Simorgh (rocket)


سیمرغ - افتتاح پایگاه ملی فضایی امام خمینی(ره) (4).jpg
The Simorgh space launch vehicle.
FunctionSmall-lift space launch vehicle
Country of origin Iran
Height26.5 m (87 ft)
Diameter2.4 m (7 ft 10 in)
Mass87 t (192,000 lb)
Payload to LEO
(500 km)
Mass350 kg (770 lb)
Associated rockets
Familyderived from Unha (first stage) and Safir (second stage) [1]
Launch history
Launch sitesSemnan
Total launches4
First flight19 April 2016,[1] (suborbital)
Last flight9 February 2020 [2]
First stage
Engines4 × modified Shahab-3 engines
Thrust1,590 kN (360,000 lbf)
FuelN2O4 / UDMH
Second stage
Engines4 × R-27 Zyb vernier engines
Thrust70 kN (16,000 lbf)
FuelN2O4 / UDMH
Third stage
Thrust13 kN (2,900 lbf)

Simorgh (Persian: ماهواره‌بر سیمرغ‎, Phoenix), also called Safir-2, is an Iranian expendable small-capacity orbital space launch vehicle,[2][3]·The project was unveiled by Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad on 3 February 2010, as part of celebrations of the first anniversary of the launch of Omid, the first indigenously-launched Iranian satellite,[4][5] and was launched for the first time on 19 April 2016.[6]


The Simorgh rocket is 26.5 metres (87 ft) long, and has a launch mass of 87 tonnes (192,000 lb). Its first stage is powered by four main Safir-1B type engines, each generating up to 37,000 kilograms-force (360 kN; 82,000 lbf) of thrust, plus a set of four vernier engines used for attitude control providing an additional 14,000 kgf (140 kN; 31,000 lbf). At liftoff, these engines generate a total 162,000 kgf (1,590 kN; 360,000 lbf) of thrust.[7][8]The second stage utilizes a set of four smaller engines(originally the vernier engines of the soviet R-27 Zyb[9]) producing 7,000 kgf (69 kN; 15,000 lbf) of thrust[8][10].The third stage is a solid-fueled Saman-1 upper stage producing 1,300 kgf (13 kN; 2,900 lbf)[8][10].Enabling the Simorgh to place a 350-kilogram (770 lb) payload into a 500-kilometre (310 mi) low Earth orbit.[1]

Simorgh Launch Pad at Imam Khomeini Space Center
The Simorgh Launch Pad at Imam Khomeini Space Center.


The first flight of the Simorgh rocket was planned to carry Toloo (Sunrise), an experimental imaging satellite. Further launches are expected to carry Mesbah-2 [7] and AUT-SAT.[1] In November 2011, Iran announced that the first flight of Simorgh carrying the Toloo satellite would occur in 2012 from the new Semnan spaceport.[11] Eventually Simorgh flew for the first time on April 19, 2016, for a suborbital test flight whose outcome has not been published. The Toloo satellite was then scheduled for launch in early 2017, according to Head of the Iranian Space Research Center Manouchehr Manteqi,[1] but that launch failed to materialize. A second test launch occurred on 27 July 2017, and failed to reach orbit as the second stage only burned for 20 seconds.[12] The third launch, conducted on 15 January 2019, also failed to reach orbit, due to a malfunction of the third stage.[13]

Launch history

Flight No. Date & Time (UTC) Payload Type Outcome Remarks
1 19 April 2016 No Payload Simorgh Success Sub-orbital test flight[6]
2 27 July 2017 No Payload Simorgh Failure Test flight; second stage failed[12]
3 15 January 2019 Payam (named "AUT-SAT" previously)[12] Simorgh Failure Third stage failed[13]
4 9 February 2020


Zafar-1[14] Simorgh Failure Satellite fails to reach orbit[15]

See also


  1. ^ a b c d e Eshel, Tamir (24 April 2016). "Simorgh First Launch – an Iranian Success or Failure?". Defense Update. Retrieved 25 May 2016.
  2. ^ a b
  3. ^ "Iran brags it launched rocket into space... with mouse, turtles & worms". New York Daily News. 2010-02-03. Retrieved 2010-02-03.
  4. ^ Arrott, Elizabeth (2010-02-03). "Iran Announces New Rockets, Satellites on Space Day". VOA News. Retrieved 2010-02-03.
  5. ^ "Iran unveils new satellites, carrier". PressTV. 2010-02-03. Retrieved 2010-02-03.
  6. ^ a b
  7. ^ a b "Iranian DM: Simorgh to Carry Tolou, Mesbah Satellites into Space". Fars News Agency. 2010-02-03. Archived from the original on 2011-11-13. Retrieved 2010-02-03.
  8. ^ a b c "موشک های ماهواره بر ایران". جنگاوران (in Persian). 2017-08-16. Retrieved 2021-04-15.
  9. ^ "Soviet R-27 SLBM and the reuse of its steering engines by North Korea and Iran". Retrieved 2021-04-15.
  10. ^ a b "Safir-2 (Simorgh) IRILV". Retrieved 2021-04-15.
  11. ^ "Iran to launch Toloo satellite next year". Iranian Students' News Agency. 2 November 2011. Retrieved 25 May 2016.
  12. ^ a b c Krebs, Gunter. "Simorgh (Safir-2)". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 15 January 2019.
  13. ^ a b Tawfeeq, Mohammed; Qiblawi, Tamara (15 January 2019). "Despite US warning, Iran launches satellite and fails". CNN. Retrieved 15 January 2019.
  14. ^ - 11 February 2020
  15. ^ "Iranian Satellite Launched But Fails To Reach Earth's Orbit". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. Retrieved 2020-02-09.

External links