Samuel C. C. Ting

Summary

Samuel Chao Chung Ting (Chinese: 丁肇中; pinyin: Dīng Zhàozhōng, born January 27, 1936) is a Chinese-American physicist who, with Burton Richter, received the Nobel Prize in 1976 for discovering the subatomic J/ψ particle. More recently he has been the principal investigator in research conducted with the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer, a device installed on the International Space Station in 2011.

Samuel Chao Chung Ting
Samuel ting 10-19-10.jpg
Ting after a presentation at the Kennedy Space Center in October 2010
Born (1936-01-27) January 27, 1936 (age 86)
Alma materUniversity of Michigan (dual BS, PhD)
Known forDiscovery of the J/ψ particle
Founder of the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer experiment
Spouse(s)Kay Kuhne (divorced)
Susan Marks
Children3
AwardsErnest Orlando Lawrence Award (1975)
Nobel Prize for Physics (1976)
Eringen Medal (1977)
De Gasperi Award (1988)
Gold Medal for Science from Brescia (1988)
NASA Public Service Medal (2001)
Scientific career
FieldsPhysics
InstitutionsColumbia University
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Chinese name
Chinese丁肇中
WebsiteSamuel Ting

BiographyEdit

Samuel Ting was born to Chinese parents both from Ju County, Shandong province on January 27, 1936, in Ann Arbor, Michigan.[1] His parents, Kuan-hai Ting and Tsun-ying Wong, met and married as graduate students at the University of Michigan.[2]

Ting's parents returned to China two months after his birth[2] where Ting was homeschooled by his parents throughout WWII.[3] After the communist takeover of the mainland that forced the nationalist government to flee to Taiwan, Ting moved to the island in 1949. He would live in Taiwan from 1949 to 1956 and conducted most of his formal schooling there.[3] His father started to teach engineering and his mother would teach psychology at National Taiwan University (NTU). Ting attended and finished Middle School in Taiwan.[4][5]

In 1956, Ting, who barely spoke English,[3] returned to the United States at the age of 20 and attended the University of Michigan. There, he studied engineering, mathematics, and physics. In 1959, he was awarded a B.S.E. in mathematics and in physics, and in 1962, he earned a doctorate in physics. In 1963, he worked at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN). From 1965, he taught at Columbia University and worked at the Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY) in Germany. Since 1969, Ting has been a professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

Ting was awarded the Ernest Orlando Lawrence Award (in 1976), Nobel Prize in Physics (in 1976), Eringen Medal (in 1977), DeGaspari Award in Science from the Government of Italy (in 1988), Gold Medal for Science from Brescia, Italy (in 1988), and the NASA Public Service Medal (in 2001).[4]

Nobel PrizeEdit

In 1976, Ting was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics, which he shared with Burton Richter of the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, for the discovery of the J/ψ meson nuclear particle. They were chosen for the award, in the words of the Nobel committee, "for their pioneering work in the discovery of a heavy elementary particle of a new kind."[6] The discovery was made in 1974 when Ting was heading a research team at MIT exploring new regimes of high energy particle physics.[7]

Ting gave his Nobel Prize acceptance speech in Mandarin. Although there had been Chinese Nobel Prize recipients before (Tsung-Dao Lee and Chen Ning Yang), none had previously delivered the acceptance speech in Chinese. In his Nobel banquet speech, Ting emphasized the importance of experimental work:

In reality, a theory in natural science cannot be without experimental foundations; physics, in particular, comes from experimental work. I hope that awarding the Nobel Prize to me will awaken the interest of students from the developing nations so that they will realize the importance of experimental work.[8]

Alpha Magnetic SpectrometerEdit

 
Ting after he delivered a lecture on the topic of Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) in Shandong University in October 2011

In 1995, not long after the cancellation of the Superconducting Super Collider project had severely reduced the possibilities for experimental high-energy physics on Earth, Ting proposed the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer, a space-borne cosmic-ray detector. The proposal was accepted and he became the principal investigator and has been directing the development since then. A prototype, AMS-01, was flown and tested on Space Shuttle mission STS-91 in 1998. The main mission, AMS-02, was then planned for launch by the Shuttle and mounting on the International Space Station.[9]

This project is a massive $2 billion undertaking involving 500 scientists from 56 institutions and 16 countries.[10] After the 2003 Space Shuttle Columbia disaster, NASA announced that the Shuttle was to be retired by 2010 and that AMS-02 was not on the manifest of any of the remaining Shuttle flights. Dr. Ting was forced to (successfully) lobby the United States Congress and the public to secure an additional Shuttle flight dedicated to this project. Also during this time, Ting had to deal with numerous technical problems in fabricating and qualifying the large, extremely sensitive and delicate detector module for space.[11] AMS-02 was successfully launched on Shuttle mission STS-134 on May 16, 2011 and was installed on the International Space Station on May 19, 2011.[12][13]

ResearchEdit

Honors and awardsEdit

Major AwardsEdit

Member or Foreign Member of Scientific AcademiesEdit

Doctor Honoris Causa degreesEdit

Personal lifeEdit

Ting lived in a turbulent age during his childhood and his family was a big influence on him. In his biographical for the Nobel Prize, he recalled:

Since both my parents were working, I was brought up by my maternal grandmother. My maternal grandfather lost his life during the first Chinese Revolution. After that, at the age of thirty-three, my grandmother decided to go to school, became a teacher, and brought my mother up alone. When I was young I often heard stories from my mother and grandmother recalling the difficult lives they had during that turbulent period and the efforts they made to provide my mother with a good education. Both of them were daring, original, and determined people, and they have left an indelible impression on me.
When I was twenty years old I decided to return to the United States for a better education. My parents' friend, G.G. Brown, Dean of the School of Engineering, University of Michigan, told my parents I would be welcome to stay with him and his family. At that time I knew very little English and had no idea of the cost of living in the United States. In China, I had read that many American students go through college on their own resources. I informed my parents that I would do likewise. I arrived at the Detroit airport on 6 September 1956 with $100, which at the time seemed more than adequate. I was somewhat frightened, did not know anyone, and communication was difficult.[5]

In 1960, Ting married Kay Louise Kuhne, an architect, and together they had two daughters, Jeanne Ting Chowning and Amy Ting. In 1985 he married Dr. Susan Carol Marks, and they had one son, Christopher, born in 1986.[5]

Selected publicationsEdit

  • Aguilar, M.; et al. (AMS Collaboration) (2019). "Towards Understanding the Origin of Cosmic-Ray Positrons". Phys. Rev. Lett. 122 (4): 041102. Bibcode:2019PhRvL.122d1102A. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.122.041102. PMID 30768313.
  • Aguilar, M.; et al. (AMS Collaboration) (2013). "First Result from the AMS on the International Space Station: Precision Measurement of the Positron Fraction in Primary Cosmic Rays of 0.5-350 GeV". Phys. Rev. Lett. 110 (14): 141102. Bibcode:2013PhRvL.110n1102A. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.141102. PMID 25166975.
  • Adriani, O.; et al. (L3 Collaboration) (1992). "Determination of the number of light neutrino species". Phys. Lett. B. 292 (3–4): 463–471. Bibcode:1992PhLB..292..463A. doi:10.1016/0370-2693(92)91204-M. hdl:2066/26827.
  • Adeva, B.; et al. (1982). "Measurement of Charge Asymmetry in e+ e→μ+". Phys. Rev. Lett. 48 (25): 1701–1704. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.48.1701.
  • Barber, D.P.; et al. (1979). "Tests of quantum chromodynamics and a direct measurement of the strong coupling constant αs at √s=30 GeV". Phys. Lett. B. 89 (1): 139–144. Bibcode:1979PhLB...89..139B. doi:10.1016/0370-2693(79)90092-3.
  • Barber, D. P.; et al. (1979). "Discovery of Three-Jet Events and a Test of Quantum Chromodynamics at PETRA". Phys. Rev. Lett. 43 (12): 830–833. Bibcode:1979PhRvL..43..830B. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.43.830. S2CID 13903005.
  • Aubert, J. J.; et al. (1974). "Experimental Observation of a Heavy Particle J". Phys. Rev. Lett. 33 (23): 1404–1406. Bibcode:1974PhRvL..33.1404A. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.33.1404.
  • Asbury, J. G.; Becker, U.; Bertram, William K.; Joos, P.; Rohde, M.; Smith, A. J. S.; Jordan, C. L.; Ting, Samuel C. C. (1967). "Leptonic Decays of Vector Mesons: The Branching Ratio of the Electron-Positron Decay Mode of the Rho Meson" (PDF). Phys. Rev. Lett. 19 (15): 869–872. Bibcode:1967PhRvL..19..869A. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.19.869.
  • Dorfan, D. E.; Eades, J.; Lederman, L. M.; Lee, W.; Ting, C. C. (1965). "Observation of Antideuterons". Phys. Rev. Lett. 14 (24): 1003–1006. Bibcode:1965PhRvL..14.1003D. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.14.1003.
  • Asbury, J. G.; Becker, U.; Bertram, W. K.; Joos, P.; Rohde, M.; Smith, A. J. S.; Friedlander, S.; Jordan, C.; Ting, C. C. (1967). "Validity of Quantum Electrodynamics at Small Distances". Phys. Rev. Lett. 18 (2): 65–70. Bibcode:1967PhRvL..18...65A. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.18.65.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

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  2. ^ a b Ng, Franklin (1995). The Asian American encyclopedia. Marshall Cavendish. pp. 1, 490. ISBN 978-1-85435-684-0.
  3. ^ a b c "Samuel C.C. Ting". InfiniteMIT. MIT. September 6, 2011. Retrieved March 1, 2021.
  4. ^ a b "About The Programs - Personal Journeys: Samuel C.C. Ting". A Bill Moyers Special - Becoming American - The Chinese Experience. 2003. Retrieved June 2, 2014.
  5. ^ a b c "Samuel C.C. Ting - Biographical". Nobel prizes and laureates. Nobel Foundation. 1976. Retrieved June 3, 2014.
  6. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1976". nobelprize.org. Retrieved October 9, 2009.
  7. ^ Aubert, J. J.; et al. (1974). "Experimental Observation of a Heavy Particle J". Physical Review Letters. 33 (23): 1404–1406. Bibcode:1974PhRvL..33.1404A. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.33.1404.
  8. ^ "Samuel C.C.Ting - Banquet Speech". Nobelprize.org. Nobel Media AB 2013. December 10, 1976. Retrieved June 1, 2014.
  9. ^ "Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer - 02 (AMS-02)". NASA. August 21, 2009. Archived from the original on August 16, 2009. Retrieved September 3, 2009.
  10. ^ William Harwood (May 19, 2011). "Endeavour astronauts install $2 billion cosmic ray detector". cbsnews.com. Retrieved April 18, 2019.
  11. ^ NASA Presents: AMS - The Fight for Flight
  12. ^ Jeremy Hsu (September 2, 2009). "Space Station Experiment to Hunt Antimatter Galaxies". Space.com. Retrieved September 2, 2009.
  13. ^ A Costly Quest for the Dark Heart of the Cosmos (New York Times, November 16, 2010)
  14. ^ Dorfan, D. E; Eades, J.; Lederman, L. M.; Lee, W.; Ting, C. C. (June 1965). "Observation of Antideuterons". Phys. Rev. Lett. 14 (24): 1003–1006. Bibcode:1965PhRvL..14.1003D. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.14.1003.Dorfan, D. E.; Eades, J.; Lederman, L. M.; Lee, W.; Ting, C. C. (1965). "Observation of Antideuterons". Phys. Rev. Lett. 14 (24): 1003–1006. Bibcode:1965PhRvL..14.1003D. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.14.1003.
  15. ^ Asbury, J. G.; Bertram, W. K.; Becker, U.; Joos, P.; Rohde, M.; Smith, A. J. S.; Friedlander, S.; Jordan, C.; Ting, C. C. (1967). "Validity of Quantum Electrodynamics at Small Distances" (PDF). Physical Review Letters. 18 (2): 65–70. Bibcode:1967PhRvL..18...65A. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.18.65. ISSN 0031-9007.
  16. ^ Asbury, J. G.; Becker, U.; Bertram, William K.; Joos, P.; Rohde, M.; Smith, A. J. S.; Jordan, C. L.; Ting, Samuel C. C. (1967). "Leptonic Decays of Vector Mesons: The Branching Ratio of the Electron-Positron Decay Mode of the Rho Meson" (PDF). Physical Review Letters. 19 (15): 869–872. Bibcode:1967PhRvL..19..869A. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.19.869. ISSN 0031-9007.
  17. ^ Asbury, J. G.; Bertram, William K.; Becker, U.; Joos, P.; Rohde, M.; Smith, A. J. S.; Friedlander, S.; Jordan, C. L.; Ting, Samuel C. C. (1967). "Photoproduction of Wide-Angle Electron-Positron Pairs at High Energies". Physical Review. 161 (5): 1344–1355. Bibcode:1967PhRv..161.1344A. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.161.1344. ISSN 0031-899X.
  18. ^ Alvensleben, H.; et al. (1968). "Validity of Quantum Electrodynamics at Extremely Small Distances". Physical Review Letters. 21 (21): 1501–1503. Bibcode:1968PhRvL..21.1501A. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.21.1501. ISSN 0031-9007.
  19. ^ Aubert, J. J.; et al. (1974). "Experimental Observation of a Heavy Particle J". Phys. Rev. Lett. 33 (23): 1404–1406. Bibcode:1974PhRvL..33.1404A. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.33.1404.
  20. ^ Barber, D.; et al. (1979). "Discovery of Three-Jet Events and a Test of Quantum Chromodynamics at PETRA". Physical Review Letters. 43 (12): 830–833. Bibcode:1979PhRvL..43..830B. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.43.830. ISSN 0031-9007.
  21. ^ Barber, D.P.; et al. (1979). "Tests of quantum chromodynamics and a direct measurement of the strong coupling constant αs at √s=30 GeV". Physics Letters B. 89 (1): 139–144. Bibcode:1979PhLB...89..139B. doi:10.1016/0370-2693(79)90092-3. ISSN 0370-2693.
  22. ^ Barber, D.P.; et al. (1980). "Unique solution for the weak neutral current coupling constants in purely leptonic interactions". Physics Letters B. 95 (1): 149–153. Bibcode:1980PhLB...95..149B. doi:10.1016/0370-2693(80)90420-7. ISSN 0370-2693.
  23. ^ Adeva, B.; et al. (1990). "Measurement of Z0 decays to hadrons, and a precise determination of the number of neutrino species". Physics Letters B. 237 (1): 136–146. Bibcode:1990PhLB..237..136A. doi:10.1016/0370-2693(90)90476-M. hdl:2027.42/28683. ISSN 0370-2693.
  24. ^ Ahlen, S.; et al. (1994). "An antimatter spectrometer in space". Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment. 350 (1–2): 351–367. Bibcode:1994NIMPA.350..351A. doi:10.1016/0168-9002(94)91184-3. ISSN 0168-9002.
  25. ^ Aguilar; et al. (2002). "The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) on the International Space Station: Part I – results from the test flight on the space shuttle". Physics Reports. 366 (6): 331–405. Bibcode:2002PhR...366..331A. doi:10.1016/S0370-1573(02)00013-3. ISSN 0370-1573.
  26. ^ Aguilar, M.; et al. (AMS Collaboration) (2013). "First Result from the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station: Precision Measurement of the Positron Fraction in Primary Cosmic Rays of 0.5–350 GeV". Physical Review Letters. 110 (14): 141102. Bibcode:2013PhRvL.110n1102A. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.141102. ISSN 0031-9007. PMID 25166975.
  27. ^ Accardo, L.; et al. (AMS Collaboration) (2014). "High Statistics Measurement of the Positron Fraction in Primary Cosmic Rays of 0.5–500 GeV with the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station". Physical Review Letters. 113 (12): 121101. Bibcode:2014PhRvL.113l1101A. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.121101. ISSN 0031-9007. PMID 25279616.
  28. ^ Aguilar, M.; et al. (AMS Collaboration) (2014). "Electron and Positron Fluxes in Primary Cosmic Rays Measured with the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station". Physical Review Letters. 113 (12): 121102. Bibcode:2014PhRvL.113l1102A. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.121102. hdl:1721.1/90426. ISSN 0031-9007. PMID 25279617. S2CID 2585508.
  29. ^ Aguilar, M.; et al. (AMS Collaboration) (2014). "Precision Measurement of the (e++e−) Flux in Primary Cosmic Rays from 0.5 GeV to 1 TeV with the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station". Physical Review Letters. 113 (22): 221102. Bibcode:2014PhRvL.113v1102A. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.221102. ISSN 0031-9007. PMID 25494065.
  30. ^ Aguilar, M.; et al. (AMS Collaboration) (2015). "Precision Measurement of the Proton Flux in Primary Cosmic Rays from Rigidity 1 GV to 1.8 TV with the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station". Physical Review Letters. 114 (17): 171103. Bibcode:2015PhRvL.114q1103A. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.114.171103. ISSN 0031-9007. PMID 25978222.
  31. ^ Aguilar, M.; et al. (AMS Collaboration) (2015). "Precision Measurement of the Helium Flux in Primary Cosmic Rays of Rigidities 1.9 GV to 3 TV with the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station". Physical Review Letters. 115 (21): 211101. Bibcode:2015PhRvL.115u1101A. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.211101. ISSN 0031-9007. PMID 26636836.
  32. ^ Aguilar, M.; et al. (AMS Collaboration) (2016). "Antiproton Flux, Antiproton-to-Proton Flux Ratio, and Properties of Elementary Particle Fluxes in Primary Cosmic Rays Measured with the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station". Physical Review Letters. 117 (9): 091103. Bibcode:2016PhRvL.117i1103A. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.091103. ISSN 0031-9007. PMID 27610839.
  33. ^ Aguilar, M.; et al. (AMS Collaboration) (2016). "Precision Measurement of the Boron to Carbon Flux Ratio in Cosmic Rays from 1.9 GV to 2.6 TV with the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station". Physical Review Letters. 117 (23): 231102. Bibcode:2016PhRvL.117w1102A. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.231102. ISSN 0031-9007. PMID 27982618.
  34. ^ Aguilar, M.; et al. (AMS Collaboration) (2017). "Observation of the Identical Rigidity Dependence of He, C, and O Cosmic Rays at High Rigidities by the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station". Physical Review Letters. 119 (25): 251101. Bibcode:2017PhRvL.119y1101A. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.119.251101. ISSN 0031-9007. PMID 29303302.
  35. ^ Aguilar, M.; et al. (AMS Collaboration) (2018). "Observation of New Properties of Secondary Cosmic Rays Lithium, Beryllium, and Boron by the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station". Physical Review Letters. 120 (2): 021101. Bibcode:2018PhRvL.120b1101A. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.120.021101. ISSN 0031-9007. PMID 29376729.
  36. ^ Aguilar, M.; et al. (AMS Collaboration) (2018). "Observation of Fine Time Structures in the Cosmic Proton and Helium Fluxes with the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station". Physical Review Letters. 121 (5): 051101. Bibcode:2018PhRvL.121e1101A. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.121.051101. ISSN 0031-9007. PMID 30118264.
  37. ^ Aguilar, M.; et al. (AMS Collaboration) (2018). "Observation of Complex Time Structures in the Cosmic-Ray Electron and Positron Fluxes with the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station". Physical Review Letters. 121 (5): 051102. Bibcode:2018PhRvL.121e1102A. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.121.051102. ISSN 0031-9007. PMID 30118287.
  38. ^ Aguilar, M.; et al. (AMS Collaboration) (2018). "Precision Measurement of Cosmic-Ray Nitrogen and its Primary and Secondary Components with the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station". Physical Review Letters. 121 (5): 051103. Bibcode:2018PhRvL.121e1103A. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.121.051103. ISSN 0031-9007. PMID 30118280.
  39. ^ Aguilar, M.; et al. (AMS Collaboration) (2019). "Towards Understanding the Origin of Cosmic-Ray Positrons". Physical Review Letters. 122 (4): 041102. Bibcode:2019PhRvL.122d1102A. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.122.041102. ISSN 0031-9007. PMID 30768313.
  40. ^ Aguilar, M.; et al. (AMS Collaboration) (2019). "Towards Understanding the Origin of Cosmic-Ray Electrons". Physical Review Letters. 122 (10): 101101. Bibcode:2019PhRvL.122j1101A. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.122.101101. ISSN 0031-9007. PMID 30932626.
  41. ^ Aguilar, M.; et al. (AMS Collaboration) (2019). "Properties of Cosmic Helium Isotopes Measured by the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer". Physical Review Letters. 123 (18): 181102. Bibcode:2019PhRvL.123r1102A. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.123.181102. ISSN 0031-9007. PMID 31763896.
  42. ^ Aguilar, M.; et al. (AMS Collaboration) (2020). "Properties of Neon, Magnesium, and Silicon Primary Cosmic Rays Results from the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer". Physical Review Letters. 124 (21): 211102. Bibcode:2020PhRvL.124u1102A. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.124.211102. ISSN 0031-9007. PMID 32530660.
  43. ^ "Golden Plate Awardees of the American Academy of Achievement". www.achievement.org. American Academy of Achievement.

External linksEdit