Sergei Petrovich Novikov^{[a]} (Russian: Серге́й Петро́вич Но́виков [sʲɪrˈɡʲej pʲɪˈtrovʲɪtɕ ˈnovʲɪkəf]; 20 March 1938 – 6 June 2024) was a Soviet and Russian mathematician, noted for work in both algebraic topology and soliton theory. He became the first Soviet mathematician to receive the Fields Medal in 1970.
Sergei Novikov  

Сергей Новиков  
Born  
Died  6 June 2024  (aged 86)
Alma mater  Moscow State University 
Known for  Adams–Novikov spectral sequence Novikov conjecture Novikov ring Novikov–Shubin invariant Novikov–Veselov equation Novikov's compact leaf theorem Wess–Zumino–Novikov–Witten model 
Parents 

Relatives  Mstislav Keldysh (uncle) Leonid Keldysh (stepbrother) 
Awards  Lenin Prize (1967) Fields Medal (1970) Lobachevsky Medal (1981) Wolf Prize (2005) Lomonosov Gold Medal (2020) 
Scientific career  
Fields  Mathematics 
Institutions  Moscow State University Steklov Institute of Mathematics University of Maryland 
Doctoral advisor  Mikhail Postnikov 
Doctoral students  Fedor Bogomolov Victor Buchstaber Boris Dubrovin Sabir GuseinZade Gennadi Kasparov Alexandr Mishchenko Iskander Taimanov Anton Zorich 
Novikov was born on 20 March 1938 in Gorky, Soviet Union (now Nizhny Novgorod, Russia).^{[2]} He grew up in a family of talented mathematicians. His father was Pyotr Sergeyevich Novikov, who gave a negative solution to the word problem for groups. His mother, Lyudmila Vsevolodovna Keldysh, and maternal uncle, Mstislav Vsevolodovich Keldysh, were also important mathematicians.^{[2]}
Novikov entered Moscow State University in 1955 and graduated in 1960.^{[2]} In 1964, he received the Moscow Mathematical Society Award for young mathematicians^{[2]} and defended a dissertation for the Candidate of Science in Physics and Mathematics degree (equivalent to the PhD) under Mikhail Postnikov at Moscow State University.^{[2]}^{[3]} In 1965, he defended a dissertation for the Doctor of Science in Physics and Mathematics degree there.^{[2]}
Novikov died on 6 June 2024, at the age of 86.^{[4]}
In 1966, Novikov became a corresponding member of the Academy of Sciences of the Soviet Union.^{[2]} In 1971, he became head of the Mathematics Division of the Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics of the USSR Academy of Sciences.^{[2]} In 1983, Novikov was also appointed the head of the Department of Higher Geometry and Topology at Moscow State University.^{[2]} He became President of the Moscow Mathematical Society in 1985 and remained in that role until 1996, when he moved to the University of Maryland College of Computer, Mathematical, and Natural Sciences at the University of Maryland, College Park.^{[2]} He continued to maintain research appointments at the Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Moscow State University, and the Department of Geometry and Topology at the Steklov Mathematical Institute after his move to Maryland.^{[2]}
Novikov's early work was in cobordism theory, in relative isolation. Among other advances he showed how the Adams spectral sequence, a powerful tool for proceeding from homology theory to the calculation of homotopy groups, could be adapted to the new (at that time) cohomology theory typified by cobordism and Ktheory. This required the development of the idea of cohomology operations in the general setting, since the basis of the spectral sequence is the initial data of Ext functors taken with respect to a ring of such operations, generalising the Steenrod algebra. The resulting Adams–Novikov spectral sequence is now a basic tool in stable homotopy theory.^{[5]}^{[6]}
Novikov also carried out important research in geometric topology, being one of the pioneers with William Browder, Dennis Sullivan, and C. T. C. Wall of the surgery theory method for classifying highdimensional manifolds. He proved the topological invariance of the rational Pontryagin classes, and posed the Novikov conjecture. From about 1971, he moved to work in the field of isospectral flows, with connections to the theory of theta functions. Novikov's conjecture about the Riemann–Schottky problem (characterizing principally polarized abelian varieties that are the Jacobian of some algebraic curve) stated, essentially, that this was the case if and only if the corresponding theta function provided a solution to the Kadomtsev–Petviashvili equation of soliton theory. This was proved by Takahiro Shiota (1986),^{[7]} following earlier work by Enrico Arbarello and Corrado de Concini (1984),^{[8]} and by Motohico Mulase (1984).^{[9]}
In 1967, Novikov received the Lenin Prize.^{[10]} In 1970, Novikov became the first Soviet mathematician to be awarded the Fields Medal.^{[2]}^{[4]} He was not allowed to travel to the International Congress of Mathematicians in Nice to accept his medal by the Soviet government due to his support for people who had been arrested and sent to mental institutions for speaking out against the regime, but he received it in 1971 when the International Mathematical Union met in Moscow.^{[2]} In 2005, he was awarded the Wolf Prize for his contributions to algebraic topology, differential topology and to mathematical physics.^{[11]} He is one of just eleven mathematicians who received both the Fields Medal and the Wolf Prize. In 2020, he received the Lomonosov Gold Medal of the Russian Academy of Sciences.^{[4]}^{[12]}
In 1981, he was elected a full member of the USSR Academy of Sciences (Russian Academy of Sciences since 1991).^{[2]} He was elected to the London Mathematical Society (honorary member, 1987), Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts (honorary member, 1988), Accademia dei Lincei (foreign member, 1991), Academia Europaea (member, 1993), National Academy of Sciences (foreign associate, 1994), Pontifical Academy of Sciences (member, 1996), European Academy of Sciences (fellow, 2003), and Montenegrin Academy of Sciences and Arts (honorary member, 2011).^{[10]}
He received honorary doctorates from the University of Athens (1988) and University of Tel Aviv (1999).^{[10]}