Shidao Bay Nuclear Power Plant


Shidao Bay Nuclear Power Plant (simplified Chinese: 石岛湾核电站; traditional Chinese: 石島灣核電廠; pinyin: Shídǎo wān hédiàn chǎng), commonly known as Shidaowan, is a nuclear power plant in Shandong province, China. The site is located near the Xiqianjia village in Ningjin subdistrict, Rongcheng, Weihai, Shandong. The plant is located about 23 kilometres (14 mi) south of Rongcheng City, 14 kilometres (8.7 mi) northwest of Shidao, and 68 kilometres (42 mi) southeast of Weihai City.[2]

Shidao Bay Nuclear Power Plant[1]
Official name石岛湾核电站
CountryPeople's Republic of China
LocationRongcheng, Weihai, Shandong
Coordinates36°58′20″N 122°31′44″E / 36.97222°N 122.52889°E / 36.97222; 122.52889
Construction began9 December 2012 (2012-12-09)
Commission date
  • 2021
Construction costUS$16 billion (units 1–7)
Owner(s)China Huaneng Group
Shandong Shidao Bay Nuclear Power Co., Ltd (HSNPC)
Tsinghua University
  • Huaneng Shandong Shidao Bay Nuclear Power Company
Nuclear power station
Reactor typeHTGR
Cooling sourceYellow Sea
Power generation
Units operational1 x 200 MW twin reactor
Make and modelHTR-PM
Units planned8 × 200 MW twin reactor
Units under const.2 × 1400 MW
Nameplate capacity200 MW
External links
CommonsRelated media on Commons

The plant has the first fourth-generation nuclear reactors in the world:[3] the HTR-PM, a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) concept (36°58′45″N 122°31′50″E / 36.97917°N 122.53056°E / 36.97917; 122.53056). The plant will ultimately have ten 210 MWe (megawatts electrical) units of this type. Each unit is made of two HTR-PM reactors driving a single 210 MWe steam turbine.

The plant also hosts the construction of two 1500 MWe CAP1400 pressurized water reactors (36°57′56″N 122°31′12″E / 36.96556°N 122.52000°E / 36.96556; 122.52000), a design based on the AP1000[4] jointly developed by Westinghouse and China's State Nuclear Power Technology Corporation (SNPTC).

Shidao Bay nuclear power plant is a joint venture by China Huaneng Group, China Nuclear Engineering & Construction Group, and Tsinghua University. The total investment of 100 billion yuan (US$15.7 billion) and the 20-year construction plan makes it one of China's large nuclear projects.



In 2005, China announced its intention to scale up the HTR-10 experimental reactor for commercial power generation. The first two 250-MWt High-Temperature Reactor-Pebble-bed Modules (HTR-PM) will be installed at Shidao Bay, and together drive a steam turbine generating 200 MWe.

Originally to be started in 2011, the project was postponed after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster in Japan in March 2011. In 2009, it was planned to be finished in 2013.[5] Construction finally began at the end of 2012,[6] with the pouring of concrete basemat occurring in April 2014.[7] The vessel was installed in 2016. It was expected to begin operating around 2017,[8] later postponed to 2018. The pressure vessel head was installed in December 2017.[9] Cold testing was completed in November 2020.[10] Hot functional testing of the reactors began in January 2021, and operational start up is planned for late 2021.[11] The first reactor went critical, marking the first criticality of a generation IV commercial nuclear power plant, in September 2021.[12] Reactor two achieved first criticality in November 2021.[13] Reactor one was connected to the state power grid and began producing power in December 2021 [14] The HTR-PM project demonstrated it had reached "initial full power" in December 2022.[15] The HTR-PM project finally entered commercial operation in December 2023.[16] An updated larger power plant, HTR-PM600, is planned with a capacity of 600 MWe using six HTR-PM reactor units.[17]



In November 2006, State Power Investment Corporation (SPIC) introduced the AP1000, a third-generation pressurized water reactor design, from the U.S. company Westinghouse Electric Corporation. Since then China built four AP1000 units, two in the Sanmen Nuclear Power Station, and another two in the Haiyang Nuclear Power Plant.[citation needed]

China has been researching and developing its own version of the AP1000, the more powerful CAP1400, also referred to as Guohe One (Guo He One, Chinese: 国和; pinyin: guó hé, i.e. unity of the country).[18]

Preparation work started in 2013 and Unit 1 construction started in 2018. Completion estimated in 2021.[19]

In May 2016, the CAP1400 design has successfully passed the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) Generic Reactor Safety Review.

According to SPIC, the company is building two CAP1400 reactors in a demonstration project located in the Shidao Bay nuclear plant.[20][21]

In March 2017, the Unit 1 first CAP1400 reactor pressure vessel hydraulic test was completed at the factory test site. The pressure vessel is the core equipment of the reactor and has a total weight of about 487 tons and a design life of 60 years.[22]

On 30 June 2017, the Unit 1 first low-pressure module LP2 of the CAP1400 National Nuclear Demonstration Project Turbine, was completed by Dongfang Electric Group Dongfang Steam Turbine Co., Ltd. The CAP1400 steam turbine low-pressure rotor has a weight of 267 tons and the whole block weight is 749 tons. The last stage blades in the low pressure turbines are 1.828 metres (6.00 ft) tall. The LP2 steam turbine will help drive the CAP1400 1,520 MW generator.[23]

In March 2022 it was announced that commercial operation of the two CAP-1400 units is expected to commence in 2025.[24]

Reactor data


The Shidao Bay Nuclear Power Plant consist of two operational reactors (that drive one unit), two reactors under construction, and four planned future reactors.

Unit Type / Model Net power Gross power Thermal power Start construction First criticality Grid connection Commercial operation Notes
Shidao Bay I HTGR / HTR-PM 200 MW 211 MW 500 MW 2012-12-09 2021-09-12 2021-12-20 2023-12-06 [25] [26]
Shidao Bay II-1 PWR / CAP-1400 1500 MW 1550 MW 19 June 2019[27] 2025[24]
Shidao Bay II-2 PWR / CAP-1400 1500 MW 1550 MW 21 April 2020[27] 2025[24]

See also



  1. ^ "Shidao Bay nuclear power plant started at the end of 2012". Qingdao Municipal Government. 14 January 2013. Archived from the original on 17 November 2015. Retrieved 13 November 2015.
  2. ^ "Marine Works of Shidao Bay Nuclear Power Plant". CCCC-FHDI Engineering. 5 May 2014. Archived from the original on 28 March 2022. Retrieved 21 July 2014.
  3. ^ "HTR-PM: Making dreams come true – Nuclear Engineering International". Archived from the original on 28 March 2022. Retrieved 11 January 2021.
  4. ^ John A. Mathews; Hao Tan; O'Faircheallaigh (13 August 2015). China’s Renewable Energy Revolution. Palgrave Macmillan UK. pp. 55–. ISBN 978-1-137-54625-8.
  5. ^ Zhang, Zuoyi; Wu, Zongxin; Wang, Dazhong; Xu, Yuanhui; Sun, Yuliang; Li, Fu; Dong, Yujie (2009). "Current status and technical description of Chinese 2×250MWth HTR-PM demonstration plant". Nuclear Engineering and Design. 239 (7): 1212–1219. doi:10.1016/j.nucengdes.2009.02.023.
  6. ^ "China Begins Construction Of First Generation IV HTR-PM Unit". 7 January 2013. Archived from the original on 27 February 2019. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
  7. ^ "First HTR-PM construction progresses". 4 April 2014. Archived from the original on 30 September 2023. Retrieved 8 April 2014.
  8. ^ "First vessel installed in China's HTR-PM unit". 21 March 2016. Archived from the original on 9 April 2023. Retrieved 7 April 2017.
  9. ^ "First HTR-PM vessel head in place – World Nuclear News". Archived from the original on 6 May 2021. Retrieved 2 February 2018.
  10. ^ "Cold testing of HTR-PM reactors completed". Archived from the original on 13 November 2020. Retrieved 4 November 2020.
  11. ^ "Hot functional testing of HTR-PM reactors starts". Archived from the original on 7 April 2022. Retrieved 5 January 2021.
  12. ^ "China's HTR-PM reactor achieves first criticality". Archived from the original on 13 September 2021. Retrieved 13 September 2021.
  13. ^ "Dual criticality for Chinese demonstration HTR-PM : New Nuclear – World Nuclear News". Archived from the original on 12 April 2022. Retrieved 14 November 2021.
  14. ^ "Demonstration HTR-PM connected to grid". Archived from the original on 25 April 2022. Retrieved 22 December 2021.
  15. ^ "China's demonstration HTR-PM reaches full power". Archived from the original on 9 December 2022. Retrieved 9 December 2022.
  16. ^ "China's demonstration HTR-PM enters commercial operation".
  17. ^ "China plans further high temperature reactor innovation". Archived from the original on 4 June 2023. Retrieved 8 November 2017.
  18. ^ "A milestone in nuclear power autonomy, Guohe No. 1 was released in Shanghai". Beijing Shifang Jiandao Culture Media Co. 29 September 2020. Archived from the original on 10 October 2020. Retrieved 10 October 2020.
  19. ^ "CAP1400 first of a kind project". Archived from the original on 12 April 2019. Retrieved 12 April 2019.
  20. ^ "World's First Third-generation AP1000 Power Plant in China Starts Fueling". 27 April 2018. Archived from the original on 22 July 2018. Retrieved 12 April 2019.
  21. ^ "SPIC 2016 presentation" (PDF). 2016. pp. 11, 12. Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 April 2018. Retrieved 12 April 2019.
  22. ^ "The first hydraulic pressure test of the first CAP1400 reactor pressure vessel in China was successful". (in Chinese). People's Network. 20 March 2017. Archived from the original on 12 April 2019. Retrieved 12 April 2019.
  23. ^ Bing, Li (2 July 2017). Mengzhan, Li (ed.). "CAP1400 Turbine Cover Cylinder China's third-generation nuclear power technology takes a major breakthrough". (in Chinese). Takungpao. Archived from the original on 2 July 2017. Retrieved 12 April 2019.
  24. ^ a b c Xie, Echo (24 March 2022). "China aims to expand nuclear power programme amid threat of global energy crisis following Ukraine invasion". South China Morning Post. Archived from the original on 1 April 2022. Retrieved 21 April 2022. The plan said that two third-generation reactors in Shidaowan in Shandong – built according to the CAP1400 design which is intended to reduce greenhouse gas emissions – are now expected to be connected to the power grid before 2025.
  25. ^ "Shidao Bay 1". PRIS. IAEA. 8 January 2022. Archived from the original on 27 December 2021. Retrieved 9 January 2021.
  26. ^ "World's first fourth-generation nuclear power plant goes into commercial operation in China". Xinhua. 6 December 2023. Archived from the original on 6 December 2023. Retrieved 6 December 2023.
  27. ^ a b "". Archived from the original on 29 August 2023. Retrieved 29 August 2023.