The term Serbian lands has been used for medieval Serbian state creations, for Serb-inhabited territories in the Ottoman period and in political-geopraphical use[1] since the independence of Serbia and Montenegro.


Seal of prince Strojimir of Serbia, from the late 9th century

The "medieval Serbian lands" included Serbian tribes, polities and monarchies, such as Raška, Serbian Empire, etc.[1]

In 1857, while traveling across "Ancient Serbia", Alexander Hilferding (1831-1872), a Russian Slavist and travel writer of German origin, wrote: "an Orthodox Serb, wherever he might live – in Bosnia, Herzegovina, Dalmatia, Hungary, Principality of Serbia – has, besides a church, one great homeland, Serbian land, which is, to tell the truth, divided among many masters, but it exists as an ideal, as the land of the unified Orthodox Serbian nation. He has his own oral tradition, folklore; he knows about Serbian Saint Sava, Serbian Emperor Dušan, Serbian martyr Lazar, popular hero Prince Marko. His current life rests upon the foundations of his nation and it is permeated with the previous historical life of the nation".[2]

The term was used by political theorist Dobrica Ćosić and other politicians for the ethnic unification of Serbs through union of Serbia, Montenegro, Republika Srpska and Republic of Srpska Krajina during the Yugoslav wars (1991–95).[3]

Middle Ages

Image Map Name Years Notes
Seal of Strojimir.gif Serbien 9.Jhd.jpg Serbian Principality 8th century-969 Principality of Serbia (Serbian: Кнежевина Србија / Kneževina Srbija) was one of the early medieval states of the Serbs, located in western regions of Southeastern Europe. It existed from the 8th century up to c. 969-971 and was ruled by the Vlastimirović dynasty. Its first ruler known by name was Višeslav who started ruling around 780. In 822, the Serbs were said to rule the "greater part of Dalmatia", while at the same time the Bulgars had taken the lands to the east, preparing to conquer Serbia.
Peter of Diokleia.jpg Principality Duklja (Doclea) half XI century.svg Principality and Kingdom of Duklja 10th century-1186 (Kingdom: 1077-1146) Duklja (Greek: Διοκλεία, Diokleia; Latin: Dioclea; Serbian Cyrillic: Дукља) was a medieval Serb state which roughly encompassed the territories of present-day southeastern Montenegro, from the Bay of Kotor in the west to the Bojana river in the east, and to the sources of the Zeta and Morača rivers in the north. First mentioned in 10th– and 11th century Byzantine chronicles, it was a vassal of the Byzantine Empire until it became independent in 1040 under Stefan Vojislav (fl. 1034–43) who rose up and managed to take over territories of the earlier Serbian Principality, founding the Vojislavljević dynasty.
Map of the Western Balkans around 814 AD.png Principality of Travunia 9th-11th century Travunia (Serbian: Травунија / Travunija; Ancient Greek: Τερβουνία, Terbounía, modern pronunciation Tervounía; Latin: Tribunia), was a medieval principality that was part of Medieval Serbia and later the Bosnian Kingdom. The principality became hereditary in a number of noble houses, often kin to the ruling dynasty. The region came under Ottoman rule in 1482. Its seat was in the city of Trebinje.
Balkans925.png Principality of Zachlumia 9th-11th century Zachlumia or Zachumlia (Serbian: Zahumlje / Захумље; pronounced [zǎxuːmʎe]), also Hum, was a medieval principality located in the modern-day regions of Herzegovina and southern Dalmatia (today parts of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia, respectively). In some periods it was a fully independent or semi-independent South Slavic principality. It maintained relations with various foreign and neighbouring powers (Byzantine Empire, First Bulgarian Empire, Kingdom of Croatia, Principality of Serbia) and later was subjected (temporarily of for a longer period of time) to Kingdom of Hungary, Kingdom of Serbia, Kingdom of Bosnia, Duchy of Saint Sava and at the end to the Ottoman Empire.
Neretva9st.png Principality of Pagania (Nerentines) 9th-11th century Pagania was an early medieval state that occupied an area of southern Dalmatia centered at the river Neretva, active in the 9th and 10th centuries, noted as pirates on the Adriatic. Named Narentani in Venetian sources, Greek sources call them Paganoi, "pagans", as they were for long pagan, in a time when neighbouring tribes were Christianized. The tribe were fierce enemies of the Republic of Venice, having attacked Venetian merchants and clergy passing on the Adriatic, and even raided close to Venice itself, as well as defeated the Doge several times.
Seal of Stefan Nemanja.svg Serbia under Stefan Nemanja and Stefan the First-Crowned.jpg Principality of Rascia 1091-1217 Raška (Serbian Cyrillic: Рашка, Latin: Rascia) was a Serb medieval state that comprised parts of what is today Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and southern Dalmatia, being centred in the region of Raška (hence its exonym). The state was formed in ca. 1091 out of a vassal principality of Duklja, a Serb state which had itself emerged from the early medieval Serbian Principality that was centred in Raška until 960, when it was left in obscurity in sources after the Byzantine–Bulgarian wars. Its founder, Vukan, took the title of Grand Prince when his uncle and overlord Constantine Bodin ended up in Byzantine prison after decades of revolt. While Duklja was struck with civil wars, Raška continued the fight against the Byzantines. It was ruled by the Vukanović dynasty, who managed to put most of the former Serbian state under their rule, as well as expanding to the south and east.
Coat of arms of Banate of Bosnia.svg Medieval Bosnian State Expansion-en.svg Banate of Bosnia 1154-1377 The Banate of Bosnia (Serbian: Banovina Bosna / Бановина Босна), or Bosnian Banate (Bosanska banovina / Босанска бановина), was a medieval state based in what is today Bosnia and Herzegovina. Although it was a part of the Hungarian Crown Lands, the Banate of Bosnia was a de facto independent state. It was founded in the mid-12th century and existed until 1377, when it was proclaimed a kingdom with the coronation of Tvrtko I. The greater part of its history was marked by a religiopolitical controversy revolving around the native Bosnian Church condemned as heretical by both the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches, although with the Catholic church being particularly antagonistic and persecuting its members through the Hungarians.
Flag of Serbia 1281.svg Balkans 1265.jpg Serbian Kingdom 1217-1346 The Kingdom of Serbia (Serbian: Краљевина Србија / Kraljevina Srbija), or Serbian Kingdom (Српско краљевство / Srpsko kraljevstvo), was a medieval Serbian state that existed from 1217 to 1346, ruled by the Nemanjić dynasty. The Grand Principality of Serbia was elevated with the coronation of Stefan Nemanjić as king by his brother, archbishop Sava, after inheriting all territories unified by their father, grand prince Stefan Nemanja. The kingdom was proclaimed an empire on 16 April 1346.
Dinar of King Stefan Dragutin.jpg Srem04-en.png Kingdom of Syrmia 1282–1325 Kingdom of Syrmia was a medieval Serb kingdom. Initially, it was a vassal kingdom of the Kingdom of Hungary, but subsequently became an independent kingdom, after the collapse of the central power in the Kingdom of Hungary. It was ruled by the Serbian kings Stefan Dragutin (1282–1316) and his son Stefan Vladislav II (1316–1325). The kingdom was centered in the region of Lower Syrmia (today known as Mačva) and its first capital was Debrc (between Belgrade and Šabac), while residence of the king was later moved to Belgrade.
Flag of the Serbian Empire, reconstruction.svg Servia1350AD.png Serbian Empire 1346-1371 The Serbian Empire (Serbian: Српско царство/Srpsko carstvo, pronounced [sr̩̂pskoː tsâːrstʋo]) is a historiographical term for the empire in the Balkan peninsula that emerged from the medieval Serbian Kingdom. It was established in 1346 by King Stefan Dušan, known as "the Mighty", who significantly expanded the state. Under Dušan's rule Serbia was the major power in the Balkans, and a multi-lingual empire that stretched from the Danube to the Gulf of Corynth, with its capital in Skopje. He also promoted the Serbian Archbishopric to the Serbian Patriarchate. His son and successor, Uroš the Weak, lost most of the territory conquered by Dušan, hence his epithet. The Serbian Empire effectively ended with the death of Uroš V in 1371 and the break-up of the Serbian state.
Venice1400.png Principality of Valona 1346-1417 The Principality of Valona or Despotate of Valona (1346–1417) was a medieval principality in Albania, roughly encompassing the territories of the modern counties of Vlorë (Valona), Fier, and Berat. Initially a vassal of the Serbian Empire, it became an independent lordship after 1355, although de facto under Venetian influence, and remained as such until it was conquered by the Ottoman Turks in 1417.
Empire of the romans and serbs en.png Empire of Simeon Uroš 1359-1373 Simeon Uroš (Serbian Cyrillic: Симеон Урош, Greek: Συμεών Ούρεσης; c. 1326–1370), nicknamed Siniša (Синиша), was a self-proclaimed Emperor of Serbs and Greeks, from 1356 to 1370. He was son of Serbian King Stefan Dečanski and Byzantine Princess Maria Palaiologina. Initially, he was awarded the title of despot in 1346, and appointed governor of southern Epirus and Acarnania in 1347 by his half-brother, Serbian Emperor Stefan Dušan. After Dušan's death in 1355, Serbian throne passed to Dušan's son Stefan Uroš V, but despot Simeon decided to seize the opportunity in order to impose himself as co-ruler and lord of all southern provinces of the Serbian Empire. That led him to conflict with his nephew in 1356, when Simeon started to expand his control in southern regions of the Empire, trying to take Thessaly and Macedonia. He proclaimed himself Emperor of the Serbs and Greeks, creating a separate state, centered in regions of Thessaly and Epirus, where he ruled until death in 1370. He was succeeded by his son Jovan Uroš.
Epir1315-1358.png Despotate of Thomas Preljubović 1366-1385 Thomas Preljubović (Serbian: Тома Прељубовић / Toma Preljubović; Greek: Θωμάς Κομνηνός Παλαιολόγος, Thōmas Komnēnos Palaiologos) was ruler of the Despotate of Epirus in Ioannina from 1366 to his death on December 23, 1384. He also held the title of Albanian-slayer (Ἀλβανοκτόνος). He was succeeded by his wife Maria Angelina.
Vojinović coat of arms.png Realm of Vojislav Vojinović and Nikola Altomanović.png Nikola Altomanović Domain 1371-1373 Nikola Altomanović (Serbian Cyrillic: Никола Алтомановић) was a 14th-century Serbian župan of the House of Vojinović. He ruled the areas from Rudnik, over Polimlje, Podrinje, east Herzegovina with Trebinje, till Konavle and Dračevica, neighboring the Republic of Dubrovnik. He was defeated and blinded in Užice (fortress Užice) in 1373 by a coalition of his Serbian and Bosnian royals neighbors supported by the king of Hungary.
Zegligovic Coat of Arms.png Principality of Velbazhd.png Dejanović Domain 1371-1395 The Dejanović (Serbian Cyrillic: Дејановић, pl. Dejanovići / Дејановићи) or Dragaš (Serbian Cyrillic: Драгаш, pl. Dragaši / Драгаши), originates from a medieval noble family that served the Serbian Empire of Dušan the Mighty (r. 1331-1355) and Uroš the Weak (r. 1355-1371), and during the fall of the Serbian Empire, after the Battle of Maritsa (1371), it became an Ottoman vassal. The family was one of the most prominent during these periods. The family held a region roughly centered where the borders of Serbia, Bulgaria and Macedonia meet. The last two Byzantine Emperors were maternal descendants of the house.
Royal banner of Mrnjavčević family.svg Kingdom of Prilep.png Kingdom of Prilep 1371-1395 The Lordship of Prilep, also known as the Realm of King Marko (Serbian: Област краља Марка / Oblast kralja Marka), was one of the successor-states of the Serbian Empire, covering (mainly) the southern regions, corresponding (in modern terms) to western parts of present-day North Macedonia. Its central region of Pelagonia, with the city of Prilep, was held by lord Vukašin Mrnjavčević, who in 1365 became Serbian king and co-ruler of Serbian emperor Stefan Uroš V (1355-1371). After king Vukašin died at the Battle of Maritsa in 1371, the realm was obtained by his son and designated successor (rex iunior) Marko Mrnjavčević, who took the title of Serbian king. At that time, capital cities of the Serbian realm were Skopje and Prizren, but during the following years king Marko lost effective control over those regions, and moved his residence to Prilep. He ruled there until his death in the Battle of Rovine in 1395. By the end of the same year, the Realm of late King Marko was conquered by Ottoman Turks.
Coat of arms of Moravian Serbia.svg Moravian Serbia.png Moravian Serbia 1371-1402 Moravian Serbia (Serbian: Моравска Србија / Moravska Srbija) is the name used in historiography for the largest and most powerful Serbian principality to emerge from the ruins of the Serbian Empire (1371). Moravian Serbia is named after Morava, the main river of the region. Independent principality in the region of Morava was established in 1371, and attained its largest extent in 1379 through the military and political activities of its first ruler, prince Lazar Hrebeljanović. In 1402 it was raised to the Serbian Despotate, which would exist until 1459.
Royal banner of Branković family.svg Realm of Brankovic.png Branković Domain 1371-1412 The District of Branković (Serbian: Земља Бранковића, Zemlja Brankovića) or Vuk's land (Serbian: Вукова земља, Vukova zemlja) was one of the short lived semi-independent states that emerged from the collapse of the Serbian Empire in 1371, following the death of the last Emperor Uroš the Weak (1346-1371). The founder of this realm was Vuk Branković, the son of sebastokrator Branko Mladenović who governed Ohrid under Stefan Dušan the Mighty (1331-1346). Through Vuk's marriage with Mara, the daughter of Moravian Serbia's Prince Lazar, he was given substantial lands to govern in Kosovo.
Balsic small COA.svg Principality of Zeta.png Zeta under the Balšići 1371-1421 Zeta (Serbian Cyrillic: Зета) was one of the medieval polities that existed between 1356 and 1421, whose territory encompassed parts of present-day Montenegro and northern Albania, ruled by the Balšić family. Zeta was a crown land of the Grand Principality and Kingdom of Serbia, ruled by heirs to the Serbian throne from the Nemanjić dynasty. In the mid-14th century, Zeta was divided into Upper and Lower Zeta, governed by magnates. After Stefan Dušan (r. 1331–55), his son Stefan Uroš V ruled Serbia during the fall of the Serbian Empire; a gradual disintegration of the Empire as a result of decentralization in which provincial lords gained semi-autonomy and eventually independence. The Balšići wrestled the Zeta region in 1356-62, when they removed the two rulers in Upper and Lower Zeta. Ruling as lords, they empowered themselves and over the decades became an important player in Balkan politics. Zeta was united into the Serbian Despotate in 1421, after Balša III abdicated and passed the rule to his uncle, Despot Stefan Lazarević (maternally a Nemanjić).
Coat of arms of Kingdom of Bosnia.svg Medieval Bosnian State Expansion-en.svg Kingdom of Bosnia 1377-1463 The Kingdom of Bosnia (Serbian: Kraljevina Bosna / Краљевина Босна), or Bosnian Kingdom (Bosansko kraljevstvo / Босанско краљевство), was a medieval Kingdom that evolved from the Banate of Bosnia (1154–1377). Bosnia experienced de facto independence in the 13th and 14th centuries despite being a part of the Hungarian Crown Lands. Its difficult terrain and remoteness enabled the Bosnians to maneuver between their two powerful neighbors, Hungary and Serbia, usually managing to avoid subordination to either. Several capable rulers allowed Bosnia briefly to play the role of a regional power in the 14th century.
Coat of arms of the Serbian Despotate.svg Serbian Despotate (1422)-en.svg Serbian Despotate 1402-1459 The Serbian Despotate (Serbian: Српска деспотовина / Srpska despotovina) was a medieval Serbian state in the first half of the 15th century. Although the Battle of Kosovo in 1389 is generally considered the end of the medieval Serbia, the Despotate, a successor of the Serbian Empire and Moravian Serbia, survived for another 60 years, experiencing a cultural and political renaissance before it was conquered by the Ottomans in 1459. Before its conquest the Despotate nominally had a suzerain status to the Ottoman Empire, Byzantine Empire and Kingdom of Hungary. After being fully subjugated to the Ottoman Empire in 1459, it continued to exist in exile in the medieval Kingdom of Hungary until the mid-16th century. Pavle Bakić was the last Despot of Serbia to be recognized by both the Ottoman and the Habsburg Empires.
Flag of the Duchy of Saint Sava.svg Stefan Vukcic and the war in Zeta 1441.jpg Duchy of Saint Sava 1435-1483 Duchy of Saint Sava (Latin: Ducatus Sancti Sabae, Serbo-Croatian: Војводство Светог Саве / Vojvodstvo Svetog Save Hercegovina Svetog Save) was a late medieval Serbian state which existed amid the Ottoman conquest of the Balkans. It was ruled by Stjepan Vukčić and his son Vladislav, of the Kosača noble family, and included parts of modern-day Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro and Serbia. Stjepan titled himself "Vojvoda of Saint Sava", after the first Serbian Archbishop, Saint Sava. Vojvoda in German translation is Herzog ("duke"), and this would later give the name to the present-day region of Herzegovina, as the Ottomans used Hersek Sancağı ("Sanjak of the Herzog") for the province which was transformed into an Ottoman sanjak.
Supposed Flag of the House of Crnojevic.svg Map of Zeta under Ivan Crnojević.jpg Zeta under the Crnojevići 1451-1496 The Crnojević noble family ruled the Zeta from 1451 until 1498. The state included parts of modern Montenegro and parts of modern Albania. Stefan I Crnojević consolidated his power in Zeta and ruled for 14 years, from 1451 until 1465. During his rule, he saw the Despotate completely subdued by the Ottomans soon after the death of Despot Đurađ Branković. Under Stefan Crnojević, Zeta comprised the Lovćen area around Cetinje, 51 municipalities which included the Crnojević River, the Zeta Valley, and the clans of Bjelopavlići, Pješivci, Malonsići, Piperi, Hoti, Klimenti and others. The population of the territories controlled by Stefan was ca. 30,000, while the total population of the Zeta region (including territories under foreign rule) was ca. 80,000.

Modern History

Image Map Name Years Notes
Serbian empire06 map.png State of Jovan Nenad 1526-1527 Jovan Nenad (Serbian Cyrillic: Јован Ненад; ca. 1492 – 26 July 1527), known as the Black was a Serb military commander in the service of the Kingdom of Hungary who took advantage of a Hungarian military defeat at Mohács and subsequent struggle over the Hungarian throne to carve out his own state in the southern Pannonian Plain. He styled himself emperor (tsar). Jovan Nenad is attributed by Serbian historians as the founder of Vojvodina and the leader of the last independent Serbian state before the Ottoman conquest.
Radoslav celnik01.png Duchy of Syrmia of Radoslav Čelnik 1527–1532 Radoslav Čelnik (Serbian Cyrillic: Радослав Челник, Hungarian: Radoszláv Cselnik; fl. 1526–1532), known as Vojvoda Rajko (војвода Рајко), was a Serb general (vojvoda) in the army of Jovan Nenad, the titular Serbian Emperor who held present-day Vojvodina, who after the death of Jovan Nenad (1527) took part of the army from Bačka to Syrmia and acceded into Ottoman service. Radoslav then ruled over Syrmia as "Duke of Syrmia (Srem)", initially as an Ottoman vassal (1527–1530) and then as a Habsburg vassal (1530–1532), until the region was conquered by the Ottomans. His residence and capital was in Slankamen.
Flag of the Prince-Bishopric of Montenegro2.svg 19ceuromonte.png Prince-Bishopric of Montenegro 1516-1852 The Prince-Bishopric of Montenegro (Serbian: Митрополство Црногорско) was an ecclesiastical principality that existed from 1516 until 1852. It emerged from the bishops of Cetinje, later metropolitans, who defied Ottoman overlordship and transformed the parish of Cetinje to a de facto theocracy, ruling as Metropolitans (vladika, also rendered "Prince-Bishop"). The history starts with Vavila, and the system was transformed into a hereditary one by Danilo Šćepčević, a bishop of Cetinje who united the several tribes of Montenegro into fighting the Ottoman Empire that had occupied most of southeastern Europe. Danilo was the first of the House of Petrović-Njegoš to occupy the office as Metropolitan of Cetinje until 1851, when Montenegro became a secular state (principality) under Danilo I Petrović-Njegoš. Also, it became a brief monarchy when it was temporary abolished 1767–1773, when impostor Little Stephen posed as Russian Emperor and crowned himself Lord of Montenegro.
Flag of Revolutionary Serbia.svg Serbia1809.png Revolutionary Serbia 1804-1813 Revolutionary Serbia (Serbian: Устаничка Србија / Ustanička Srbija) or Karađorđe's Serbia (Карађорђева Србија / Karađorđeva Srbija) refers to the state established by Serbian revolutionaries in Ottoman Serbia (Sanjak of Smederevo) after successful military operations against the Ottoman Empire and establishment of government in 1805. The Sublime Porte first officially recognized the state as autonomous in January 1807, however, the Serbian revolutionaries rejected the treaty and continued fighting the Ottomans until 1813. Although the first uprising was crushed, it was followed by the Second Serbian Uprising in 1815, which resulted in the creation of the Principality of Serbia, as it gained semi-independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1817.
Flag of Serbia (1835-1882).svg Principality of Serbia in 1878 EN.png Principality of Serbia 1815-1882 The Principality of Serbia (Serbian: Кнежевина Србија / Kneževina Srbija) was a semi-independent state in the Balkans that came into existence as a result of the Serbian Revolution, which lasted between 1804 and 1817. Its creation was negotiated first through an unwritten agreement between Miloš Obrenović, leader of the Second Serbian Uprising and Ottoman official Marashli Pasha. It was followed by the series of legal documents published by the Porte in 1828, 1829 and finally, 1830 — the Hatt-i Sharif. Its de facto independence ensued in 1867, following the expulsion of all Ottoman troops from the country; its independence was recognized internationally in 1878 by the Treaty of Berlin. In 1882 the country was elevated to the status of kingdom.
Flag of Montenegro (1852–1905).svg Principality of Montenegro (1890).svg Principality of Montenegro 1852-1910 The Principality of Montenegro (Serbian: Књажевина Црнa Горa/Knjaževina Crna Gora) was a former realm in Southeastern Europe that existed from 13 March 1852 to 28 August 1910. It was then proclaimed a kingdom by Nikola I, who then became king. The capital was Cetinje and the Montenegrin perper was used as state currency from 1906. The territory corresponded to the central area of modern Montenegro. It was a constitutional monarchy, but de facto absolutist.
State Flag of Serbia (1882-1918).svg Kingdom of Serbia (1914).svg Kingdom of Serbia 1882-1918 The Kingdom of Serbia (Serbian: Краљевина Србија / Kraljevina Srbija) was created when Milan I, ruler of the Principality of Serbia, was proclaimed king in 1882. Since 1817, the Principality was ruled by the Obrenović dynasty (replaced by the Karađorđević dynasty for a short time). The Principality, suzerainty of the Ottoman Empire, de facto achieved full independence when the last Ottoman troops left Belgrade in 1867. The Congress of Berlin in 1878 recognized the formal independence of the Principality of Serbia, and in its composition Nišava, Pirot, Toplica and Vranje districts entered the South part of Serbia. In 1882, King Milan I proclaimed the Kingdom of Serbia and maintained a foreign policy friendly to Austria-Hungary.
Flag of Montenegro (1905–1918).svg Kingdom of Montenegro (1914).svg Kingdom of Montenegro 1910-1918 The Kingdom of Montenegro (Serbian: Краљевина Црнa Горa / Kraljevina Crna Gora) was a monarchy in southeastern Europe, present-day Montenegro, during the tumultuous years on the Balkan Peninsula leading up to and during World War I. Legally it was a constitutional monarchy, but absolutist in practice. On 28 November 1918, following the end of World War I, with the Montenegrin government still in exile, the Podgorica Assembly proclaimed unification with the Kingdom of Serbia which itself was merged into the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes three days later, on 1 December 1918.
Flag of Yugoslavia (1918–1941).svg Kingdom of Yugoslavia 1930.svg Kingdom of Yugoslavia 1918-1941 The Kingdom of Yugoslavia (Serbo-Croatian: Краљевина Југославија / Kraljevina Jugoslavija; Slovene: Kraljevina Jugoslavija) was a state in Southeast Europe and Central Europe that existed from 1929 until 1941, during the interwar period and beginning of World War II. The preliminary kingdom was formed in 1918 by the merger of the provisional State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs (itself formed from territories of the former Austro-Hungarian Empire) with the formerly independent Kingdom of Serbia. The Kingdom of Montenegro had united with Serbia five days previously, whereas the regions of Kosovo, Vojvodina and Vardar Macedonia were parts of Serbia prior to the unification. Initially, it was officially called the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (Serbo-Croatian: Краљевина Срба, Хрвата и Словенаца / Kraljevina Srba, Hrvata i Slovenaca; Slovene: Kraljevina Srbov, Hrvatov in Slovencev), but the term "Yugoslavia" (literally "Land of Southern Slavs") was its colloquial name from its origins. The official name of the state was changed to "Kingdom of Yugoslavia" by King Alexander I on 3 October 1929.
Flag of Yugoslavia (1946-1992).svg Yugoslavia 1956-1990.svg SFR Yugoslavia 1945-1992 The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFR Yugoslavia or SFRY) was a country located in central and Southeastern Europe that existed from its foundation in the aftermath of World War II until its dissolution in 1992 amid the Yugoslav Wars. Covering an area of 255,804 km² (98,766 sq mi), the SFRY was bordered by the Adriatic Sea and Italy to the west, Austria and Hungary to the north, Bulgaria and Romania to the east, and Albania and Greece to the south. The nation was a socialist state and a federation governed by the League of Communists of Yugoslavia and made up of six socialist republics: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia, and Slovenia with Belgrade as its capital. In addition, it included two autonomous provinces within Serbia: Kosovo and Vojvodina.
Flag of Yugoslavia (1992–2003); Flag of Serbia and Montenegro (2003–2006).svg Serbia and Montenegro.svg Serbia and Montenegro 1992-2006 Serbia and Montenegro (Serbian: Србија и Црна Гора, СЦГ / Srbija i Crna Gora, SCG), officially the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro (Државна Заједница Србија и Црна Гора / Državna Zajednica Srbija i Crna Gora), also known as Yugoslavia before 2003, was a country in Southeast Europe, created from the two remaining federal republics of Yugoslavia after its breakup in 1992. The republics of Serbia and Montenegro together established a federation in 1992 as the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FR Yugoslavia or FRY; Савезна Република Југославија / Savezna Republika Jugoslavija).

Special administrative divisions in former foreign countries with high degree of autonomy

Image Map Name Years Notes
Militargrenze, Wojwodowena und Banat.jpg Military Frontier 1553-1881 The Military Frontier was a borderland of the Habsburg Monarchy and later the Austrian and Austro-Hungarian Empire. It acted as the cordon sanitaire against incursions from the Ottoman Empire. The inhabitants of the area were known as the Grenzer, or 'Frontiersmen'. They were colonists, mostly ethnic Serbs, Croats and Germans, who undertook to defend the Monarchy in return for their land-grants. Germans had been recruited by Hungary in the late 18th century to resettle and develop the Danube River Valley, and became known as Donauschwaben. The military regiments formed by the settlers had a vested reason to stand and fight and were familiar with local terrain and conditions. They soon gained a formidable military reputation.
Coat of arms of Kingdom of Serbia (1718–39).svg Serbia1718 1739.png Kingdom of Serbia 1718-1739 The Kingdom of Serbia (Serbian: Краљевина Србија / Kraljevina Srbija, German: Königreich Serbien, Latin: Regnum Serviae) was a province (crownland) of the Habsburg Monarchy from 1718 to 1739. It was formed from the territories to the south of the rivers Sava and Danube, corresponding to the Sanjak of Smederevo (or "Belgrade Pashalik"), conquered by the Habsburgs from the Ottoman Empire in 1717. It was abolished and returned to the Ottoman Empire in 1739. During this Habsburg rule, Serbian majority did benefit from self-government, including an autonomous militia, and economic integration with the Habsburg monarchy — reforms that contributed to the growth of the Serb middle class and continued by the Ottomans "in the interest of law and order".
New serbia map.png New Serbia 1752-1764 New Serbia (Ukrainian: Нова Сербія, translit. Nova Serbija; Russian: Новая Сербия; Serbian: Нова Србија / Nova Srbija; archaic Serbian name: Нова Сербія or Ново-Сербія; Romanian: Noua Serbie) was a military frontier of Imperial Russia from 1752 to 1764 subordinated directly to the Senat and Military Collegium. It was mostly located in the territory of present-day Kirovohrad Oblast of Ukraine, although some of its parts were located in the territory of present-day Cherkasy Oblast, Poltava Oblast and Dnipropetrovsk Oblast. The administrative centre of New Serbia was Novomirgorod (literally "New Mirgorod"), which is now Novomyrhorod, Ukraine.
Slavo serbia map.png Slavo-Serbia 1753-1764 Slavo-Serbia (Ukrainian: Слов’яносе́рбія; Serbian: Славеносрбија or Slavenosrbija; archaic Serbian name: Славено-Сербія) was a territory of Imperial Russia between 1753-64. It was located by the right bank of the Donets River between the Bakhmutka (Бахмут) and Luhan (Лугань) rivers. This area today constitutes the territories of present-day Luhansk Oblast and Donetsk Oblast of Ukraine. The administrative centre of Slavo-Serbia was Bakhmut (Bahmut).
Flag of Serbia (1792).svg Kocina krajina02.png Koča's frontier 1788-1792 Koča's frontier (Serbian: Кочина крајина / Kočina krajina) refers to the Serbian territory established in the Sanjak of Smederevo, Ottoman Empire, during the Austro-Turkish War (1787–91). The Habsburg-organized Serbian Free Corps, among whom Koča Anđelković was a prominent captain (hence the historiographical name), initially held the central part of the sanjak, between February and September 7, 1788; after the Austrians entered the conflict the territory was expanded and became a Habsburg protectorate under military administration, called Serbia (German: Serbien). After the Austrian withdrawal and Treaty of Sistova (1792), the territory was regained by the Ottomans.
Flag of Serbian Vojvodina.svg Vojvodina03.png Serbian Vojvodina 1848-1849 The Serbian Vojvodina (Serbian: Српска Војводина / Srpska Vojvodina) was a short-lived self-proclaimed Serb autonomous province within the Austrian Empire during the Revolutions of 1848, which existed until 1849 when it was transformed into the new (official) Austrian province named Voivodeship of Serbia and Banat of Temeschwar.
Flag of Serbian Vojvodina.svg Wojwodowena und Banat.jpg Voivodeship of Serbia and Banat of Temeschwar 1849-1860 The Voivodeship of Serbia and Banat of Temeschwar or Serbian Voivodeship and the Banate of Temes (German: Woiwodschaft Serbien und Temeser Banat), known simply as the Serbian Voivodeship (Serbische Woiwodschaft), was a province (duchy) of the Austrian Empire that existed between 1849 and 1860. It was a separate crown land named after two former provinces: Serbian Vojvodina and Banat of Temes. Its former area is now divided between Serbia, Romania and Hungary. The Voivodeship gave its name to the present Serbian Autonomous Province of Vojvodina.
Flag of the Government of National Salvation (occupied Yugoslavia).svg Serbia 1942.svg Territory of the Military Commander in Serbia 1941-1944 The Territory of the Military Commander in Serbia (Serbian: Подручје Војног заповједника у Србији / Područje vojnog zapovjednika u Srbiji) was the area of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia that was placed under a military government of occupation by the Wehrmacht following the invasion, occupation and dismantling of Yugoslavia in April 1941.
Flag of Montenegro (1905–1918, 1941–1944).svg GovernateOfMontenegro.png Governorate of Montenegro 1941-1944 The Italian governorate of Montenegro existed from October 1941 to September 1943 as an occupied territory under military government of Fascist Italy during World War II. Although the Italians had intended to establish a quasi-independent Montenegrin kingdom, these plans were permanently shelved after a popular uprising in July 1941. Following the Italian surrender in September 1943, the territory of Montenegro was occupied by German forces which withdrew in December 1944.

Short lived political entities

Present political entities

Image Map Name Year
Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina.svg Europe-Bosnia and Herzegovina.svg Bosnia and Herzegovina 1995
Flag of Montenegro.svg Europe-Montenegro.svg Montenegro 2006
Flag of Serbia.svg Location Serbia Europe.png Serbia 2006


See also


  1. ^ a b Vuković & Vemić 2014.
  2. ^ "Elements Of Ethnic Identification Of The Serbs" (PDF): 727. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  3. ^ Dejan Jović (January 2009). Yugoslavia: A State that Withered Away. Purdue University Press. pp. 135–. ISBN 978-1-55753-495-8.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g "Information on the status of Serbian people in the neighbouring countries, Ministry for Diaspora, Republic of Serbia". Archived from the original on 2007-11-24. Retrieved 2007-05-15.


Primary sources
  • Moravcsik, Gyula, ed. (1967) [1949]. Constantine Porphyrogenitus: De Administrando Imperio (2nd revised ed.). Washington D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks Center for Byzantine Studies.
  • Pertz, Georg Heinrich, ed. (1845). Einhardi Annales. Hanover.
  • Scholz, Bernhard Walter, ed. (1970). Carolingian Chronicles: Royal Frankish Annals and Nithard's Histories. University of Michigan Press.
  • Thurn, Hans, ed. (1973). Ioannis Scylitzae Synopsis historiarum. Berlin-New York: De Gruyter.
  • Шишић, Фердо, ed. (1928). Летопис Попа Дукљанина (Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja). Београд-Загреб: Српска краљевска академија.
  • Кунчер, Драгана (2009). Gesta Regum Sclavorum. 1. Београд-Никшић: Историјски институт, Манастир Острог.
  • Живковић, Тибор (2009). Gesta Regum Sclavorum. 2. Београд-Никшић: Историјски институт, Манастир Острог.
  • Montenegrin Census' from 1909 to 2003
  • The Ethnic Structure of the Population in Montenegro
  • "Petar I Petrovic' - DJELA" publisher CID Podgorica 1999 year, printed by "Vojna tamparija" - Beograd
  • "Statistički Godišnjak 2006" - Statistical Office of Montenegro
  • Stojanović, Ljubomir. Stare srpske povelje i pisma: 1,2. Srpska školska knjiga.

Secondary sources
  • Bataković, Dušan T., ed. (2005). Histoire du peuple serbe [History of the Serbian People] (in French). Lausanne: L’Age d’Homme.
  • Vuković, Nebojša; Vemić, Mirčeta (1 April 2014), "Position of the Serbian lands", History and geography: meetings and permeations, САНУ, pp. 123–, ISBN 978-86-7005-125-6
  • Živković, Tibor (2013). "The Urban Landcape of Early Medieval Slavic Principalities in the Territories of the Former Praefectura Illyricum and in the Province of Dalmatia (ca. 610-950)". The World of the Slavs: Studies of the East, West and South Slavs: Civitas, Oppidas, Villas and Archeological Evidence (7th to 11th Centuries AD). Belgrade: The Institute for History. pp. 15–36.