an increasing number of castles. The most powerful of these local rulers came to be called princes rather than dukes.

According to the laws of the feudal system of the Holy Roman Empire, the king had no claims on the vassals of the other princes, only on those living within his family's territory. Lacking the support of the formerly independent vassals and weakened by the increasing hostility of the Church, the monarchy lost its pre-eminence. Thus the Investiture Contest strengthened local power in the Holy Roman Empire – in contrast to the trend in France and England, where centralized royal power grew. The Investiture Contest had an additional effect. The long struggle between emperor and pope hurt the Holy Roman Empire's intellectual life, in this period largely confined to monasteries, and the empire no longer led or even kept pace with developments occurring in France and Italy. For instance, no universities were founded in the Holy Roman Empire until the fourteenth century.

The first Hohenstaufen king Conrad III was a grandson of the Salian Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor. (Agnes, Henry IV's daughter and Henry V's sister, was the heiress of Salian dynasty's lands: her first marriage produced the royal and imperial Hohenstaufen dynasty and her second marriage the ducal Babenberg potentates of Duchy of Austria which was elevated much due to such connections Privilegium Minus.)[clarification needed]

Salian Kings and Emperors

German royal dynasties
Salian dynasty
Chronology
Conrad II 1024 – 1039
Henry III 1039 – 1056
Henry IV 1056 – 1105
Henry V 1105 – 1125
Family
Family tree of the German monarchs
Succession
Preceded by
Ottonian dynasty
Followed by
Süpplingenburg dynasty
  • Conrad II 1024–1039, crowned emperor on 26 March 1027
  • Henry III 1039–1056, crowned emperor on 25 December 1046
  • Henry IV 1056–1106, crowned emperor on 31 March 1084
    • Conrad (III) 1087–1098, nominal king under his father Henry IV
  • Henry V 1106–1125, crowned emperor on 13 April 1111

Their regnal dates as emperor take into account elections and subsequent coronations.

See also

References

  1. ^ Weinfurter 1999, pp. 7–9.
  2. ^ Weinfurter 1999, pp. 5–6.
  3. ^ a b Weinfurter 1999, p. 5.
  4. ^ Wolfram 2006, p. 15.
  5. ^ Wolfram 2006, p. 323.
  6. ^ Weinfurter 1999, p. 9.
  7. ^ Weinfurter 1999, pp. 6, 9.
  8. ^ Wolfram 2006, pp. 18, 361 (note 22).
  9. ^ Weinfurter 1999, pp. 11, 14, 184, 190 (notes 10 and 12).
  10. ^ Wolfram 2006, pp. 18–19, 23, 361 (note 20).
  11. ^ Weinfurter 1999, p. 14.
  12. ^ a b Wolfram 2006, p. 18.
  13. ^ Weinfurter 1999, pp. 14, 20.
  14. ^ Wolfram 2006, pp. 23–25, 363 (note 59).
  15. ^ Weinfurter 1999, p. 190 (note 1).
  16. ^ Schutz 2010, pp. 84, 88.
  17. ^ Wolfram 2006, pp. 18, 272–273.
  18. ^ Weinfurter 1999, p. 20).
  19. ^ Wolfram 2006, pp. 25, 363 (note 59).
  20. ^ Schutz 2010, p. 115.

Sources

  • Schutz, Herbert (2010). The Medieval Empire in Central Europe: Dynastic Continuity in the Post-Carolingian Frankish Realm, 900-1300. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4438-1966-4.
  • Weinfurter, Stefan (1999) [1992]. The Salian Century: Main Currents in an Age of Transition. Translated by Kaiser, Denise A. University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 0-8122-3508-8.
  • Wolfram, Herwig (2006) [2000]. Conrad II, 990–1039: Emperor of Three Kingdoms. Translated by Bowlus, Barbara M. The Pennsylvania State University Press. ISBN 0-271-02738-X.

Further reading

  • Lenelotte Möller, Hans Ammerich: Die Salier. 1024-1125. Wiesbaden 2015