Shear strength (discontinuity)


The shear strength of a discontinuity in a soil or rock mass may have a strong impact on the mechanical behavior of a soil or rock mass.[1][2][3][4][5][6] The shear strength of a discontinuity is often considerably lower than the shear strength of the blocks of intact material in between the discontinuities, and therefore influences, for example, tunnel, foundation, or slope engineering, but also the stability of natural slopes. Many slopes, natural and man-made, fail due to a low shear strength of discontinuities in the soil or rock mass in the slope. The deformation characteristics of a soil or rock mass are also influenced by the shear strength of the discontinuities. For example, the modulus of deformation is reduced, and the deformation becomes plastic (i.e. non-reversible deformation on reduction of stress) rather than elastic (i.e. reversible deformation). This may cause, for example, larger settlement of foundations, which is also permanent even if the load is only temporary. Furthermore, the shear strength of discontinuities influences the stress distribution in a soil or rock mass.[7]

Shear strength Edit

The shear strength along a discontinuity in a soil or rock mass in geotechnical engineering is governed by the persistence of the discontinuity, roughness of discontinuity surfaces,[8][9][10][11][12] infill material in the discontinuity,[13] presence and pressure of gasses and fluids (e.g. water, oil), and possible solution (e.g. karst) and cementation along the discontinuity. Further the shear strength is dependent on whether the discontinuity has moved before in the geological history (i.e. are the asperities on opposing walls of the discontinuity fitting or non-fitting, or have the asperities been sheared off).

Determination shear strength Edit

Only for simple models of discontinuities the shear strength can be analytically calculated.[8] For real discontinuities no analytical calculation method exists. Testing on various scales in the laboratory or in the field, or empirical calculations based on characterizing the discontinuity[12][14][15] are used to establish the shear strength.

Discontinuity shear strength tests Edit

Empirical calculations based on characterization Edit

References Edit

  1. ^ Hoek, E.; Bray, J. (1974). Rock slope engineering. London: Institute of Mining and Metallurgy. pp. 358. ISBN 978-0-419-16010-6.
  2. ^ Hoek, E.; Brown, E.T. (1990). Underground excavations in rock. London: Institute of Mining and Metallurgy; Spon Press, Taylor & Francis. p. 536. ISBN 978-0-419-16030-4.
  3. ^ Hack, R. (1998). Slope Stability Probability Classification (SSPC) (PDF). ITC publication 43 (2nd ed.). Technical University Delft & Twente University - International Institute for Aerospace Survey and Earth Sciences (ITC Enschede), Netherlands. p. 258. ISBN 90-6164-154-3.
  4. ^ a b ISRM (2007). Ulusay, R.; Hudson, J.A. (eds.). The Blue Book - The Complete ISRM Suggested Methods for Rock Characterization, Testing and Monitoring: 1974-2006. Ankara: ISRM & ISRM Turkish National Group. p. 628. ISBN 978-975-93675-4-1.
  5. ^ a b Price, D.G. (2009). De Freitas, M.H. (ed.). Engineering Geology: Principles and Practice. Springer. p. 450. ISBN 978-3-540-29249-4.
  6. ^ Hencher, S.R.; Lee, S.G.; Carter, T.G.; Richards, L.R. (2011). "Sheeting Joints: Characterisation, Shear Strength and Engineering". Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering. 44 (1): 1–22. Bibcode:2011RMRE...44....1H. doi:10.1007/s00603-010-0100-y.
  7. ^ Gaziev, E.; Erlikhman, S. (4–6 October 1971). Stresses and strains in anisotropic foundations. Rock fracture: proceedings of the International Symposium on Rock Mechanics ISRM. Nancy, France: École Nationale Supérieure de Géologie Appliquée et de Prospection Minière : École Nationale Supérieure de la Métallurgie et de l'Industrie des Mines, Rubrecht, Nancy. pp. 11–1.
  8. ^ a b Patton, F.D. (25 Sep – 1 Oct 1966). Rocha, M. (ed.). Multiple Modes of Shear Failure in Rock. Proc. 1st Congress of International Society for Rock Mechanics (ISRM). Vol. 1. Lisbon, Portugal: Laboratório Nacional de Engenharia Civil, Lisboa, Portugal. pp. 509–513. OL 19662608M.
  9. ^ Rengers, N. (1970). Influence of surface roughness on the friction properties of rock planes. Proceedings 2nd International Congress on Rock Mechanics, ISRM, Belgrade. Vol. 1. ISRM. pp. 229–234.
  10. ^ Fecker, E.; Rengers, N. (1971). Measurement of large scale roughness of rock planes by means of profilograph and geological compass. Proceedings symposium on rock fracture, Nancy, France. pp. 1–18.
  11. ^ a b Hencher, S. R.; Richards, L. R. (1989). "Laboratory direct shear testing of rock discontinuities". Ground Engineering. 22 (2): 24–31.
  12. ^ a b c Barton, N.R.; Bandis, S.C. (4–6 June 1990). Barton, N.; Stephansson, O. (eds.). Review of predictive capabilities of JRC-JCS model in engineering practice. Rock Joints: Regional Conference of the International Society for Rock Mechanics ISRM. Loen, Norway: Balkema, Rotterdam, Taylor & Francis. pp. 603–610. ISBN 978-90-6191-109-8.
  13. ^ Phien-wej, N.; Shrestha, U.B.; Rantucci, G. (1990). Barton, N.R.; Stephansson, O. (eds.). Effect of infill thickness on shear behaviour of rock joints. Rock Joints. Balkema (Taylor & Francis), Rotterdam. pp. 289–294. ISBN 978-90-6191-109-8.
  14. ^ a b Shemirani, Alireza Bagher; Sarfarazi, Vahab; Haeri, Hari; Marji, Mohammad Fatehi; Hosseini, Seyed shahin (2018). "A discrete element simulation of a punch-through shear test to investigate the confining pressure effects on the shear behaviour of concrete cracks". Computers and Concrete. 21 (2): 189–197. doi:10.12989/cac.2018.21.2.189.
  15. ^ a b Hack, H.R.G.K.; Price, D.G. (September 25–29, 1995). Fujii, T. (ed.). Determination of discontinuity friction by rock mass classification (PDF). Proceedings 8th International Society for Rock Mechanics (ISRM) congress. Vol. 3. Tokyo, Japan: Balkema, Rotterdam, Taylor & Francis. pp. 23–27. ISBN 978-90-5410-576-3.