Shades of violet

Summary

Violet
 
Color icon violet v2.svg
Spectral coordinates
Wavelength380–450 nm
Frequency800–715 THz
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet#8000FF
HSV       (h, s, v)(270°, 100%, 100%)
sRGBB  (rgb)(127, 0, 255)
Source99Colors[1]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)
Dog violet flower
The color violet is named for the violet flower.

Violet is a color term derived from the flower of the same name. There are numerous variations of the color violet, a sampling of which are shown below.

Inconsistent meaning of the color term "violet"

The term violet has different meanings in different languages, countries and epochs. Even among many modern speakers within the English-speaking world there is confusion about the terms purple and violet.[2] The blue-dominated spectral color beyond blue is referred to as purple by many speakers in the United States, but this color is called violet by many speakers in the United Kingdom.[3][4] In some British authoritative texts the term purple refers to any mixture of red and blue, suggesting the color term purple covers the full range between red and blue in the United Kingdom.[5] In other texts it is the term violet that covers the same full range of colors.[6] The uncertainty about the range of meanings of the color terms violet and purple is even larger when other languages and historical texts are considered.[7]

Violet in human culture

Wrapping the spectrum into a color wheel

Linear visible spectrum.svg
Visible spectrum wrapped to join blue and magenta in an additive mixture of violet

In a color proximity sense, a primary color has a color range of 120° (60° on each side of the color's hue) and any color has to be within that range to be considered a variation of that color. Secondary colors have a color range of 60° (30°), tertiary colors have a color range of 30° (15°), quaternary colors have a color range of 15° (7.5°), quinary colors have a color range of 7.5° (3.75°), and so on. Because violet is located at a hue angle of 270°, it has a tertiary color range of 255° and 285°, and any color out of this range is more related to blue or magenta than violet. If the visible spectrum is wrapped to form a color wheel, violet (additive secondary) appears midway between blue and magenta:

Violet as a tertiary color on the RGB color wheel
  rose
  violet
  blue
  azure

Variations of spectral violet

Although pure spectrum violet is outside the color gamut of the RGB color space, the three colors displayed below are rough approximations of the range of colors of actual spectral violet, although the accuracy of the approximation can vary depending on the individual's color vision, and on the color rendition of one's computer monitor.

Color wheel violet

Violet (color wheel)
 
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet#8000FF
HSV       (h, s, v)(270°, 100%, 100[8]%)
sRGBB  (rgb)(127, 0, 255)
SourceHTML Color Chart[9]
ISCC–NBS descriptorVivid violet
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

The tertiary color on the HSV color wheel (also known as the RGB color wheel) precisely halfway between blue and magenta is called color wheel violet. This tone of violet—an approximation of the color violet at about 417 nanometers as plotted on the CIE chromaticity diagram—is shown at right. This tone of violet is actually somewhat toward indigo assuming indigo is accepted as a separate spectrum color, usually quoted as having a range of from about 420 to 450 nanometers.[10] Another name for this color is near violet.

Electric violet

Electric Violet
 
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet#8F00FF
HSV       (h, s, v)(274°, 100%, 100[11]%)
sRGBB  (rgb)(143, 0, 255)
SourceHTML Color Chart @274[failed verification]
ISCC–NBS descriptorVivid violet
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

The color at right, electric violet, is the closest approximation to middle spectrum violet that can be made on a computer screen, given the limitations of the sRGB color gamut. It is an approximation of the color violet at about 400 nanometers as plotted on the CIE chromaticity diagram, in the middle of the violet range of from 380 nanometers to 420 nanometers, assuming indigo as a separate spectrum color from 420 to 450 nanometers.[10] Other names for this color are middle violet or simply violet.

Vivid violet

Vivid Violet
 
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet#9F00FF
HSV       (h, s, v)(277°, 100%, 100[12]%)
sRGBB  (rgb)(159, 0, 255)
SourceHTML Color Chart @277[failed verification]
ISCC–NBS descriptorVivid violet
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Displayed at right is the color vivid violet, a color approximately equivalent to the violet seen at the extreme edge of human visual perception.[citation needed] When plotted on the CIE chromaticity diagram, it can be seen that this is a hue corresponding to that of a visual stimulus of approximately 380 nm on the spectrum. Thus another name for this color is extreme violet.

Computer web color violets

Web color "violet"

Violet (web color)
 
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet#EE82EE
HSV       (h, s, v)(300°, 45%, 93[13]%)
sRGBB  (rgb)(238, 130, 238)
SourceX11[14]
X11 color names[15]
ISCC–NBS descriptorVivid purple
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)

The so-called web color "violet" is in actuality not really a tint of violet, a spectral color, but is a non-spectral color. The web color violet is actually a rather pale tint of magenta because it has equal amounts of red and blue (the definition of magenta for computer display), and some of the green primary mixed in, unlike most other variants of violet that are closer to blue. This same color appears as "violet" in the X11 color names.

Pigment violet (web color dark violet)

Dark Violet
 
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet#9400D3
HSV       (h, s, v)(282°, 100%, 83[16]%)
sRGBB  (rgb)(148, 0, 211)
SourceX11
ISCC–NBS descriptorVivid violet
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

The color box at right displays the web color dark violet which is equivalent to pigment violet, i.e., the color violet as it would typically be reproduced by artist's paints, colored pencils, or crayons as opposed to the brighter "electric" violet above that it is possible to reproduce on a computer screen.[citation needed]

Compare the subtractive colors to the additive colors in the two primary color charts in the article on primary colors to see the distinction between electric colors as reproducible from light on a computer screen (additive colors) and the pigment colors reproducible with pigments (subtractive colors); the additive colors are a lot brighter because they are produced from light instead of pigment.[citation needed]

Pigment violet (web color dark violet) represents the way the color violet was always reproduced in pigments, paints, or colored pencils in the 1950s. By the 1970s, because of the advent of psychedelic art, artists became used to brighter pigments, and pigments called "Violet" that are the pigment equivalent of the electric violet reproduced in the section above became available in artists pigments and colored pencils.[citation needed] (When approximating electric violet in artists pigments, a bit of white pigment is added to pigment violet.[citation needed])

Other variations of the color violet

Ultra Violet (Pantone)

Ultra Violet
 
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet#645394
HSV       (h, s, v)(256°, 44%, 58[17]%)
sRGBB  (rgb)(100, 83, 148)
SourcePantone TPX[18]
ISCC–NBS descriptorModerate violet
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

The color Ultra Violet is displayed at right.

The source of this color is the "Pantone Textile Paper eXtended (TPX)" color list, color #18-3838 TPX—Ultra Violet.[19]

Ultra Violet was named as Pantone's Color of the Year for 2018.[20]

It should not be confused with ultraviolet, a color that bees see but people don't.

African violet

African Violet
 
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet#B284BE
HSV       (h, s, v)(288°, 31%, 75[21]%)
sRGBB  (rgb)(178, 132, 190)
SourcePantone TPX[22]
ISCC–NBS descriptorLight purple
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

The color African violet is displayed at right.

The source of this color is the "Pantone Textile Paper eXtended (TPX)" color list, color #16-3250 TPX—African Violet.[23]

Chinese violet

Chinese Violet
 
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet#856088
HSV       (h, s, v)(296°, 29%, 53[24]%)
sRGBB  (rgb)(133, 96, 136)
SourcePantone TPX[25]
ISCC–NBS descriptorModerate purple
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

The color Chinese violet is displayed at right.

The first recorded use of Chinese violet as a color name in English was in 1912.[26]

The source of this color is the "Pantone Textile Paper eXtended (TPX)" color list, color #18-3418 TPX—Chinese Violet.[27]

English violet

English Violet
 
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet#563C5C
HSV       (h, s, v)(289°, 35%, 36%)
sRGBB  (rgb)(86, 60, 92)
SourceISCC-NBS
ISCC–NBS descriptorDark purple
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

The color English violet is displayed at right.

The first recorded use of English violet as a color name in English was in 1928.[28]

French violet

French Violet
 
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet#8806CE
HSV       (h, s, v)(279°, 97%, 81%)
sRGBB  (rgb)(136, 6, 206)
SourcePourpre.com[failed verification]
ISCC–NBS descriptorVivid violet
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

At right is displayed the color French violet, which is the tone of violet that is called violet in the Pourpre.com color list, a color list widely popular in France.

Japanese violet

Violet (JTC)
 
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet#5B3256
HSV       (h, s, v)(307°, 45%, 36[29]%)
sRGBB  (rgb)(91, 50, 86)
SourceJTC
ISCC–NBS descriptorDark reddish purple
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

The color Japanese violet is shown at right.

This is the color called "violet" in the traditional Japanese colors group, a group of colors in use since beginning in 660 CE in the form of various dyes that are used in designing kimono.[30][31]

The name of this color in Japanese is sumire-iro, meaning "violet color".

Spanish violet

Violet (G&S)
 
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet#4C2882
HSV       (h, s, v)(264°, 69%, 51%)
sRGBB  (rgb)(76, 40, 130)
SourceGallego and Sanz[32]
ISCC–NBS descriptorDeep violet
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Spanish violet is the color that is called Violeta (the Spanish word for "violet") in the Guía de coloraciones (Guide to colorations) by Rosa Gallego and Juan Carlos Sanz, a color dictionary published in 2005 that is widely popular in the Hispanophone realm.

Russian violet

Russian Violet
 
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet#32174D
HSV       (h, s, v)(270°, 70%, 30%)
sRGBB  (rgb)(50, 23, 77)
SourceISCC-NBS
ISCC–NBS descriptorDeep violet
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

The color Russian violet is displayed at right.

The first recorded use of Russian violet as a color name in English was in 1926.[33]

Grape

Grape
 
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet#6F2DA8
HSV       (h, s, v)(272°, 73%, 65%)
sRGBB  (rgb)(111, 45, 168)
SourceCrayola
ISCC–NBS descriptorVivid violet
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Grape is a color that is a representation of the color of grapes.

Fresh purple grapes
Fresh purple grapes

It is currently unknown when grape was first used as a color name in English, but in 1994, "grape" was made into one of the Crayola Magic Scent crayon colors.

Lavender

Lavender
 
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet#B57EDC
HSV       (h, s, v)(275°, 43%, 86[34]%)
sRGBB  (rgb)(181, 126, 220)
SourceMaerz and Paul[35]
ISCC–NBS descriptorStrong purple
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

At right is displayed the color lavender. This color may also be called lavender (floral) or floral lavender to distinguish it from the web color lavender. It is the color of the central part of the lavender flower.

The first recorded use of the word lavender as a color term in English was in 1705.[36]

Lavender flowers
Lavender flowers

Since the color lavender has a hue code of 275, it may be regarded as a light tone of violet.

Mauve

Mauve (Mallow)
 
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet#E0B0FF
HSV       (h, s, v)(276°, 31%, 100[37]%)
sRGBB  (rgb)(224, 176, 255)
SourceMaerz and Paul[38]
ISCC–NBS descriptorBrilliant purple
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Mauve (from the French form of Malva "mallow") is a color that is named after the mallow flower. Another name for the color is mallow[39] with the first recorded use of mallow as a color name in English in 1611.[40]

Mallow (mauve) flowers
Mallow (mauve) flowers

Since the color mauve has a hue code of 276, it may be regarded as a pale tone of violet.

Wisteria

Wisteria
 
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet#C9A0DC
HSV       (h, s, v)(281°, 27%, 86%)
sRGBB  (rgb)(201, 160, 220)
SourceCrayola
ISCC–NBS descriptorLight purple
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Displayed at right is the color wisteria.

It represents the color of wisteria blooms. A crayon of this color and name was formulated by Crayola in 1993.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Color Violet". Retrieved 18 May 2018.
  2. ^ Fehrman, K.R.; Fehrman, C. (2004). Color - the secret influence. Upper Saddle River: Pearson Education.
  3. ^ Matschi, M. (2005). "Color terms in English: Onomasiological and Semasiological aspects". Onomasiology Online. 5: 56-139.
  4. ^ Spence, N. (1989). "The Linguistic Field of Colour Terms in French". Zeitschrift für romanische Philologie. 105 (5–6): 472-497. doi:10.1515/zrph.1989.105.5-6.472.
  5. ^ Matschi, M. (2005). "Color terms in English: Onomasiological and Semasiological aspects". Onomasiology Online. 5: 56-139.
  6. ^ Cooper, A.C.; McLaren, K. (1973). "The ANLAB colour system and the dyer's variables of "shade" and strength". J. Soc. Dyers Colorists. 89: 41-45.
  7. ^ Tager, A.; Kirchner, E.; Fedorovskaya, E. (2021). "Computational evidence of first extensive usage of violet in the 1860s". Color Research & Application: 1-17. doi:10.1002/col.22638.
  8. ^ Forret, Peter. "RGB Color converter - toolstudio". Web.forret.com. Retrieved 20 November 2017.
  9. ^ In the HSV color space, mapped by the sRGB color rendition system, the color violet (color wheel) is defined as the color with a hue of 270 degrees, which is the color exactly half way between blue and magenta on the RGB color wheel.
  10. ^ a b Rosen, Joe (20 November 2017). Encyclopedia of Physics. Infobase Publishing. ISBN 9781438110134. Retrieved 20 November 2017 – via Google Books.
  11. ^ Forret, Peter. "RGB Color converter - toolstudio". Web.forret.com. Retrieved 20 November 2017.
  12. ^ Forret, Peter. "RGB Color converter - toolstudio". Web.forret.com. Retrieved 20 November 2017.
  13. ^ Forret, Peter. "RGB Color converter - toolstudio". Web.forret.com. Retrieved 20 November 2017.
  14. ^ W3C TR CSS3 Color Module, SVG color keywords. W3C. (May 2003). Retrieved on 30 January 2008.
  15. ^ "X11 rgb.txt". Archived from the original on 2015-11-07.
  16. ^ Forret, Peter. "RGB Color converter - toolstudio". Web.forret.com. Retrieved 20 November 2017.
  17. ^ Forret, Peter. "RGB Color converter - toolstudio". Web.forret.com. Retrieved 20 November 2017.
  18. ^ Type the words "Ultra Violet" into the indicated window on the Pantone Color Finder and the color will appear.
  19. ^ Pantone TPX Pantone Color Finder Type the words "Ultra Violet" into the indicated window on the Pantone Color Finder and the color will appear
  20. ^ "Pantone Color of the Year 2018 | Ultra Violet 18-3838". Pantone. Retrieved February 3, 2018.
  21. ^ Forret, Peter. "RGB Color converter - toolstudio". Web.forret.com. Retrieved 20 November 2017.
  22. ^ Type the words "African Violet" into the indicated window on the Pantone Color Finder and the color will appear.
  23. ^ Pantone TPX Pantone Color Finder
  24. ^ Forret, Peter. "RGB Color converter - toolstudio". Web.forret.com. Retrieved 20 November 2017.
  25. ^ Type the words "Chinese Violet" into the indicated window on the Pantone Color Finder and the color will appear.
  26. ^ Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill Page 192; Color Sample of Chinese Violet: Page 107 Plate 42 Color Sample I7
  27. ^ Pantone TPX Pantone Color Finder Type the words "Chinese Violet" into the indicated window on the Pantone Color Finder and the color will appear
  28. ^ Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill Page 194; Color Sample of English Violet: Page 111 Plate 44 Color Sample K9
  29. ^ Forret, Peter. "RGB Color converter - toolstudio". Web.forret.com. Retrieved 20 November 2017.
  30. ^ Nagasaki, Seiki. Nihon no dentoshoku : sono shikimei to shikicho, Seigensha, 2001. ISBN 4-916094-53-0
  31. ^ Nihon Shikisai Gakkai. Shinpen shikisai kagaku handobukku, Tokyo Daigaku Shuppankai, 1985. ISBN 4-13-061000-7
  32. ^ Gallego, Rosa; Sanz, Juan Carlos (2005). Guía de coloraciones (Gallego, Rosa; Sanz, Juan Carlos (2005). Guide to Colorations) Madrid: H. Blume. ISBN 84-89840-31-8
  33. ^ Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill Page 194; Color Sample of Russian Violet: Page 111 Plate 44 Color Sample K11
  34. ^ Forret, Peter. "RGB Color converter - toolstudio". Web.forret.com. Retrieved 20 November 2017.
  35. ^ The color displayed in the color box above matches the color called lavender in the 1930 book by Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill; the color lavender is displayed on page 109, Plate 43, Color Sample C5.
  36. ^ Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York: 1930 McGraw-Hill Page 197
  37. ^ Forret, Peter. "RGB Color converter - toolstudio". Web.forret.com. Retrieved 20 November 2017.
  38. ^ The color displayed in the color box above matches the color called mauve in the 1930 book by Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill; the color "mallow" is displayed on Page 125, Plate 51, Color Sample I3 Note: It is stated in A Dictionary of Color that mallow and mauve are two different names used in English to refer to exactly the same color--the name mallow came into use in 1611 and mauve came into use as its synonym in 1856--see under the entry for each name on page 198 in the Index. See also discussion of the color Mallow (Mauve) on page 166.
  39. ^ Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill Page 198
  40. ^ Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill Page 198; Color Sample of Mallow: Page 125 Plate 51 Color Sample I3

External links