Sheffield Scientific School was founded in 1847 as a school of Yale College in New Haven, Connecticut, for instruction in science and engineering. Originally named the Yale Scientific School, it was renamed in 1861 in honor of Joseph E. Sheffield, a railroad executive. The school was incorporated in 1871. The Sheffield Scientific School helped establish the model for the transition of U.S. higher education from a classical model to one which incorporated both the sciences and the liberal arts. Following World War I, however, its curriculum gradually became completely integrated with Yale College. "The Sheff" ceased to function as a separate entity in 1956.
Norton died in 1852 and was replaced by John Addison Porter. Applied chemistry was followed in 1852 by a professorship of civil engineering (William Augustus Norton) establishing a school of engineering. These programs made up the Yale Scientific School.
Joseph Earl Sheffield, the school's namesake
In 1853 and 1854, science and engineering courses were listed in the Yale College course catalog as offered by the Yale Scientific School. Porter elicited help from his father-in-law, Joseph Earl Sheffield, and in 1858, Sheffield donated over US$100,000 to purchase the old Medical Department building for the scientific school. This gift included two newly-renovated wings within the building.: 8 The old Yale Medical School building on the northeast corner of Grove and Prospect Streets was renovated and renamed (South) Sheffield Hall. (It was demolished in 1931 and was on the current site of Sterling Tower, Sheffield Hall and Strathcona Hall (SSS).) Sheffield's building reinforced the division of Hillhouse Avenue into an upper, residential section, and a lower section devoted to education. In 1861, the school became the Sheffield Scientific School in recognition of his generosity devoted to "the promotion of the study of the natural, physical, and mathematical sciences."
Sheffield was one of Yale's greatest benefactors and continued to support the school throughout his life, giving a total of about US$500,000. Yale also received US$591,000 from his will as well as his house, the Sheffield mansion, designed and originally owned by Ithiel Town (demolished in 1957). The school also benefited from the Morrill Act starting in 1863 and an agricultural course was begun. Land grant status, however, was transferred to the Storrs Agricultural School in 1893 after arguments by the state grange that the school was not a proper "farm school".
A series of lectures, later known as the Sheffield Lectures was instituted by the school in 1866. Professor Othniel Charles Marsh of the school led four Yale scientific expeditions in search of fossils in 1870-3.
Education and student lifeEdit
The Sheffield School innovated with an undergraduate course offering science and mathematics as well as economics, English, geography, history, modern languages, philology and political science. Sheffield also pioneered graduate education in the United States, granting the first Ph.D. in America in 1861 as well as the first engineering Ph.D. in America to Josiah Willard Gibbs in 1863, and the first geology Ph.D. to William North Rice in 1867.
Unlike Yale College students at the time, Sheffield students had "no dorms, no required chapel, no disciplinary marks and no proctors". The Academical Department of Yale (Ac) and Sheffield (Sheff) became rivals. Loomis Havemeyer, alumnus and registrar at Sheffield, stated: "During the second half of the nineteenth century Yale College and Sheffield Scientific School, separated by only a few streets, were two separate countries on the same planet." The Ac students studied liberal arts and would look down on the practical Sheff students.
Sheffield had its own student secret societies (aka final clubs or senior societies, some also known by their Greek letters) including the Colony Club, 1848 (now Berzelius), the Cloister, 1863 (now Book and Snake), St. Anthony Hall, 1867 (now a 3-year society, also called Delta Psi), St. Elmo, 1889 (also a senior society), as well as Franklin Hall, 1865 (Theta Xi), York Hall, 1877 (Chi Phi), Sachem Hall, 1893 (Phi Sigma Kappa), and Vernon Hall, 1908 (now Myth and Sword). The Yale Scientific Magazine was founded at Sheffield in 1894, the first student magazine devoted to the sciences.
In 1872–73, Sheffield Scientific School's first new building, North Sheffield Hall was built, designed by Josiah Cleaveland Cady, on what had been the gardens of the Town-Sheffield mansion. This was followed by Winchester Hall (1892) and Sheffield Chemical (1894-5, J. Cleaveland Cady). Of these, only the latter, Sheffield Chemical, is still standing, renovated and renamed Arthur K. Watson Hall. Becton Laboratory (designed by Marcel Breuer, 1970) now stands on the site of North Sheffield and Winchester Halls (demolished in 1967). Further expansion brought Kirtland Hall (1902, Kirtland Cutter), Hammond Laboratory (1904, W. Gedney Beatty), Leet Oliver Hall (1908, Charles C. Haight), Mason Laboratory (1911, Charles C. Haight) and Dunham Laboratory (1912, Henry Morse; addition 1958, Douglas Orr), all still standing except Hammond which was razed in 2009 to make way for two new residential colleges.
The Vanderbilt-Sheffield Dormitories and Towers were built by Charles C. Haight from 1903 to 1906, and Haight's chapter house St. Anthony Hall was built in 1913. Byers Hall, designed by Hiss and Weekes and built in 1903, served as a center for social and religious life. These buildings are now incorporated into Silliman College, and St. Anthony Hall still owns its building, which completes the College and Wall Street corner of the Silliman College Quadrangle. In 2006-7, Silliman underwent a major renovation.
Also, in 1913, land in East Lyme was purchased for a field engineering camp (now the Yale Outdoor Education Center).
Plaque commemorating Sheffield Hall
During the 1918-1919 reorganization of the educational structure of Yale University, the three years "select" course at Sheffield Scientific School was eliminated and a four-year course of study for those studying "professional science" and "engineering" was approved, while graduate courses were transferred to the Graduate School, leaving only undergraduate courses taught at Sheffield Scientific School from 1919 to 1945, coexisting with Yale College's science programs. The centennial was celebrated in 1947 with the Silliman lectures given by Ernest O. Lawrence, Linus Pauling, W. M. Stanley and George Wells Beadle.
The first degree of Bachelor of Science was awarded in 1922 to the graduating class of the Sheffield Scientific School. In 1932, the School of Engineering was reestablished and Sheffield Scientific School engineering classes were transferred to the new school. In 1945, the Sheffield Scientific School resumed its original function of graduate level instruction in science. Undergraduate courses for the Bachelor of Science degree were transferred to Yale College, and undergraduate courses for a Bachelor of Science in industrial administration were transferred to the School of Engineering.
This transition occurred gradually, through the influence of "aggressive, powerful alumni" (including Edwin Oviatt, editor of the Yale Alumni Weekly) who "took control out of President Hadley's hands and forced a radical reorganization of Yale". In 1956, the Sheffield Scientific School was terminated as an active school. The Board of Trustees still exists to oversee the Sheffield Scientific School property and meet legal requirements. The school's faculty is defined as teachers of science to graduate students under the Division of Science. Engineering teaching and research is now conducted within the School of Engineering & Applied Science.
George Jarvis Brush (Professor of Mineralogy) was Director of the Sheffield Scientific School from 1872 to 1898.
Russell Henry Chittenden (Professor of Physiological Chemistry) was Director of the Sheffield Scientific School from 1898 to 1922.
John Hays Hammond, mining engineer, philanthropist, faculty member. He endowed a program at Sheff in mining and metallurgy and accepted a professorship. He contributed $100,000 for the construction of Hammond Laboratory, which is named for him.
^"Charles Emerson Beecher" (PDF). Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale University. 63: 402–4. 1904.
^Jenkins, E. H. (1911). "William Henry Brewer". Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale University Deceased During the Year Ending June 1, 1911 (pdf). 7 (9): 130–3. Bibcode:1911AmJS...31...71J. doi:10.2475/ajs.s4-31.181.71.
^"Daniel Coit Gilman". Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale University Deceased During the Academical Year Ending in June, 1909 (68): 1012–7. 1909.
^"Thomas Raynesford Lounsbury". Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale University: 749–752. 1915.
^Chamberlain, Joshua L. (1899). Universities and Their Sons. Vol. 3. Boston: R. Herndon Co. pp. 237–8.
^Sherman, Henry C. (1936). "Lafayette Benedict Mendel". Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale University. 83 (2142): 50–3. Bibcode:1936Sci....83...45S. doi:10.1126/science.83.2142.45.
^"Mansfield Merriman". Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale University Deceased During the Year Ending July 1, 1925: 1467–9. 1925.
^Schiff, Judith Ann (March 2009). "When Yale was a farming school". Yale Alumni Magazine. Retrieved 5 May 2015.
^Trowbridge, W. P. (1886). Memoir of William A. Norton, 1810–1883(PDF). Vol. 2. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences. pp. 189–199. Retrieved 27 June 2016.
^"John Addison Porter". Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale University Deceased During the Academical Year Ending in July, 1867. 26: 246. 1867.
^"Chas. B. Richards, Yale Scientist, Dies: Emeritus Professor of Mechanical Engineering Succumbs at 85 Years" (PDF). The New York Times. New York City. 21 April 1919. Retrieved 10 February 2016.
^"Benjamin Silliman" (PDF). Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale University Deceased During the Academical Year Ending in June, 1885 (44): 245–6. 1885.
^Comstock, Cyrus (November 1893). Biographical memoir of William P. Trowbridge(PDF). Vol. 03. National Academy of Sciences. Retrieved 5 May 2015.
^Dunbar, Charles F. (July 1897), "The Career of Francis Amasa Walker", The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, 11 (4): 436–448, doi:10.2307/1880719, JSTOR 1880719
^Falk, Julia S. (1999). "Whitney, William Dwight". American National Biography (online ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/anb/9780198606697.article.1400696. (subscription required)
^Merry, Robert W. (1996). Taking on the World: Joseph and Stewart Alsop—Guardians of the American Century. New York: Viking. p. 7. ISBN 978-0-670-83868-4.
^True, A. C. (1908). "Wilbur Olin Atwater. 1844–1907". Proceedings of the Washington Academy of Sciences. 10: 194–198. ISSN 0363-1095. JSTOR 24525334.
^"Clifford Whittingham Beers". Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale University Deceased During the Year Ending July 1, 1944 (103): 231–2. 1944.
^"Jules Blankfein, 89, A Hospital Founder". The New York Times. New York, New York. 3 June 1989. Retrieved 16 October 2017.
^"William Boeing, Plane Pioneer, 74" (PDF). The New York Times. New York, New York. 29 September 1956. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
^"John Bouvier 3d, Broker, 66, Dies" (PDF). The New York Times. New York, New York. 4 August 1957. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
^Pearson, Richard (26 May 1986), "Statesman Chester Bowles Dies at 85", The Washington Post, Washington, D. C.
^"Bradford Brinton". Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale University Deceased During the Year Ending July 1, 1936 (95): 165–6. 1936.
^"BROOKS, Joshua Twing", Biographical Directory of the United States Congress 1774 - Present, retrieved 11 February 2018
^Malcolm G. Chace, 80, Industrial Leader, Dies, Providence, RI, The Providence Sunday Journal, 17 July 1955, p. 24
^"MALCOLM CHACE, FINANCIER, DIES". The New York Times. 17 July 1955. p. 61. Retrieved 28 October 2019. "credited with being the father of hockey in the United States
^"[Henry] Boardman Conover" (PDF). Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale University Deceased During the Year 1949-1950 (105): 185. 1950.
^"Arthur Louis Day" (PDF). The National Academies Press. Retrieved March 31, 2014.
^Franklin Malcolm Doolittle entry, Twenty-five Year Record of the Grand and Illustrious Class of 1915s, 1940, page 35.
^"Charles Benjamin Dudley". Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale University Deceased During the Year 1909-1910 (pdf): 1243–4. 1939.
^"Isadore Dyer" (PDF). Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale University Deceased During the Year Ending July 1, 1921 (22): 219–21. 1921.
^"Lee De Forest, 87, Radio Pioneer, Dies" (PDF). The New York Times. New York City. 2 July 1961. Retrieved 29 January 2016.
^"Francis Irénée duPont" (PDF). Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale University Deceased During the Year 1941-1942 (101): 184–5. 1942.
^(1920). Alumni Directory of Yale University (graduates and non-graduates) 1920. New Haven: Yale University. 1920. p. 307.
^"Joseph Frazer, 79, Co-Founder of Kaiser-Frazer Corp., Dead" (PDF). The New York Times. New York, New York. 8 August 1971. Retrieved 11 February 2018.
^"James Terry Gardiner Dies" (PDF). The New York Times. New York, New York. 11 September 1912. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
^"Josiah Willard Gibbs". Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale University (pdf). 62: 236–3. 1903.
^T. Keith Glennan, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, retrieved 11 February 2018
^"Harold Levenworth Green, Ph.B. 1912" (PDF). Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale University Deceased During the Year Ending July 1, 1951 (110): 128. 1951.
^"John Campbell Greenway, Ph.B. 1895" (PDF). Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale University Deceased During the Year Ending July 1, 1926 (85): 244–6. 1926.
^"Harry Guggenheim Dead; Newsday Founder Was 80" (PDF). The New York Times. New York City. 23 January 1971. Retrieved 12 February 2016.
^"John Hays Hammond, Ph.B. 1876" (PDF). Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale University Deceased During the Year Ending July 1, 1936 (95): 129–30. 1936.
^"John H. Hammond Jr. Dies; Electronics Inventor Was 76" (PDF). The New York Times. New York, New York. 14 February 1965. Retrieved 8 July 2016.
^"Daniel Webster Hering". Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale University Deceased During the Year 1937-1938 (pdf). 35 (12): 152–3. 1939.
^"HUBER, Robert James", Biographical Directory of the United States Congress 1774 - Present, retrieved 11 February 2018
^Whitaker, Sigur E. (2014), Tony Hulman: The Man Who Saved the Indianapolis Motor Speedway, Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company, pp. 52–3, ISBN 978-0-7864-7882-8
^Bailey, E. M. (1932-08-15). "Edward H. Jenkins". Journal of AOAC International. 15 (3): iii–vi. doi:10.1093/jaoac/15.3.iii. ISSN 1060-3271.
^"Treat Baldwin Johnson" (PDF). Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale University Deceased During the Year 1947-1948 (107): 402–4. 1949.[permanent dead link]
^"Clarence King" (PDF). Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale University Deceased During the Academical Year Ending in June 1902: 195–9. 1921.
^"Charles Nassau Lowrie" (PDF). Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale University Deceased During the Year 1939-1940: 178–9. 1941.
^LaChiusa, Chuck. "Duane Lyman in Buffalo, NY". Buffalo Architecture and History. Retrieved 11 February 2018.
^"Biographical Memoir of Othniel Charles Marsh (1831-1899)" (PDF). National Academy of Sciences. Retrieved 2015-04-09.
^"C. H. MATHEWSON, METALLURGIST, 90", The New York Times, New York City, 6 July 1972
^"Truman Handy Newberry" (PDF). Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale University Deceased During the Year 1945-1946: 122–3.
^"PHILLIPS, Thomas wharton, Jr.", Biographical Directory of the United States Congress 1774 - Present, retrieved 11 February 2018
^"William North Rice" (PDF). Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale University 1928-1929: 281–3.
^"Stanley Pickett Rockwell, Ph.B. 1907" (PDF). Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale University Deceased During the Year Ending July 1, 1941 (100): 208–9. 1941.
^"William Thompson Sedgwick" (PDF). Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale University Deceased During the Year Ending July 1, 1921 (22): 203–6. 1921.
^"G.A.[sic] Selden, Who Put Auto Engine in Motion, Dead". Democrat and Chronicle. Rochester, New York. 18 January 1922. p. 17. He obtained his early education in the Clarkson school and the Sheffield Scientific School of Yale University
Warren, Charles H. The Sheffield Scientific School from 1847 to 1947. In The Centennial of the Sheffield Scientific School. Edited by George Alfred Baitsell. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1950.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Sheffield Scientific School.