Shiyan

Summary

Shiyan

十堰市

Shih-yen
Shiyan Railway Station in July 2014
Shiyan Railway Station in July 2014
Location of Shiyan City jurisdiction in Hubei
Location of Shiyan City jurisdiction in Hubei
Shiyan is located in Hubei
Shiyan
Shiyan
Location of the city centre in Hubei
Coordinates (Shiyan municipal government): 32°37′44″N 110°47′55″E / 32.6290°N 110.7987°E / 32.6290; 110.7987Coordinates: 32°37′44″N 110°47′55″E / 32.6290°N 110.7987°E / 32.6290; 110.7987
CountryPeople's Republic of China
ProvinceHubei
County-level divisions8
Municipal seatMaojian District
Government
 • CPC SecretaryChen Tianhui (陈天会)
 • MayorZhang Siyi (张嗣义)
Area
 • Prefecture-level city1,022 km2 (395 sq mi)
 • Urban
 (2017)[1]
410.50 km2 (158.49 sq mi)
Highest elevation
1,640 m (5,380 ft)
Population
 (2010 census[2])
 • Prefecture-level city3,340,841
 • Density3,300/km2 (8,500/sq mi)
 • Urban
 (2017)[1]
700,900
Time zoneUTC+8 (China Standard)
Postal code
442000

(Urban center) 442100-442300, 442500-442700

(Other areas)
Area code(s)719
ISO 3166 codeCN-HB-03
License Plate鄂C
Camphor Laurel

Cinnamomum camphora L. Sieb. Southern magnolia Magnolia grandiflora L.Blossom of pomegranate Punica granatum L. Chinese Rose

Rosa chinensis

Shiyan (Chinese: 十堰; pinyin: Shíyàn) is a prefecture-level city in northwestern Hubei province, China, bordering Henan to the northeast, Chongqing to the southwest, and Shaanxi to the north and west. At the 2010 census, its population was 3,340,841 of whom 767,920 lived in the built-up urban districts of Maojian and Zhangwan on 1,193 square kilometres (461 square miles). In 2007, the city was named China's top ten livable cities by Chinese Cities Brand Value Report, which was released at 2007 Beijing Summit of China Cities Forum.[3]

History

During the 1960s, Mao Zedong and other government officials, fearing upheaval and invasion, sought to establish industry in more remote locations.[4] Shiyan, located in a portion of northwest Hubei then known for its poverty, was then a small village comprising a few hundred households.[4][5] In 1967, teams of workers and engineers were first sent to Shiyan in order to survey sites for automotive plants and factories as part of the Third Front Construction plan.[citation needed] By order of Mao in 1969, truck production in Shiyan commenced.[4] Approximately 25,000 construction workers were sent to Shiyan during this time to equip the city with the infrastructure necessary for such project.[5]

In subsequent decades, the city experienced great economic growth due to these facilities, which employed nearly 200,000 workers.[4][5] However, by the early 1990s, Shiyan was increasingly bypassed for new automotive ventures, which were increasingly located in larger cities with better transport links.[4] In 2003, Dongfeng Motors relocated its main passenger car plant to Wuhan, resulting in population decline within Shiyan.[5]

Geography

The Wudang Mountains run east-west through Shiyan.[5] The peak commonly referred to as "Wudang Mountain", or in Mandarin Wudangshan, is one of the most important cultural centres of the Taoist faith.[citation needed] The surrounding areas are dotted with up to 200 Taoist monastic temples and religious sites.[citation needed] The main attraction in this area, and also one of the most sacred Taoist sites, which forms an important stop for mainly Chinese tourists bound there, with up to twenty bus loads of visitors per day at peak times is Wudangshan Jiedao of the Danjiangkou county-level city.[citation needed]

Climate data for Shiyan (1981–2010 normals)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 8.5
(47.3)
10.7
(51.3)
15.8
(60.4)
22.7
(72.9)
27.3
(81.1)
30.6
(87.1)
32.1
(89.8)
31.0
(87.8)
26.5
(79.7)
21.6
(70.9)
16.2
(61.2)
10.7
(51.3)
21.1
(70.1)
Daily mean °C (°F) 3.1
(37.6)
5.3
(41.5)
9.8
(49.6)
16.3
(61.3)
21.2
(70.2)
24.9
(76.8)
27.0
(80.6)
26.0
(78.8)
21.4
(70.5)
16.0
(60.8)
10.1
(50.2)
4.9
(40.8)
15.5
(59.9)
Average low °C (°F) −0.5
(31.1)
1.5
(34.7)
5.4
(41.7)
11.3
(52.3)
16.2
(61.2)
20.2
(68.4)
23.3
(73.9)
22.5
(72.5)
17.9
(64.2)
12.4
(54.3)
6.3
(43.3)
1.2
(34.2)
11.5
(52.7)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 14.2
(0.56)
22.5
(0.89)
42.8
(1.69)
66.3
(2.61)
93.4
(3.68)
98.2
(3.87)
150.1
(5.91)
136.4
(5.37)
98.7
(3.89)
75.9
(2.99)
34.9
(1.37)
15.2
(0.60)
848.6
(33.43)
Average relative humidity (%) 70 69 69 68 70 72 78 79 79 79 76 71 73
Source: China Meteorological Administration[6]

Administration

The prefecture-level city of Shiyan administers 8 county-level divisions, including 3 districts, 1 county-level city and 4 counties.[7][8][9]

The main urban area of the prefecture-level city of Shiyan is in Maojian District; it is typically labeled on maps simply as "Shiyan".

This area is subject to major change as part of the South to North water diversion project of the Han River. Certain areas will see an increase of up to 5 meters in water level to create a new reservoir to serve Beijing and Tianjin as a part of this major water diversion project.

Map

Economy

Shiyan has been a major center of the automobile industry in China, previously serving as the headquarters of Dongfeng Motors, a major Chinese truck, bus, and heavy goods vehicle company.[4] Some American news outlets have labeled the city as the "Detroit of China",[4] although the nickname has been applied to other Chinese cities, such as Changchun,[10] Chongqing,[11] and nearby Wuhan.[12]

In recent decades, the automotive industry in Shiyan has shrunk, largely due to increasing production in larger cities with better transit links.[4][5] In response to this, Shiyan's government has sought to diversify the city's economy, and provide more space for other industrial facilities.[13]

Transportation

Railway

Shiyan is located on the Xiangyu Railway between Xiangyang and Chongqing. Construction on a railway between Shiyan and Yichang is scheduled to begin construction in 2009.[14]

The Wuhan–Shiyan high-speed railway completed track laying in June 2019[15] and opened to passengers on 29 November 2019.[16]

Highway

Air

Shiyan Wudangshan Airport (IATA: WDS, ICAO: ZHSY) is the airport serving the city of Shiyan, located 15 km (9.3 mi) from the city center and 20 km (12 mi) from Wudangshan, the World Heritage Site after which it is named. A total area of 16400 square meters; a total of one runway with a length of 2600 meters; 7 stops (2 helicopters); and an annual passenger throughput of 1.2 million passengers

Shiyan Wudangshan Airport starts to work in February, 2016. Until April 2019, there are total 17 fixed routes, navigating to 26 cities.

Sister city

Shiyan has been a sister city of Craiova, Romania, since December 1999.

References

  1. ^ a b Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development, ed. (2019). China Urban Construction Statistical Yearbook 2017. Beijing: China Statistics Press. p. 66. Retrieved 11 January 2020.
  2. ^ http://www.citypopulation.de/php/china-hubei-admin.php
  3. ^ "China's Top 10 Most Livable Cities". hnloudi.gov.cn. Hunan Loudi Official Government. 2012-03-28. Archived from the original on 2013-04-10. Retrieved 2014-08-04.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h Abrams, Jim (1990-08-05). "Detroit of China Surrounded by Backwater of Poverty : Asia: The arrival of the 20th Century proves to be a blessing only for some". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 2020-06-08. Retrieved 2020-06-08.
  5. ^ a b c d e f Tang, Frank (2018-11-15). "State carmaker in China's Motown shifts gear to keep up with market". South China Morning Post. Archived from the original on 2020-05-22. Retrieved 2020-06-08.
  6. ^ 中国气象数据网 - WeatherBk Data (in Chinese). China Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 2020-04-15.
  7. ^ 十堰市历史沿革 [Yichang City Historical Development] (in Chinese). XZQH.org. 25 September 2014. Retrieved 16 November 2018. 2004年末,全市总面积23301平方千米{...}2010年第六次人口普查,十堰市常住总人口3340841人,其中:茅箭区399449人,张湾区368471人,郧县558355人,郧西县447482人,竹山县417079人,竹溪县315259人,房县390991人,丹江口市443755人。 2014年,撤销郧县,设立十堰市郧阳区。
  8. ^ 2017年统计用区划代码和城乡划分代码:十堰市 [2017 Statistical Area Numbers and Rural-Urban Area Numbers: Shiyan City] (in Chinese). National Bureau of Statistics of the People's Republic of China. 2017. Retrieved 16 November 2018. 统计用区划代码 名称 420301000000 市辖区 420302000000 茅箭区 420303000000 张湾区 420304000000 郧阳区 420322000000 郧西县 420323000000 竹山县 420324000000 竹溪县 420325000000 房县 420381000000 丹江口市
  9. ^ 区划人口 [Administrative Divisions and Population] (in Chinese). Shiyan People's Government. 26 March 2018. Retrieved 16 November 2018. 【行政区划】十堰市辖张湾区、茅箭区、郧阳区及丹江口市、郧西县、竹山县、竹溪县、房县,下设13 个街道办事处、72 个镇、34 个乡、1842 个村委会、159 个居委会。
  10. ^ Makinen, Julie (2016-03-04). "Staring down an economic reckoning in the Detroit of China". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 2020-06-08. Retrieved 2020-06-08.
  11. ^ Tabeta, Shinsuke (2019-09-24). "'China's Detroit' struggles to keep its auto industry afloat". Nikkei Asian Review. Archived from the original on 2020-06-08. Retrieved 2020-06-08.
  12. ^ Fannin, Rebecca (2020-03-02). "The rush to deploy robots in China amid the coronavirus outbreak". CNBC. Archived from the original on 2020-06-08. Retrieved 2020-06-08.
  13. ^ McMahon, Dinny (2013-12-17). "China's Sprawling Cities Bet Their Future on Getting Even Bigger". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Archived from the original on 2020-06-08. Retrieved 2020-06-08.
  14. ^ [1][permanent dead link]
  15. ^ 汉十高铁全线轨道贯通-新华网. Xinhua. Retrieved 2019-07-11.
  16. ^ "Wuhan – Shiyan high speed line opens". Railway Gazette International. 29 November 2019. Retrieved 1 December 2019.

External links

  • Government website of Shiyan (available in Chinese and English)