In political science, democratic socialism and social democracy are largely seen as synonyms, while they are distinguished in journalistic use. Under this democratic socialist definition,[nb 2] social democracy is an ideology seeking to gradually build an alternative socialist economy through the institutions of liberal democracy. Starting in the post-war period, social democracy was defined as a policy regime advocating reformation of capitalism to align it with the ethical ideals of social justice. In the 19th century, it encompassed a wide variety of non-revolutionary and revolutionary currents of socialism which excluded anarchism. In the early 20th century, social democracy came to refer to support for a gradual process of developing socialism through existing political structures and an opposition to revolutionary means of achieving socialism in favour of reformism.
Social Democratic is the name of socialist parties in several countries. The term came to be associated with the positions of the German and Swedish parties. The first advocated revisionist Marxism, while the second advocated a comprehensive welfare state. By the 21st century, parties advocating social democracy include Labour, Left, and some Green parties.[nb 3] Most social democratic parties consider themselves to be democratic socialists and are categorized as socialist parties. They continue to make references to socialism, either as a post-capitalist order, or in more ethical terms as a just society, described as representing democratic socialism, without any explicit reference to the economic system or its structure. Parties such as the Social Democratic Party of Germany and the Swedish Social Democratic Party[nb 4] describe their goal the development of democratic socialism, with social democracy serving as the principle of action. Into the 21st century, European social democratic parties represents the centre-left and most are part of the European Socialist Party, while democratic socialist parties are to their left within the Party of the European Left. Many of those social democratic parties are members of the Socialist International, including several democratic socialist parties, whose Frankfurt Declaration declares the goal of the development of democratic socialism. Others are also part of the Progressive Alliance, founded in 2013 by most of contemporary or former member parties of the Socialist International.
What socialists such as anarchists, communists, social democrats, syndicalists, and some social democratic proponents of the Third Way share in common is history, specifically that they can all be traced back to the individuals, groups, and literature of the First International, and have retained some of the terminology and symbolism such as the colour red. How far society should intervene and whether government, particularly existing government, is the correct vehicle for change are issues of disagreement. As the Historical Dictionary of Socialism summarizes, "there were general criticisms about the social effects of the private ownership and control of capital", "a general view that the solution to these problems lay in some form of collective control (with the degree of control varying among the proponents of socialism) over the means of production, distribution, and exchange", and "there was agreement that the outcomes of this collective control should be a society that provided social equality and justice, economic protection, and generally a more satisfying life for most people".Socialism became a catch-all term for the critics of capitalism and industrial society. Social democrats are anti-capitalists insofar as criticism about "poverty, low wages, unemployment, economic and social inequality, and a lack of economic security" is linked to the private ownership of the means of production.
Social democracy or social democratic remains controversial among socialists.[nb 6] Some define it as representing both a Marxist faction and non-communist socialists or the right-wing of socialism during the split with communism. Others have noted its pejorative use among communists and other socialists. According to Lyman Tower Sargent, "socialism refers to social theories rather than to theories oriented to the individual. Because many communists now call themselves democratic socialists, it is sometimes difficult to know what a political label really means. As a result, social democratic has become a common new label for democratic socialist political parties."
Social democracy has been seen as a revision of orthodox Marxism, although this has been described as misleading for modern social democracy. Some distinguish between ideological social democracy as part of the broad socialist movement and social democracy as a policy regime. The first is called classical social democracy or classical socialism, being contrasted to competitive socialism,liberal socialism,neo-social democracy, and new social democracy.
With the rise of neoliberalism in the late 1970s and early 1980s, social democrats incorporated the Third Way and adopted economic liberal policies between the 1990s and 2000s. Many social democrats opposed to the Third Way overlap with democratic socialists in their commitment to a democratic alternative to capitalism and a post-capitalist economy. Those social democrats have not only criticized the Third Way as anti-socialist and neoliberal but as anti-social democratic in practice. Some democratic socialists and others have rejected the Third Way's centrism, for the political centre moved decidedly to the right during the neoliberal years. During the Third Way era, parties such as the Labour Party in Britain and the Social Democratic Party of Germany have been described in practice as indistinguishable from the centre-right, or as neoliberal.
As a form of reformist democratic socialism, social democracy rejects the either/or interpretation of capitalism versus socialism. It claims that fostering a progressive evolution of capitalism will gradually result in the evolution of a capitalist economy into a socialist economy. All citizens should be legally entitled to certain social rights; these are made up of universal access to public services such as education, health care, workers' compensation, and other services including child care and care for the elderly. Social democrats advocate freedom from discrimination based on differences of ability/disability, age, ethnicity, gender, language, race, religion, sexual orientation, and social class.
A portrait highlighting the five leaders of early social democracy in Germany[nb 10]
Later in their life, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels came to argue that in some countries workers might be able to achieve their aims through peaceful means. In this sense, Engels argued that socialists were evolutionists, although both Marx and Engels remained committed to social revolution. In developing social democracy,Eduard Bernstein rejected the revolutionary and materialist foundations of orthodox Marxism. Rather than class conflict and socialist revolution, Bernstein's Marxist revisionism reflected that socialism could be achieved through cooperation between people regardless of class. Nonetheless, Bernstein paid deference to Marx, describing him as the father of social democracy, but declaring that it was necessary to revise Marx's thought in light of changing conditions. Influenced by the gradualist platform favoured by the Fabian movement in Britain, Bernstein came to advocate a similar evolutionary approach to socialist politics that he termed evolutionary socialism. Evolutionary means include representative democracy and cooperation between people regardless of class. Bernstein accepted the Marxist analysis that the creation of socialism is interconnected with the evolution of capitalism.
August Bebel, Bernstein, Engels, Wilhelm Liebknecht, Marx, and Carl Wilhelm Tölcke are all considered founding fathers of social democracy in Germany, but it is especially Bernstein and Lassalle, along with labourists and reformists such as Louis Blanc in France, who led to widespread association of social democracy with socialist reformism. While Lassalle was a reformist state socialist, Bernstein predicted a long-term co-existence of democracy with a mixed economy during the reforming of capitalism into socialism and argued that socialists needed to accept this. This mixed economy would involve public, cooperative, and private enterprises, and it would be necessary for a long period of time before private enterprises evolve of their own accord into cooperative enterprises. Bernstein supported state ownership only for certain parts of the economy that could be best managed by the state and rejected a mass scale of state ownership as being too burdensome to be manageable. Bernstein was an advocate of Kantian socialism and neo-Kantianism. Although unpopular early on, his views became mainstream after World War I.
In The Future of Socialism (1956), Anthony Crosland argued that "traditional capitalism has been reformed and modified almost out of existence, and it is with a quite different form of society that socialists must now concern themselves. Pre-war anti-capitalism will give us very little help", for a new kind of capitalism required a new kind of socialism. Crosland believed that these features of a reformed managerial capitalism were irreversible, but it has been argued within the Labour Party and by others that Margaret Thatcher and Ronald Reagan brought about its reversal in the 1970s and 1980s. Although the post-war consensus represented a period where social democracy was "most buoyant", it has been argued that "post-war social democracy had been altogether too confident in its analysis" because "gains which were thought to be permanent turned out to be conditional and as the reservoir of capitalist growth showed signs of drying up". In Socialism Now (1974), Crosland argued that "[m]uch more should have been achieved by a Labour Government in office and Labour pressure in opposition. Against the dogged resistance to change, we should have pitted a stronger will to change. I conclude that a move to the Left is needed".
In Origin, Ideology and Transformation of Political Parties: East-Central and Western Europe Compared, Vít Hloušek and Lubomír Kopecek explain how socialist parties have evolved from the 19th to the early 21st centuries. As the number of people in traditional working class occupations such as factory-workers and miners declined, socialists have successfully widened their appeal to the middle class by diluting their ideology; however, there is still continuity between parties such the SPD, the Labour Party in Britain, and other socialist parties which remain part of the same famille spirituelle, or ideological party family, as outlined by most political scientists. For many social democrats, Marxism is loosely held to be valuable for its emphasis on changing the world for a more just, better future.
By the post-World War II period and its economic consensus and expansion, most social democrats in Europe had abandoned their ideological connection to orthodox Marxism and shifted their emphasis toward social policy reform as a compromise between capitalism to socialism. According to Michael Harrington, the major reason for this was due to the perspective that viewed the Stalinist-era Soviet Union as having succeeded in propaganda in usurping the legacy of Marxism and distorting it in propaganda to justify totalitarianism. In its foundation, the Socialist International denounced the Bolshevik-inspired communist movement, "for [it] falsely claims a share in the Socialist tradition". Furthermore, core tenets of Marxism have been regarded by social democrats as having become obsolete, including the prediction that the working-class was the decisive class with the development of capitalism. In their view, this did not materialize in the aftermath of mass industrialization during World War II.
During the Third Way development of social democracy, social democrats adjusted themselves to the neoliberal political climate that had existed since the 1980s. Those social democrats recognized that outspoken opposition to capitalism was politically non-viable, and that accepting the powers that be, seeking to challenge free-market and laissez-faire variations of capitalism, was a more immediate concern. The Third Way stands for a modernized social democracy, but the social democracy that remained committed to the gradual abolition of capitalism, along with social democrats opposed to the Third Way, merged into democratic socialism. Although social democracy originated as a revolutionary socialist or communist movement, one distinction made to separate democratic socialism and social democracy is that the former can include revolutionary means. The latter proposes representative democracy under the rule of law as the only acceptable constitutional form of government.
Social democracy has been described as the evolutionary form of democratic socialism that aims to gradually and peacefully achieve socialism through established political processes rather than social revolution as advocated by revolutionary socialists. In this sense, social democracy is synonymous with democratic socialism and represented its original form, that of socialism achieved by democratic means, usually through the parliament. While social democrats continue to call and describe themselves as democratic socialists or simply socialists, with time, the post-war association of social democracy as policy regime, and the development of the Third Way,democratic socialism has come to include communist and revolutionary tendencies, representing the original meaning of social democracy, as the latter has shifted towards reformism.
Communism and the Third Way
Vladimir Lenin, one revolutionary social democrat who paved the way for the split between Communists and Social Democrats[nb 11]
Before social democracy was associated to a policy regime with a specific set of socioeconomic policies, its economics ranged from communism to syndicalism and the guild socialists, who rejected or were opposed to the approach of some Fabians, regarded as being "an excessively bureaucratic and insufficiently democratic prospect". Communists and revolutionary socialists were a significant part of social democracy and represented its revolutionary wing. Although they remained committed to the concept of social democracy representing the highest form of democracy, social democracy became associated with its reformist wing since the communist split starting in 1917.
The Russian Revolution further exacerbated this division, resulting in a split between those supporting the October Revolution renaming themselves as Communist and those opposing the Bolshevik development (favouring the liberal social democratic development as argued by the Mensheviks) remaining with the Social Democrat label. Rather than abandoning social democracy, Communists remained committed to revolutionary social democracy, merging into communism; however, they saw Social Democrat associated to reformism, found it irredeemably lost, and chose Communist to represent their views. For the Communists, the Social Democrats betrayed the world's working class by supporting the imperialist Great War and leading their national governments into the war. The Communists also criticized their reformism, arguing that it represented "reformism without reforms". This reformist–revolutionary division culminated in the German Revolution of 1919, in which the Communists wanted to overthrow the German government to turn it into a soviet republic like it was done in Russia, while the Social Democrats wanted to preserve it as what came to be known as the Weimar Republic. It was those revolutions that transformed the social democracy meaning from "Marxist revolutionary" into a form of "moderate parliamentary socialism".
Anthony Crosland, who argued that traditional capitalism had been reformed and modified almost out of existence by the social democratic welfare policy regime after World War II
While evolutionary and reformist social democrats believe that capitalism can be reformed into socialism, revolutionary social democrats argue that this is not possible and that a social revolution would still be necessary. The revolutionary criticism of reformism but not necessarily of reforms which are part of the class struggle goes back to Marx, who proclaimed that social democrats had to support the bourgeoisie wherever it acted as a revolutionary, progressive class because "bourgeois liberties had first to be conquered and then criticised". Internal rivalry in the social democratic movement within the Second International between reformists and revolutionaries resulted in the Communists led by the Bolsheviks founding their own separate Communist International (Comintern) in 1919 that sought to rally revolutionary social democrats together for socialist revolution. With this split, the social democratic movement was now dominated by reformists, who founded the Labour and Socialist International (LSI) in 1923. The LSI had a history of rivalry with the Comintern, with which it competed over the leadership of the international socialist and labour movement.
In Britain, the social democratic Gaitskellites emphasized the goals of personal liberty, social welfare, and social equality. The Gaitskellites were part of a political consensus between the Labour and Conservative parties, famously dubbed Butskellism. Some social democratic Third Way figures such as Anthony Giddens and Tony Blair, who has described himself as a Christian socialist and a socialist in ethical terms, insist that they are socialists, for they claim to believe in the same values that their anti-Third Way critics do. According to those self-proclaimed social democratic modernizers, Clause IV's open advocacy of state socialism was alienating potential middle-class Labour supporters, and nationalization policies had been so thoroughly attacked by neoliberal economists and politicians, including rhetorical comparisons by the right of state-owned industry in the West to that in the Soviet Union and the Eastern Bloc, and nationalizations and state socialism became unpopular. Thatcherite Conservatives were adept at condemning state-owned enterprises as economically inefficient. For the Gaitskellites, nationalization was not essential to achieve all major socialist objectives; public ownership and nationalization were not specifically rejected but were rather seen as merely one of numerous useful devices. According to social democratic modernizers like Blair, nationalization policies had become politically unviable by the 1990s.
Some critics and analysts argue that a number of prominent social democratic parties[nb 12] such as the Labour Party in Britain and the Social Democratic Party of Germany, even while maintaining references to socialism and declaring themselves to be democratic socialist parties, have abandoned socialism in practice, whether unwillingly or not.
Social democracy has some significant overlap on practical policy positions with democratic socialism, although they are usually distinguished from each other. In Britain, the revised version of Clause IV to the Labour Party Constitution, which was implemented in the 1990s by the New Labour faction led by Tony Blair, affirms a formal commitment to democratic socialism, describing it as a modernized form of social democracy; however, it no longer commits the party to public ownership of industry and in its place advocates "the enterprise of the market and the rigour of competition" along with "high quality public services either owned by the public or accountable to them". Many social democrats "refer to themselves as socialists or democratic socialists", and some such as Blair "use or have used these terms interchangeably". Others argue that "there are clear differences between the three terms, and preferred to describe their own political beliefs by using the term 'social democracy' only".
According to both right-wing critics and some supporters alike, policies such as universal health care and education are "pure Socialism" because they are opposed to "the hedonism of capitalist society". Partly because of this overlap, democratic socialism refers to European socialism as represented by social democracy, especially in the United States, where it is tied to the New Deal. Some democratic socialists who follow social democracy support practical, progressive reforms of capitalism and are more concerned to administrate and humanize it, with socialism relegated to the indefinite future. Other democratic socialists want to go beyond mere meliorist reforms and advocate systematic transformation of the mode of production from capitalism to socialism.
In the United States
Despite the long history of overlap between the two, with social democracy considered a form of democratic or parliamentary socialism and social democrats calling themselves democratic socialists,democratic socialism is considered a misnomer in the United States. One issue is that social democracy is equated with wealthy countries in the Western world, especially in Northern and Western Europe, while democratic socialism is conflated either with the pink tide in Latin America, especially with Venezuela, or with communism in the form of Marxist–Leninist socialism as practiced in the Soviet Union and other self-declared socialist states.Democratic socialism has been described as representing the left-wing or socialist tradition of the New Deal.
Into the 21st century, it has become commonplace to reference social democracy as the European social democracies, namely the actually-existing states in Northern and Western European countries, usually in reference to their model of welfare state and corporatist system of collective bargaining. European social democracies represents a socio-economic order that has been variously described as starting in either the 1930s, 1940s, and 1950s, and ending in the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s. Henning Meyer and Jonathan Rutherford associate social democracy with the socio-economic order that existed in Europe from the post-war period up until the early 1990s. This has been accepted or adopted across the political spectrum, including conservatives (Christian democrats), liberals (social liberals), and socialists (social democrats); one notable difference is that socialists see the welfare state "not merely to provide benefits but to build the foundation for emancipation and self-determination".
Social democracy influenced the development of social corporatism, a form of economic tripartite corporatism based upon a social partnership between the interests of capital and labour, involving collective bargaining between representatives of employers and of labour mediated by the government at the national level. During the post-war consensus, this form of social democracy has been a major component of the Nordic model and to a lesser degree the West European social market economies. The development of social corporatism began in Norway and Sweden in the 1930s and was consolidated in the 1960s and 1970s. The system was based upon the dual compromise of capital and the labour as one component and the market and the state as the other component. From the 1940s through the 1970s, defining features of social democracy as a policy regime included Keynesian economic policies and industrial agreements to balance the power of capital and labour, as well as the welfare state. This is especially associated with the Swedish Social Democrats. In the 1970s, social corporatism evolved into neo-corporatism, which replaced it. Neo-corporatism has represented an important concept of Third Way social democracy. Social democratic theorist Robin Archer wrote about the importance of social corporatism to social democracy in his work Economic Democracy: The Politics of a Feasible Socialism (1995). As a welfare state, social democracy is a specific type of welfare state and policy regime described as being universalist, supportive of collective bargaining, and more supportive of public provision of welfare. It is especially associated with the Nordic model.
Social democracy rests on three fundamental features, namely "(1) democracy (e.g., equal rights to vote and form parties), (2) an economy partly regulated by the state (e.g., through Keynesianism), and (3) a welfare state offering social support to those in need (e.g., equal rights to education, health service, employment, and pensions)". In practice, social democratic parties have been instrumental in the social-liberal paradigm, lasting from the 1940s and 1970s, and called as such because it was developed by social liberals but implemented by social democrats. Since those policies were mostly implemented by social democrats, social liberalism is sometimes called social democracy. In Britain, the social-liberal Beveridge Report drafted by the Liberal economist William Beveridge influenced the Labour Party's social policies such as the National Health Service and Labour's welfare state development. This social-liberal paradigm represented the post-war consensus and was accepted across the political spectrum by conservatives, liberals and socialists until the 1970s. Similarly, the neoliberal paradigm which replaced the previous paradigm was accepted across the mainstream political parties, including social democratic supporters of the Third Way. This has caused much controversy within the social democratic movement.
From the late 19th century until the mid- to late 20th century, there was greater public confidence in the idea of a state-managed economy that was a major pillar of both proponents of communism and social democracy, and to a substantial degree by conservatives and left-liberals. Aside from anarchists and other libertarian socialists, there was confidence amongst socialists in the concept of state socialism as being the most effective form of socialism. Some early British social democrats in the 19th century and 20th century such as the Fabians said that British society was already mostly socialist and that the economy was significantly socialist through government-run enterprises created by conservative and liberal governments which could be run for the interests of the people through their representatives' influence, an argument reinvoked by some socialists in post-war Britain. Advents in economics and observation of the failure of state socialism in the Eastern Bloc countries, and in the Western world with the crisis and stagflation of the 1970s, combined with the neoliberal rebuke of state interventionism, resulted in socialists re-evaluating and redesigning socialism. Some social democrats have sought to keep what they deem are socialism's core values, while changing their position on state involvement in the economy, and retaining significant social regulations.
Although as in the rest of Europe the laws of capitalism still operated fully and private enterprise dominated the economy, some political commentators stated that during the post-war period, when social democratic parties were in power, countries such as Britain and France were democratic socialist states, and the same claim has been applied to Nordic countries with the Nordic model. In the 1980s, the government of President François Mitterrand aimed to expand dirigism and attempted to nationalize all French banks, but this attempt faced opposition of the European Economic Community because it demanded a free-market economy among its members.Public ownership never accounted for more than 15–20% of capital formation, further dropping to 8% in the 1980s, and below 5% in the 1990s after the rise of neoliberalism.
One issue of social democracy is the response to the collapse of legitimacy for state socialism and state-interventionist economics of Keynesianism with the discovery of the phenomenon of stagflation which has been an issue for the legitimacy of state socialism. This has provoked re-thinking of how socialism should be achieved by social democrats, including changing views by social democrats on private property—anti-Third Way social democrats such as Robert Corfe have advocated a socialist form of private property as part of a new socialism (although Corfe technically objects to private property as a term to collectively describe property that is not publicly owned as being vague) and rejecting state socialism as a failure. Third Way social democracy was formed as response to what its proponents saw as a crisis in the legitimacy of socialism—especially state socialism—and the rising legitimacy for neoliberalism, especially laissez-faire capitalism. The Third Way's view is criticized for being too simplistic in its view of the crisis. Others have criticized it because with the fall of state socialism it was possible "a new kind of 'third way' socialism (combining social ownership with markets and democracy), thereby heralding a revitalization of the social democratic tradition"; however, it has been argued that the prospect of a new socialism was "a chimera, a hopeful invention of Western socialists who had not understood how 'actually existing socialism' had totally discredited any version of socialism among those who had lived under it".
Social democratic policies were first adopted in the German Empire between the 1880s and 1890s, when the conservativeChancellorOtto von Bismarck put in place many social welfare proposals initially suggested by the Social Democrats to hinder their electoral success after he instituted the Anti-Socialist Laws, laying the ground of the first modern welfare state. Those policies were dubbed as State Socialism by the liberal opposition, but the term was later accepted and re-appropriated by Bismarck. It was a set of social programs implemented in Germany that were initiated by Bismarck in 1883 as remedial measures to appease the working class and reduce support for socialism and the Social Democrats following earlier attempts to achieve the same objective through Bismarck's Anti-Socialist Laws. This did not prevent the Social Democrats to become the biggest party in parliament by 1912.
Social democracy is criticized by other socialists because it serves to devise new means to strengthen the capitalist system which conflicts with the socialist goal of replacing capitalism with a socialist system. According to this view, social democracy fails to address the systemic issues inherent in capitalism. The American democratic socialist philosopher David Schweickart contrasts social democracy with democratic socialism by defining the former as an attempt to strengthen the welfare state and the latter as an alternative economic system to capitalism. According to Schweickart, the democratic socialist critique of social democracy is that capitalism can never be sufficiently humanized and that any attempt to suppress its economic contradictions will only cause them to emerge elsewhere. He gives the example that attempts to reduce unemployment too much would result in inflation and too much job security would erode labour discipline. In contrast to social democracy's mixed economy, democratic socialists advocate a post-capitalist economic system based on either a market economy combined with workers' self-management, or on some form of participatory, decentralized planning of the economy.
Marxian socialists argue that social democratic welfare policies cannot resolve the fundamental structural issues of capitalism such as cyclical fluctuations, exploitation, and alienation. Accordingly, social democratic programs intended to ameliorate living conditions in capitalism, such as unemployment benefits and taxation on profits, creates further contradictions by further limiting the efficiency of the capitalist system by reducing incentives for capitalists to invest in further production. The welfare state only serves to legitimize and prolong the exploitative and contradiction-laden system of capitalism to society's detriment. Critics of contemporary social democracy such as Jonas Hinnfors argue that when social democracy abandoned Marxism, it also abandoned socialism and became a liberal capitalist movement, effectively making social democrats similar to non-socialist parties like the Democratic Party in the United States.
Market socialism is also critical of social democratic welfare states. While one common goal of both concepts is to achieve greater social and economic equality, market socialism does so by changes in enterprise ownership and management whereas social democracy attempts to do so by subsidies and taxes on privately owned enterprises to finance welfare programs. Franklin Delano Roosevelt III (grandson of United States president Franklin D. Roosevelt) and David Belkin criticize social democracy for maintaining a property-owning capitalist class which has an active interest in reversing social democratic welfare policies and a disproportionate amount of power as a class to influence government policy. The economists John Roemer and Pranab Bardhan point out that social democracy requires a strong labour movement to sustain its heavy redistribution through taxes and that it is idealistic to think such redistribution can be accomplished in other countries with weaker labour movements, noting that social democracy in Scandinavian countries has been in decline as the labour movement weakened.
Some critics say that social democracy abandoned socialism in the 1930s by endorsing Keynesian welfare capitalism. The democratic socialist political theorist Michael Harrington argues that social democracy historically supported Keynesianism as part of a "social democratic compromise" between capitalism and socialism. Although this compromise did not allow for the immediate creation of socialism, it created welfare states and "recognized noncapitalist, and even anticapitalist, principles of human need over and above the imperatives of profit". Social democrats in favour of the Third Way have been accused of having endorsed capitalism, including by anti-Third Way social democrats who have accused Third Way proponents such as Anthony Giddens of being anti-social democratic and anti-socialist in practice.
Social democracy's reformism has been criticized from both the left and right, for if the left was to govern a capitalist economy, it would have to do so according to capitalist, not socialist, logic. This argument was previously echoed by Joseph Schumpeter in Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy (1942), writing: "Socialists had to govern in an essentially capitalist world ..., a social and economic system that would not function except on capitalist lines. ... If they were to run it, they would have to run it according to its own logic. They would have to "administer" capitalism". Similarly, Irving Kristol argued: "Democratic socialism turns out to be an inherently unstable compound, a contradiction in terms. Every social democratic party, once in power, soon finds itself choosing, at one point after another, between the socialist society it aspires to and the liberal society that lathered it".Joseph Stalin was a vocal critic of reformist social democrats, later coining the term social fascism to describe social democracy in the 1930s because in this period it embraced a similar corporatist economic model to the model supported by fascism. This view was adopted by the Communist International, which argued that capitalist society had entered the Third Period in which a proletarian revolution was imminent but that it could be prevented by social democrats and other fascist forces.
^"Social democracy therefore came to stand for a broad balance between the market economy, on the one hand, and state intervention, on the other. Although this stance has been most clearly associated with reformist socialism, it has also been embraced, to a greater or lesser extent, by others, notably modern liberals and paternalist conservatives."
^"Social democracy is a political ideology focusing on an evolutionary road to socialism or the humanization of capitalism. It includes parliamentary process of reform, the provision of state benefits to the population, agreements between labor and the state, and the revisionist movement away from revolutionary socialism." "By the early twentieth century, ... many such [social democratic] parties had come to adopt parliamentary tactics and were committed to a gradual and peaceful transition to socialism. As a result, social democracy was increasingly taken to refer to democratic socialism, in contrast to revolutionary socialism." "Social democracy refers to a political theory, a social movement or a society that aims to achieve the egalitarian objectives of socialism while remaining committed to the values and institutions of liberal democracy." "In general, a label for any person or group who advocates the pursuit of socialism by democratic means. Used especially by parliamentary socialists who put parliamentarism ahead of socialism, and therefore oppose revolutionary action against democratically elected governments. Less ambiguous than social democracy, which has had, historically, the opposite meanings of (1) factions of Marxism, and (2) groupings on the right of socialist parties."
^"The far left is becoming the principal challenge to mainstream social democratic parties, in large part because its main parties are no longer extreme, but present themselves as defending the values and policies that social democrats have allegedly abandoned."
^The party's first chapter in its statutes says "the intention of the Swedish Social Democratic Labour Party is the struggle towards the Democratic Socialism", which is defined as a society with a democratic economy based on the socialist principle "From each according to his ability, to each according to his need."
^According to Richard T. Ely, "[social democrats] have two distinguishing characteristics. The vast majority of them are laborers, and, as a rule, they expect the violent overthrow of existing institutions by revolution to precede the introduction of the socialistic state. I would not, by any means, say that they are all revolutionists, but the most of them undoubtedly are. The most general demands of the social democrats are the following: The state should exist exclusively for the laborers; land and capital must become collective property, and production be carried on unitedly. Private competition, in the ordinary sense of the term, is to cease.
^Donald F. Busky wrote: "Social democracy is a somewhat controversial term among democratic socialists. Many democratic socialists use social democracy as a synonym for democratic socialism, while others, particularly revolutionary democratic socialists, do not, the latter seeing social democracy as something less than socialism—a milder, evolutionary ideology that seeks merely to reform capitalism. Communists also use the term social democratic to mean something less than true socialism that sought only to preserve capitalism by reform rather than by overthrowing and establishing socialism. Even revolutionary democratic socialists and Communists have at times, particularly the past, called their parties 'social democratic.'"
^"In the second half of the 20th century, there emerged a more moderate version of the doctrine, which generally espoused state regulation, rather than state ownership, of the means of production and extensive social welfare programs."
^"The notion of 'socialism' became associated with social democratic parties and the notion of 'communism' with communist parties."
^"With the rise of neoliberalism, social democracy turned towards the right and increasingly adopted neoliberal policies. When Tony Blair became British Prime Minister in 1997, his neoliberal vision of social democracy influenced social democracy around the world. The consequence was that social democracy became in many respects indistinguishable from conservative parties, especially in respect to class politics."
^It peaked after the mid-September 2008 outbreak.
Abjorensen, Norman (2019). Historical Dictionary of Democracy. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-1-5381-2074-3.
Adams, Ian (1993). Political Ideology Today. Politics Today (1st hardcover ed.). Manchester University Press. ISBN 978-0-7190-3346-9.
Adams, Ian (1998). Ideology and Politics in Britain Today. Politics Today (illustrated, reprint ed.). Manchester, England: Manchester University Press. ISBN 978-0-7190-5056-5.
Adams, Ian (1999). Ideology and Politics in Britain Today. Politics Today (illustrated, reprint ed.). Manchester, England: Manchester University Press. ISBN 978-0-7190-5056-5.
Adams, Ian (2001). Political Ideology Today. Politics Today (2nd reprint, revised ed.). Manchester, England: Manchester University Press. ISBN 978-0-7190-6019-9.
Aggarwal, J. C.; Agrawal, S. P., eds. (1989). Nehru on Social Issues. New Delhi: Concept Publishing. ISBN 978-81-7022-207-1.
Alpert, Michael (1994). A New International History of the Spanish Civil War. ISBN 978-0-312-12016-0.
Anderson, Gary L.; Herr, Kathryn G. (2007). Encyclopedia of Activism and Social Justice. SAGE Publications. ISBN 978-1-4129-1812-1.
Anderson, Jervis (1986) . A. Philip Randolph: A Biographical Portrait. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-05505-6.
Anderson, Jervis (1997). Bayard Rustin: Troubles I've Seen. New York: HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-016702-8.
Archer, Robin (1995). Economic Democracy: The Politics of Feasible Socialism. Clarendon Press. ISBN 978-0-19-827891-7.
Árnason, Jóhann Páll; Wittrock, Björn, eds. (2012). Nordic Paths to Modernity. Berghahn Books. ISBN 978-0-85745-269-6.
Arora, N. D. (2010). Political Science for Civil Services Main Examination. Tata McGraw-Hill Education. ISBN 978-0-07-009094-1.
Aspalter, Christian (2001). Importance of Christian and Social Democratic Movements in Welfare Politics: With Special Reference to Germany, Austria and Sweden. Huntington, New York: Nova Science Publishers. ISBN 978-1-56072-975-4.
Bailey, David J. (2009). The Political Economy of European Social Democracy: A Critical Realist Approach. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-60425-3.
Barrientos, Armando; Powell, Martin (2004). "The Route Map of the Third Way". In Hale, Sarah; Leggett, Will; Martell, Luke (eds.). The Third Way and Beyond: Criticisms, Futures and Alternatives. Manchester University Press. pp. 9–26. ISBN 978-0-7190-6598-9.
Bastow, Steve; Martin, James (2003). Third Way Discourse: European Ideologies in the Twentieth Century. Edinburgh, Scotland: Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 978-0-7486-1560-5.
Berger, Mark T. (2004). The Battle for Asia: From Decolonization to Globalization. Asia's Transformations. London: RoutledgeCurzon. ISBN 978-0-415-32529-5.
Berlau, Abraham Joseph (1949). The German Social Democratic Party, 1914–1921. New York: Columbia University Press. ASIN B007T3SD0A.
Berman, Sheri (1998). The Social Democratic Moment: Ideas and Politics in the Making of Interwar Europe. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-44261-0.
Berman, Sheri (2006). The Primacy of Politics: Social Democracy and the Making of Europe's Twentieth Century. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-81799-8.
Bernstein, Eduard (2004) . Tudor, Henry (ed.). The Preconditions of Socialism. Cambridge Texts in the History of Political Thought. Translated by Tudor, Henry. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-39121-4.
Best, Gary Dean (1991). Pride, Prejudice, and Politics: Roosevelt Versus Recovery, 1933–1938. Praeger. ISBN 978-0-275-93524-5.
Bevan, Aneurin (1952). In Place of Fear. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Birch, Kean; MacLeavy, Julie; Springer, Simon, eds. (2016). The Handbook of Neoliberalism. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-138-84400-1.
Blaazer, David (2002) . The Popular Front and the Progressive Tradition: Socialists, Liberals, and the Quest for Unity, 1884–1939. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-41383-1.
Blair, Tony (1995). Let Us Face the Future. Fabian phamplets. London: Fabian Society. ISBN 978-0-7163-0571-2.
Blume, Lawrence E.; Durlauf, Steven N., eds. (2016). The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics (2nd, illustrated ed.). Springer. ISBN 978-0-7163-0571-2.
Bookchin, Murray (1998). The Third Revolution: Popular Movements in the Revolutionary Era. 2. London: Cassell. ISBN 978-0-304-33593-0.
Bose, Pradip (2005). Social Democracy in Practice: Socialist International, 1951–2001. Delhi: Authorspress. ISBN 978-81-7273-175-5.
Brandal, Nik; Bratberg, Øivind; Thorsen, Dag Einar (2013). The Nordic Model of Social Democracy. Basingstoke, England: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-1-137-01326-2.
Branch, Taylor (1989). Parting the Waters: America in the King Years, 1954–1963. New York: Touchstone. ISBN 978-0-671-68742-7.
Britain, Ian (2005) . Fabianism and Culture: A Study in British Socialism and the Arts, c. 1884–1918. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-02129-6.
Brivati, Brian; Heffernan, Richard, eds. (2000). The Labour Party: A Centenary History. Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-333-74650-9.
Bronner, Stephen Eric (1999). Ideas in Action: Political Tradition in the Twentieth Century. Oxford: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. ISBN 978-0-8476-9387-0.
Brown, Garrett W.; McLean, Ian; McMillan, Alistair (2018). The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-254584-8.
Burns, James MacGregor (1956). Roosevelt: The Lion and the Fox. Easton Press. ISBN 978-0-15-678870-0.
Busky, Donald F. (2000). Democratic Socialism: A Global Survey. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger Publishers. ISBN 978-0-275-96886-1.
Calossi, Enrico (2016). Anti-Austerity Left Parties in the European Union. Competition, Coordination, Integration. Pisa: Pisa University Press. ISBN 978-88-6741-665-3.
Cammack, Paul (2004). "Giddens's Way with Words". In Hale, Sarah; Leggett, Will; Martell, Luke (eds.). The Third Way and Beyond: Criticisms, Futures and Alternatives. Manchester University Press. pp. 151–166. ISBN 978-0-7190-6598-9.
Campbell, John (2009). The Iron Lady: Margaret Thatcher from Grocer's Daughter to Prime Minister. Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0-09-954003-8.
Carlsson, Ingvar; Lindgren, Anne-Marie (1998). What is Social Democracy?: A Book about Social Democracy. Stockholm: Socialdemokraterna. ISBN 978-91-532-0413-8.
Ceplair, Larry (1987). Under the Shadow of War: Fascism, Anti-Fascism, and Marxists, 1918–1939. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-06532-0.
Chace, James (2005) . 1912: Wilson, Roosevelt, Taft and Debs – The Election that Changed the Country. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-7432-7355-8.
Chew, Melanie (2015). Leaders of Singapore. World Scientific. ISBN 978-981-4719-45-2.
Chickering, Roger (1998). Imperial Germany and the Great War, 1914–1918. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-56754-1.
Childs, David (2000). The Two Red Flags: European Social Democracy and Soviet Communism since 1945. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-22195-5.
Chua, Beng-Huat (1995). Communitarian Ideology and Democracy in Singapore. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-16465-8.
Clapson, Mark (2009). The Routledge Companion to Britain in the Twentieth Century. Routledge Companions to History. Abingdon, Oxfordshire: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-27535-4.
Clarke, Peter (1981). Liberals and Social Democrats. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-28651-0.
Corfe, Robert (2010). The Future of Politics: With the Demise of the Left/Right Confrontational System. Bury St Edmunds, England: Arena Books. ISBN 978-1-906791-46-9.
Corfe, Robert (2001). Foundations of New Socialism: A Vision for the New Millennium. Bury St Edmunds, England: Arena Books. ISBN 978-0-9538460-2-3.
Corfe, Robert; Miller, Eddie (2002). New Socialist Business Values: For Industrial Resurgence. Bury St Edmunds, England: Arena Books. ISBN 978-0-9538460-4-7.
Corfe, Robert (2005). The Spirit of New Socialism and the End of Class-based Politics. Bury St Edmunds, England: Arena Books. ISBN 978-0-9543161-2-9.
Croly, Herbert (2014) . The Promise of American Life (updated ed.). Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-16068-9.
Crosland, Anthony (1952). "The Transition from Capitalism". In Crossman, Richard (ed.). New Fabian Essays. London: Turnstile Press. ISBN 978-0-7146-4655-8.
Crosland, Anthony (1974). Socialism Now. Jonathan Cape. ISBN 978-0-224-00996-6.
Crosland, Anthony (2006) . The Future of Socialism. Constable. ISBN 978-1-84529-485-4.
Diamond, Patrick (2012). "From Fatalism to Fraternity: Governing Purpose and Good Society". In Cramme, Olaf; Diamond, Patrick (eds.). After the Third Way: The Future of Social Democracy in Europe. London: I.B. Tauris. pp. 1–27. ISBN 978-1-84885-992-0.
D'Emilio, John (2003). Lost Prophet: Bayard Rustin and the Quest for Peace and Justice in America. New York: The Free Press. ISBN 978-0-684-82780-3. OCLC 52269914.
D'Emilio, John (2004). Lost Prophet: The Life and Times of Bayard Rustin. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-14269-2.
Denitch, Bogdan (1981). Democratic Socialism: The Mass Left in Advanced Industrial Societies. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-0-86598-015-0.
Devine, Thomas W. (2013). Henry Wallace's 1948 Presidential Campaign and the Future of Postwar Liberalism. Chapel Hill, North Carolina: University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 978-1-4696-0203-5.
Diamond, Patrick (2015). New Labour's Old Roots: Revisionist Thinkers in Labour's History (2nd ed.). Andrews UK Limited. ISBN 978-1-84540-797-1.
Dølvik, Jon Erik; Fløtten, Tone; Hippe, Jon M.; Jordfald, Bård (2015). The Nordic Model Towards 2030: A New Chapter?. Nordmod 2030. ISBN 978-82-324-0185-7.
Dongyoun, Hwang (2016). Anarchism in Korea: Independence, Transnationalism, and the Question of National Development, 1919–1984. SUNY Press. ISBN 978-1-4384-6167-0.
Döring, Daniel (2007). Is 'Third Way' Social Democracy Still a Form of Social Democracy?. Norderstedt, Germany: GRIN Publishing. ISBN 978-3-638-86832-7.
Duncan, Watts (2012). British Government and Politics: A Comparative Guide. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 978-0-7486-4454-4.
Eatwell, Roger; Wright, Anthony (1999). Contemporary Political Ideologies (2nd ed.). London: Continuum. ISBN 978-1-85567-605-3.
Edinger, Lewis Joachim (1956). German Exile Politics: The Social Democratic Executive Committee in the Nazi Era. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Egle, Christoph; Henkes, Christian; Merkel, Wolfgang; Petring, Alexander (2008). Social Democracy in Power: The Capacity to Reform. Routledge Research in Comparative Politics. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-43820-9.
Ehns, Dirk H. (2016). Modern Monetary Theory and European Macroeconomics. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-138-65477-8.
Ellis, Catherine (2004). "Total Abstinence and a Good Filing-System? Anthony Crosland and the Affluent Society". In Black, Lawrence; Pemberton, Hugh (eds.). An Affluent Society? Britain's Post-War 'Golden Age' Revisited. Modern Economic and Social History. Aldershot, England: Ashgate. pp. 69–84. ISBN 978-0-7546-3528-4.
Ely, Richard (1883). French and German Socialism in Modern Times. New York: Harper and Brothers. ISBN 978-1-104-06955-1.
Engels, Friedrich; Marx, Karl (2004). Marx/Engels Collected Works. 50. New York: International Publishers.
Esping-Andersen, Gøsta (1985). Politics Against Markets: The Social Democratic Road to Power. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-65418-8. JSTOR j.ctt1m322zp.
Esping-Andersen, Gøsta (2013) . The Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-7456-6675-4.
Feuchtwanger, Edgar (2002). Bismarck. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-21614-2.
Fitzpatrick, Tony (2003). After the New Social Democracy: Social Welfare for the Twenty-First Century. Manchester University Press. ISBN 978-0-7190-6477-7.
Foley, Michael (1994). Ideas that Shape Politics. Manchester University Press. ISBN 978-0-7190-3825-9.
Franks, Peter; McAloon, Jim (2016). Labour: The New Zealand Labour Party 1916–2016. Wellington: Victoria University Press. ISBN 978-1-77656-074-5.
Freeden, Michael (2004). Liberal Languages: Ideological Imaginations and Twentieth-Century Progressive Thought. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-11678-5. JSTOR /j.ctt7rh6k.
Freeden, Michael; Sargent, Lyman Tower; Stears, Marc, eds. (2013). The Oxford Handbook of Political Ideologies. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-958597-7.
Fried, Albert (2001). FDR and His Enemies: A History. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 978-1-250-10659-9.
Fuchs, Christian (2019). Marxism: Karl Marx's Fifteen Key Concepts for Cultural and Communication Studies. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-000-75049-2.
Gamble, Andrew (2012). "Debt and Deficits: The Quest for Economic Competence". In Cramme, Olaf; Diamond, Patrick (eds.). After the Third Way: The Future of Social Democracy in Europe. London: I. B. Tauris. pp. 45–59. ISBN 978-1-84885-992-0.
Gamble, Peter; Wright, Tony, eds. (1999). The New Social Democracy. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-0-631-21765-7.
Gey, Peter; Kosta, H. G. Jiří; Quaisser, Wolfgang (1987). Crisis and Reform in Socialist Economies. Avalon Publishing. ISBN 978-0-8133-7332-4.
Giddens, Anthony (1998). The Third Way: The Renewal of Social Democracy. Cambridge, England: Polity Press. ISBN 978-0-7456-2266-8.
Giddens, Anthony (1998) . Beyond Left and Right: The Future of Radical Politics. Cambridge, England: Polity Press. ISBN 978-0-7456-1439-7.
Giddens, Anthony (2000). The Third Way and Its Critics. Cambridge, England: Polity Press. ISBN 978-0-7456-2450-1.
Giddens, Anthony (2003). "Neoprogressivism: A New Agenda for Social Democracy". In Giddens, Anthony (ed.). The Progressive Manifesto: New Ideas for the Centre-Left. Cambridge, England: Polity Press. ISBN 978-0-7456-3295-7.
Gildea, Robert (2000). "1848 in European Collective Memory". In Evans, Robert John Weston (ed.). The Revolutions in Europe, 1848–1849. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-820840-2.
Gombert, Tobias (2009). Bläsius, Julia; Krell, Christian; Timpe, Martin (eds.). Foundations of Social Democracy. Social Democratic Reader. 1. Translated by Patterson, James. Berlin: Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung. ISBN 978-3-86872-215-4.
Grafton, John, ed. (1999). Great Speeches. Mineola, New York: Dover Publications. ISBN 978-0-486-40894-1. OCLC 41468459.
Gray, Daniel; Johnson, Elliott; Walker, David (2014). Historical Dictionary of Marxism. Historical Dictionaries of Religions, Philosophies, and Movements (2nd ed.). Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-1-4422-3798-8.
Gregory, Paul R.; Stuart, Robert C. (2003). Comparing Economic Systems in the Twenty-First Century (7th ed.). Cengage Learning. ISBN 978-0-618-26181-9.
Groenke, Susan L.; Hatch, J. Amos, eds. (2009). Critical Pedagogy and Teacher Education in the Neoliberal Era: Small Openings. Springer. ISBN 978-1-4020-9588-7.
Hain, Peter (1995). Ayes to the Left. Lawrence and Wishart. ISBN 978-0-85315-832-5.
Hain, Peter (2015). Back to the Future of Socialism. Policy Press. ISBN 978-1-4473-2168-2.
Hamilton, Malcolm (1989). Democratic Socialism in Britain and Sweden. St Martin's Press. ISBN 978-1-349-09234-5.
Hamby, Alonzo L. (1999). "Progressivism: A Century of Change and Rebirth". In Mileu, Jerome M.; Milkis, Sidney M. (eds.). Progressivism and the New Democracy. University of Massachusetts Press. pp. 40–80. ISBN 978-1-55849-192-2.
Harrington, Michael (2011) . Socialism: Past and Future. New York: Arcade Publishing. ISBN 978-1-61145-335-5.
Hart, John M. (1986). "Agrarian Reform". In Raat, W. Dirk; Beezley, William H. (eds.). Twentieth-Century Mexico. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press. pp. 6–16. ISBN 978-0-8032-8914-7.
Haseler, Stephen (1969). The Gaitskellites: Revisionism in the British Labour Party, 1951–1964. Macmillan. ISBN 978-1-349-00258-0.
Hastings, Adrian; Mason, Alistair; Pyper, Hugh, eds. (2000). The Oxford Companion to Christian Thought. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-860024-4.
Hattersley, Roy (1987). Choose Freedom: The Future of Democratic Socialism. Harmondsworth, England: Penguin. ISBN 978-0-14-010494-3.
Hattersley, Roy; Hickson, Kevin (2013). The Socialist Way: Social Democracy in Contemporary Britain. I. B. Tauris. ISBN 978-1-78076-580-8.
Hayek, Friedrich (1944). The Road to Serfdom. Routledge Press. ISBN 978-0-226-32061-8. OCLC 30733740.
Heywood, Andrew (2007). Political Ideologies: An Introduction (4th ed.). Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-230-52180-3.
Heywood, Andrew (2012). Political Ideologies: An Introduction (5th ed.). Basingstoke, England: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-230-36725-8.
Hinchman, Lewis P.; Meyer, Thomas (2007). The Theory of Social Democracy. Cambridge, England: Polity Press. ISBN 978-0-7456-4113-3.
Hinnfors, Jonas (2006). Reinterpreting Social Democracy: A History of Stability in the British Labour Party and Swedish Social Democratic Party. Critical Labour Movement Studies. Manchester University Press. ISBN 978-0-7190-7362-5.
Hloušek, Vít; Kopecek, Lubomír (2013). Origin, Ideology and Transformation of Political Parties: East-Central and Western Europe Compared. Ashgate. ISBN 978-1-4094-9977-0.
Hobsbawm, Eric (2007) . Interesting Times: A Twentieth-Century Life. Pantheon. ISBN 978-0-307-42641-3.
Hoefer, Richard (2013). "Social Welfare Policy and Politics". In Colby, Ira C.; Dolmus, Catherine N.; Sowers, Karen M. (eds.). Connecting Social Welfare Policy to Fields of Practice. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-1-118-17700-6.
Hollander, Samuel (2011). Friedrich Engels and Marxian Political Economy. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-76163-5.
Hudson, Kate (2012). The New European Left: A Socialism for the Twenty-First Century?. Basingstoke, England: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-230-24876-2.
Humphrys, Elizabeth (8 October 2018). How Labour Built Neoliberalism: Australia's Accord, the Labour Movement and the Neoliberal Project. Brill Academic Publishers. ISBN 978-90-04-38346-3.
Imlay, Talbot C. (2018). The Practice of Socialist Internationalism: European Socialists and International Politics, 1914–1960. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-964104-8.
Ishay, Michelle R. (2008) . The History of Human Rights: From Ancient Times to the Globalization Era. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-25641-5.
Jackson, Nigel; Tansey, Stephen D. (2008). Politics: The Basics (4th ed.). London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-42244-4.
Janowsky, Oscar Isaiah (1959). Foundations of Israel: Emergence of a Welfare State. Princeton, New Jersey: Van Nostrand.
Jefferys, Kevin, ed. (1994). War and Reform: British Politics during the Second World War. Manchester: Manchester University Press. ISBN 978-0-7190-3970-6.
Jeffreys, Kevin (1999). Leading Labour: From Keir Hardie to Tony Blair. London: I. B. Tauris. ISBN 978-1-86064-453-5.
Johnson, David (2006). Thinking Government: Public Sector Management in Canad. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. ISBN 978-1-55111-779-9.
Katseli, Louka T.; Milios, John; Pelagidis, Theodore, eds. (2018). Welfare State and Democracy in Crisis: Reforming the European Model. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-351-78839-7.
Kautsky, John H. (2018). Social Democracy and the Aristocracy. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-351-32534-9.
Kendall, Diana (2011). Sociology in Our Time: The Essentials. Cengage Learning. ISBN 978-1-111-30550-5.
Kindersley, Richard, ed. (2016). In Search of Eurocommunism. Springer. ISBN 978-1-349-16581-0.
Kornai, János; Yingi, Qian, eds. (2009). Market and Socialism: In the Light of the Experiences of China and Vietnam. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-230-55354-5.
Kwok, Pui-lan; Rieger, Joerg (2013). Occupy Religion: Theology of the Multitude. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-1-4422-1792-8.
Kynaston, David (2009). Family Britain 1951–1957. London: Bloomsbury. ISBN 978-0-7475-8385-1.
Lafontaine, Oskar (2009). Left Parties Everywhere?. Socialist Renewal. Nottingham, England: Spokesman Books. ISBN 978-0-85124-764-9.
Laidler, Harry W. (2013). History of Socialism: An Historical Comparative Study of Socialism, Communism, Utopia. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-136-23143-8.
Lambin, Jean-Jacques (2014). Rethinking the Market Economy: New Challenges, New Ideas, New Opportunities. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-1-137-39291-6.
Lemke, Christiane; Marks, Gary, eds. (1992). The Crisis of Socialism in Europe. Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press. ISBN 978-0-8223-1197-3.
Lerner, Warren (1993). A History of Socialism and Communism in Modern Times: Theorists, Activists, and Humanists. Prentice Hall. ISBN 978-0-13-389552-0.
Levy, D. W. (1985). Herbert Croly of the New Republic: the Life and Thought of an American Progressive. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-04725-6.
Lewis, Jane; Surender, Rebecca, eds. (2004). Welfare State Change: Towards a Third Way?. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-926672-2.
Lightfoot, Simon (2005). Europeanizing Social Democracy?: The Rise of the Party of European Socialists. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-134-27647-9.
Li, He (2015). Political Thought and China's Transformation: Ideas Shaping Reform in Post-Mao China. Springer. ISBN 978-1-137-42781-6.
Lowe, Rodney (2004) . The Welfare State in Britain Since 1945 (3rd, illustrated ed.). Macmillan Education UK. ISBN 978-1-4039-1193-3.
Ludlam, Steve; Smith, Martin J., eds. (2017). Governing as New Labour: Policy and Politics Under Blair. Macmillan International Higher Education. ISBN 978-1-4039-0678-6.
Macfarlane, Leslie (1996). "Socialism and Common Ownership: An Historical Perspective". In King, Preston (ed.). Socialism and the Common Good: New Fabian Essays. London: Frank Cass. pp. 17–62. ISBN 978-0-7146-4655-8.
Mander, Jerry (2012). The Capitalism Papers: Fatal Flaws of an Obsolete System. Counterpoint. pp. 213–217. ISBN 978-1-58243-717-0.
March, Luke (2008). Contemporary Far Left Parties in Europe: From Marxism to the Mainstream?(PDF). Berlin: Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung. ISBN 978-3-86872-000-6. Retrieved 9 November 2021.
Marglin, Stephen A.; Schor, Juliet B. (1991). The Golden Age of Capitalism: Reinterpreting the Postwar Experience. Clarendon Press. doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198287414.001.0001. ISBN 978-0-19-828741-4.
Marglin, Stephen A.; Schor, Juliet B. (2017). "Post-war reconstruction and development in the Golden Age of Capitalism". Reflecting on Seventy Years of Development Policy Analysis. World Economic and Social Survey 2017. World Economic and Social Survey. United Nations iLibrary. doi:10.18356/8310f38c-en. ISBN 978-92-1-060598-4.
Masao, Nishikawa (2010). Socialists and International Actions for Peace 1914–1923. Frank & Timme GmbH. ISBN 978-3-86596-296-6.
Mathers, Andrew; Taylor, Graham; Upchurch, Martin (2009). The Crisis of Social Democratic Trade Unionism in Western Europe: The Search for Alternatives. Contemporary Employment Relations. Farnham, England: Ashgate Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7546-7053-7.
Mathiez, Albert (1999). Robespierre. Bolsena: Massari Editore. ISBN 978-88-85378-00-1.
Matthijs, Matthias (2011). Ideas and Economic Crises in Britain from Attlee to Blair (1945–2005). Routledge Explorations in Economic History. 49. Abingdon, England: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-57944-5.
McBriar, A. M. (1962). Fabian Socialism and English Politics: 1884–1918. Cambridge University Press.
Megill, Kenneth A. (1970). The New Democratic Theory. New York: The Free Press. ISBN 978-0-02-920790-1.
Meyer, Henning; Rutherford, Jonathan, eds. (2011). The Future of European Social Democracy: Building the Good Society. Springer. ISBN 978-0-230-35504-0.
Milkis, Sidney M. (2009). Theodore Roosevelt, the Progressive Party, and the Transformation of American Democracy. Lawrence, Kansas: University Press of Kansas. ISBN 978-0-7006-1817-0.
Miller, Toby (2008). A Companion to Cultural Studies. Wiley. ISBN 978-0-470-99879-3.
Mises, Ludwig (1962) . Goddard, Arthur (ed.). The Free and Prosperous Commonwealth: An Exposition of the Ideas of Classical Liberalism. Translated by Raico, Ralph. Princeton: D. Van Nostrand. ISBN 978-0-442-09057-9.
Montefiore, Simon Sebag (2017). Titans of History: The Giants Who Made Our World. London: Hachette UK. ISBN 978-1-4746-0647-9.
Morgan, Austen (1987). J. Ramsay MacDonald. Lives of the Left. Manchester University Press. ISBN 978-0-7190-2168-8.
Morgan, Kevin (2006). MacDonald. 20 British Prime Ministers of the 20th Century. London: Haus Publishing. ISBN 978-1-904950-61-5.
Morley, James W. (1993). Driven by Growth: Political Change in the Asia-Pacific Region. Armonk, New York: M. E. Sharpe. ISBN 978-0-7656-3344-6.
Moschonas, Gerassimos (2002). In the Name of Social Democracy: The Great Transformation, 1945 to the Present. Translated by Elliott, Gregory. London: Verso Books. ISBN 978-1-85984-639-1.
Mosse, George (2018). "Marxism". The Culture Of Western Europe: The Nineteenth And Twentieth Centuries. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-429-97252-2.
Naarden, Bruno (2002) . Socialist Europe and Revolutionary Russia: Perception and Prejudice, 1848–1923. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-89283-4.
Newman, Michael (2005). Socialism: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-280431-0.
Notermans, Ton (2000). Money, Markets, and the State: Social Democratic Economic Policies since 1918. Cambridge Studies in Comparative Politics. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-63339-0.
Nugent, Walter (2010). Progressivism: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-531106-8.
O'Meara, Michael (2013). New Culture, New Right: Anti-Liberalism in Postmodern Europe. Arktos. ISBN 978-1-907166-97-6.
O'Reilly, David (2007). The New Progressive Dilemma: Australia and Tony Blair's Legacy. Springer. ISBN 978-0-230-62547-1.
Orlow, Dietrich (2000). Common Destiny: A Comparative History of the Dutch, French, and German Social Democratic Parties, 1945–1969. New York: Berghahn Books. ISBN 978-1-57181-185-1.
Oudenaren, John S. (1991). Détente in Europe: The Soviet Union and the West since 1953. Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press. ISBN 978-0-8223-1133-1.
Palley, Thomas I. (2013). From Financial Crisis to Stagnation: The Destruction of Shared Prosperity and the Role of Economics. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-107-61246-4.
Pani, Mica; Panic, M. (2011). "Neoliberalism versus Social Democracy: Empirical Evidence". Globalization: A Threat to International Cooperation and Peace?. Springer. pp. 109–141. ISBN 978-0-230-30701-8.
Picard, Robert (6 December 1985). The Press and the Decline of Democracy: Democratic Socialist Response in Public Policy. Praeger. ISBN 978-0-86598-015-0.
Pierson, Christopher (1995). Socialism after Communism: The New Market Socialism. Pennsylvania State Press. ISBN 978-0-271-01479-1.
Pierson, Christopher (2001). Hard Choices: Social Democracy in the Twenty-First Century. Cambridge, England; Oxford, England; Malden, Massachusetts: Polity Press. ISBN 978-0-7456-1985-9.
Piott, Steven L. (2006). "Lester Frank Ward and Reform Darwinism". American Reformers, 1870–1920: Progressives in Word and Deed. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 13–24. ISBN 978-0-7425-2763-8.
Poen, Monte M. (1996) . Harry S. Truman Versus the Medical Lobby: The Genesis of Medicare. Columbia: University of Missouri Press. ISBN 978-0-8262-1086-9.
Quee, Tan Jing (2001). Comet in Our Sky: Lim Chin Siong in History. Insan. ISBN 978-983-9602-14-2.
Raza, Syed Ali (2012). Social Democratic System. Global Peace Trust. ISBN 978-969-9757-00-6.
Roberts, Priscilla Mary; Tucker, Spencer C. (eds.). World War I: A Student Encyclopedia. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO.
Roemer, John E. (1994). "The long term and the short term". A Future for Socialism. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-33946-0.
Romano, Flavio (2006). Clinton and Blair: The Political Economy of the Third Way. Routledge Frontiers of Political Economy. 75. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-37858-1.
Romano, Flavio (2007). Clinton and Blair: The Political Economy of the Third Way. Routledge Frontiers of Political Economy. 75. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-1-134-18252-7.
Rosser Jr., J. Barkley; Rosser, Marina V. (2003). Comparative Economics in a Transforming World Economy (2nd ed.). Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press. ISBN 978-0-262-18234-8.
Rothestein, Bo (1998). Just Institutions Matter: The Moral and Political Logic of the Universal Welfare State. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-59893-4.
Rubinstein, David (2006). The Labour Party and British Society: 1880–2005. Brighton, England: Sussex University Press. ISBN 978-1-84519-055-2.
Ryan, Alan (1995). John Dewey and the High Tide of American Liberalism. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 978-0-393-03773-9.
Samuelsson, Kurt (1968). From Great Power to Welfare State: 300 Years of Swedish Social Development. London: George Allen and Unwin. ISBN 978-0-04-948002-5.
Sanders, Bernie (2016). Our Revolution. Thomas Dunne Books. ISBN 978-1-250-13292-5.
Sargent, Lyman Tower (2008). Contemporary Political Ideologies: A Comparative Analysis (14th ed.). Wadsworth Publishing. ISBN 978-0-495-56939-8.
Schlesinger Jr., Arthur M. (1962). "Liberalism in America: A Note for Europeans". The Politics of Hope and The Bitter Heritage. Boston: Riverside Press.
Schmidt, Jürgen (2018). August Bebel: Social Democracy and the Founding of the Labour Movement. Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 978-1-78672-517-2.
Schorske, Carl E. (1993) . German Social Democracy, 1905–1917: The Development of the Great Schism. Harvard Historical Studies. 65. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-35125-7.
Searle, G. R. (2004). A New England?: Peace and War, 1886–1918. Clarendon Press. ISBN 978-0-1982-0714-6.
Sears, Kathleen (2019). Socialism 101: From the Bolsheviks and Karl Marx to Universal Healthcare and the Democratic Socialists, Everything You Need to Know about Socialism. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 978-1-5072-1136-6.
Sejersted, Francis (2011). Adams, Madeleine B. (ed.). The Age of Social Democracy: Norway and Sweden in the Twentieth Century. Translated by Daly, Richard. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-14774-1.
Senese, Guy B.; Tozer, Steven; Violas, Paul C. (September 2004). School and Society: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives. McGraw-Hill Humanities/Social Sciences/Languages. ISBN 978-0-07-298556-6.
Simon Reid, Henry (2015). The Political Origins of Inequality: Why a More Equal World Is Better for Us All. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-23679-7.
Steenson, Gary P. (1981). Not One Man Not One Penny. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: University of Pittsburgh Press. ISBN 978-0-8229-7424-6.
Steger, Manfred B. (1997). The Quest for Evolutionary Socialism: Eduard Bernstein and Social Democracy. Cambridge, United Kingdom; New York City, United States; Melbourne, Australia: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-58200-1.
Steger, Manfred B. (1999). "Friedrich Engels and the Origins of German Revisionism: Another Look". In Carver, Terrell; Steger, Manfred B. (eds.). Engels After Marx. University Park, Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania State University. pp. 181–196. ISBN 978-0-271-01891-1.
Taylor, Andrew J. (2013). "Trade Unions and the Politics of Social Democratic Renewal". In Gillespie, Richard; Paterson, William E. (eds.). Rethinking Social Democracy in Western Europe. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-135-23618-2.
Teeple, Gary (2000). Globalization and the Decline of Social Reform: Into the Twenty-First Century. University of Toronto Press. ISBN 978-1-55193-026-8.
Thelen, David P. (1986) . Robert M. La Follette and the Insurgent Spirit. Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 978-0-299-10644-7.
Thomas, Norman (1953). Democratic Socialism: A New Appraisal. New York: League for Industrial Democracy. ISBN 978-0-598-69160-6.
Thompson, Noel (2006). Political Economy and the Labour Party: The Economics of Democratic Socialism, 1884–2005 (2nd ed.). Abingdon, England: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-32880-7.
Ticktin, Hillel (1998). "The Problem is Market Socialism". In Ollman, Bertell (ed.). Market Socialism: The Debate Among Socialists. New York: Routledge. pp. 55–80. ISBN 978-0-415-91966-1.
Tomlinson, Jim (1997). Democratic Socialism and Economic Policy: The Attlee Years, 1945–1951. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-55095-6.
Vickers, Rhiannon (2003). The Labour Party and the World, Volume 1: The Evolution of Labour's Foreign Policy, 1900–1951. Manchester: Manchester University Press. ISBN 978-0-7190-6745-7.
Waldman, Louis (1944). Labor Lawyer. New York: E. P. Dutton. ASIN B0000D5IYA.
Ward, Paul (1998). Red Flag and Union Jack: Englishness, Patriotism and the British Left, 1881–1924. Studies in History. Woodbridge, England: Boydell Press. ISBN 978-0-86193-239-9. ISSN 0269-2244.
Walters, William (2001). "Governing Unemployment: Transforming "the Social"?". In Pavlich, George; Wickham, Gary (eds.). Rethinking Law, Society and Governance: Foucault's Bequest. Hart Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84113-293-8.
Weisskopf, Thomas E. (1994). "Challenges to Market Socialism: A Response to Critics". In Roosevelt, Frank; Belkin, David (eds.). Why Market Socialism? Voices from Dissent. Armonk, New York: M. E. Sharpe. pp. 297–318. ISBN 978-1-56324-465-0.
Whyman, Philip (2005). Third Way Economics: Theory and Evaluation. Springer. ISBN 978-0-230-51465-2.
Williams, Raymond (1985) . Keywords: A Vocabulary of Culture and Society (revised ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-520469-8. OCLC 1035920683.
Wintrop, Norman (1983) . Liberal Democratic Theory and Its Critics (reprint ed.). Croom Helm. ISBN 978-0-7099-2766-2.
Woloch, Isser (2019). The Postwar Moment: Progressive Forces in Britain, France, and the U. S. After World War II. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-12435-4.
Wright, Anthony (1983). British Socialism: Socialist Thought from the 1880s to the 1960s. London: Longman. ISBN 978-0-582-29561-2.
Berman, Sheri (2008). Understanding Social Democracy(PDF). What's Left of the Left: Liberalism and Social Democracy in a Globalized World. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Minda de Gunzburg Center for European Studies, Harvard University. Retrieved 29 January 2016.
Social Democratic Party of Germany (28 October 2007). Hamburg Programme. Principal guidelines of the Social Democratic Party of Germany(PDF). Federal Party Conference of the SPD. Hamburg: Social Democratic Party of Germany. Retrieved 26 April 2020.
Aimer, Peter (20 June 2012). "Labour Party". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 1 March 2020.
Alt, James E.; Chambers, Simone; Garrett, Geoffrey; Kurian, George Thomas; Levi, Margaret; McClain, Paula D. (2010). The Encyclopedia of Political Science Set. CQ Press. ISBN 978-1-933116-44-0.
Badie, Bertrand; Berg-Schlosser, Dirk; Morlino, Leonardo, eds. (2011). "Social Democracy". International Encyclopedia of Political Science. 8. Sage Publications. ISBN 978-1-4129-5963-6.
Columbia Encyclopedia (May 2001). "Progressivism". Columbia Encyclopedia (6th ed.). Archived from the original on 29 June 2008. Retrieved 18 November 2006.
Docherty, James C.; Lamb, Peter, eds. (2006). "Social democracy". Historical Dictionary of Socialism. Historical Dictionaries of Religions, Philosophies, and Movements. 73 (2nd ed.). Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press. ISBN 978-0-8108-5560-1.
Durlauf, Steven; Lawrence, Blume (2008). "Social Democracy". New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics (2nd ed.). Palgrave Macmillan UK. ISBN 978-0-333-78676-5.
Jackson, Ben (2008). "Social Democracy". In Blume, Lawrence E.; Durlauf, Steven N. (eds.). The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics. 7 (2nd ed.). Basingstoke, England: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-333-78676-5.
Jones, R. J. Barry, ed. (2001). Routledge Encyclopedia of International Political Economy. III. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-0-415-14532-9.
Lamb, Peter (2015). "Social democracy". Historical Dictionary of Socialism. Historical Dictionaries of Religions, Philosophies, and Movements (3rd ed.). Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-1-4422-5826-6.
Lipset, Seymour Martin (1995). The Encyclopedia of Democracy. 4. Congressional Quarterly. ISBN 978-0-87187-889-2.
Lovick, L. D. (30 September 2013). "Tommy Douglas". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved 13 February 2020.
Miller, David (1998). "Social Democracy". In Craig, Edward (ed.). Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 8. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-18713-8.
O'Hara, Phillip (1999). "L–Z". Encyclopedia of Political Economy. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-15426-0.
O'Hara, Phillip (2003). "Social Democracy". Encyclopedia of Political Economy. 2. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-24187-8.
Ritzer, George (2004). "Marxism". Encyclopedia of Social Theory. Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE Publications. ISBN 978-1-4522-6546-9.
Safra, Jacob E. (1998). "Social democracy". The New Encyclopædia Britannica. 10 (15th ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica.
Schweickart, David (2007). "Democratic Socialism". In Anderson, Gary L.; Herr, Kathryn G. (eds.). Encyclopedia of Activism and Social Justice. 1. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications. ISBN 978-1-4129-1812-1.
Stevens, Mark A. (2000). "Social democracy". Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Encyclopedia. Merriam-Webster. ISBN 978-0-87779-017-4.
Abou-Chadi, Tarik; Wagner, Markus (1 February 2020). "Electoral fortunes of social democratic parties: do second dimension positions matter?" (PDF). Journal of European Public Policy. 27 (2): 246–272. doi:10.1080/13501763.2019.1701532. ISSN 1350-1763. S2CID 213665016.
Allen, Christopher S. (1 September 2009). "'Empty Nets': Social Democracy and the 'Catch-All Party Thesis' in Germany and Sweden". Party Politics. 15 (5): 635–653. doi:10.1177/1354068809336389. ISSN 1354-0688. S2CID 144281202.
Bardhan, Pranab; Roemer, John E. (1992). "Market Socialism: A Case for Rejuvenation". Journal of Economic Perspectives. 6 (3): 101–116. doi:10.1257/jep.6.3.101. ISSN 0895-3309.
Batson, Andrew (March 2017). "The State of the State Sector" (PDF). Gavekal Dragonomics. Retrieved 15 June 2020. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
Benedetto, Giacomo; Hix, Simon; Mastrorocco, Nicola (1 July 2019). "The Rise and Fall of Social Democracy, 1918–2017" (PDF). Trinity Economics Papers. 114 (3): 928–939. doi:10.1017/S0003055420000234. S2CID 159433167. Retrieved 29 November 2019.
Berman, Sheri; Snegovaya, Maria (10 July 2019). "Populism and the Decline of Social Democracy". Journal of Democracy. 30 (3): 5–19. doi:10.1353/jod.2019.0038. S2CID 199293070. Retrieved 29 November 2019.
Bernstein, Eduard (April 1897). "Karl Marx and Social Reform". Progressive Review (7).
Blombäck, Sofie; Demker, Marie; Hagevi, Magnus; Hinnfors, Jonas; Loxbo, Karl (9 July 2019). "The decline of Western European social democracy: Exploring the transformed link between welfare state generosity and the electoral strength of social democratic parties, 1975–2014". Party Politics. 27 (3): 430–441. doi:10.1177/1354068819861339. ISSN 1354-0688. S2CID 199148173.
Bolton, Matt (March 2020). "Democratic Socialism and the Concept of (Post)Capitalism". The Political Quarterly. Wiley. 91 (2): 334–342. doi:10.1111/1467-923X.12830. S2CID 216159023.
Cappelen, Adne; Fagerberg, Jan; Mjøset, Lars; Skarstein, Rune (May 1990). "The Decline of Social-Democratic State Capitalism in Norway". New Left Review (181): 60–94.
Cobham, David (November 1984). "The Nationalisation of the Banks in Mitterand's France: Rationalisations and Reasons". Journal of Public Policy. Cambridge University Press. 4 (4): 351–358. doi:10.1017/S0143814X00002798. JSTOR 3998375.
Cohen, Paul (Winter 2010). "Lessons from the Nationalization Nation: State-Owned Enterprises in France". Dissident. University of Pennsylvania Press. 57 (1): 15–20. doi:10.1353/dss.0.0107. ISSN 1946-0910. S2CID 153581946. Retrieved 14 April 2020.
Draper, Hal (1966). "The Two Souls of Socialism". New Politics. 5 (1): 57–84.
Dostal, Jörg Michael (19 December 2016). "The Crisis of German Social Democracy Revisited". The Political Quarterly. 88 (2): 230–240. doi:10.1111/1467-923X.12316.
Edelstein, David J. (January 1993) . "Social Democracy Versus Revolutionary Democratic Socialism". The Alternative Orange. Syracuse University. 2 (3). Archived from the original on 25 December 2007. Retrieved 7 February 2020.
Epstein, Richard A. (2001). "Employment and Labor Law Reform in New Zealand Lecture". Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law. 33.
Fleet, Michael H. (December 1973). "Chile's Democratic Road to Socialism". The Western Political Quarterly. 26 (4): 766–786. doi:10.2307/447149. JSTOR 447149.
Foner, Eric (Spring 1984). "Why is there no socialism in the United States" (PDF). History Workshop Journal. 17 (1): 57–80. doi:10.1093/hwj/17.1.57. JSTOR 4288545.
Goldfield, Michael (December 1989). "Worker Insurgency, Radical Organization, and New Deal Labor Legislation". The American Political Science Review. 83 (4): 1257–1282. doi:10.2307/1961668. JSTOR 1961668.
Guinan, Joe (2013). "Returns to Capital". The Good Society. 22 (1): 44–60. doi:10.5325/goodsociety.22.1.0044. JSTOR 10.5325/goodsociety.22.1.0044.
Hacker, David (2010). "Heritage". Social Democrats USA. Retrieved 10 February 2020. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
Hain, Peter (July–August 2000). "Rediscovering our libertarian roots". Chartist. Archived from the original on 21 June 2013.
Haro, Lea (2011). "Entering a Theoretical Void: The Theory of Social Fascism and Stalinism in the German Communist Party". Critique. 39 (4): 563–582. doi:10.1080/03017605.2011.621248. S2CID 146848013.
Heilbroner, Robert L. (Winter 1991). Barkan, Joanne; Brand, Horst; Cohen, Mitchell; Coser, Lewis; Denitch, Bogdan; Fehèr, Ferenc; Heller, Agnès; Horvat, Branko; Tyler, Gus. "From Sweden to Socialism: A Small Symposium on Big Questions". Dissident: 96–110. Retrieved 14 April 2020.
Hicks, Alexander (1988). "Social Democratic Corporatism and Economic Growth". The Journal of Politics. University of Chicago Press. 50 (3): 677–704. doi:10.2307/2131463. ISSN 0022-3816. JSTOR 2131463. S2CID 154785976.
Horowitz, Rachelle (2007). "Tom Kahn and the fight for democracy: A political portrait and personal recollection" (PDF). Democratiya. 11 (Winter): 204–251. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 October 2009. Retrieved 7 March 2020.
Johnson, Roger T. (1 December 1964). "Robert M. La Follette, Jr. and the Decline of the Progressive Party in Wisconsin". Journal of American History. Madison, Wisconsin: State Historical Society of Wisconsin for the Department of History, University of Wisconsin. 51 (3): 524–525. doi:10.2307/1894927. ISSN 0021-8723. JSTOR 1894927.
Kotz, David M. (4 May 2009). "The Financial and Economic Crisis of 2008: A Systemic Crisis of Neoliberal Capitalism" (PDF). Review of Radical Political Economics. 41 (3): 305–317. doi:10.1177/0486613409335093. S2CID 154726132.
Kraig, Robert Alexander (2000). "The 1912 Election and the Rhetorical Foundations of the Liberal State". Rhetoric and Public Affairs. 3 (3): 363–395. doi:10.1353/rap.2010.0042. JSTOR 41940243. S2CID 143817140.
Lavelle, Ashley (1 December 2005). "Social Democrats and Neo-Liberalism: A Case Study of the Australian Labor Party". Political Studies. 53 (4): 753–771. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9248.2005.00555.x. S2CID 144842245.
Manow, Philip; Schwander, Hanna (10 September 2016). "'Modernize and Die'? German social democracy and the electoral consequences of the Agenda 2010". Socio-Economic Review. 15 (1): 117–134. doi:10.1093/ser/mww011. S2CID 157553424.
Medearis, John (1997). "Schumpeter, the New Deal, and Democracy". American Political Science Review. 91 (4): 819–832. doi:10.2307/2952166. JSTOR 2952166.
Milkis, Sidney M.; Tichenor, Daniel J. (1994). "'Direct Democracy' and Social Justice: The Progressive Party Campaign of 1912". Studies in American Political Development. 8 (2): 282–340. doi:10.1017/S0898588X00001267.
O'Leary, Kevin C. (1994). "Herbert Croly and Progressive Democracy". Polity. 26 (4): 533–552. doi:10.2307/3235094. JSTOR 3235094. S2CID 147480352.
Patnaik, Prabhat (May–June 2010). "Socialism or Reformism?". Social Scientist. 38 (5/6): 3–21. JSTOR 27866707.
Pierson, Chris (2005). "Lost property: What the Third Way lacks". Journal of Political Ideologies. 10 (2): 145–163. doi:10.1080/13569310500097265. S2CID 144916176.
Poulantzas, Nicos (May–June 1978). "Towards a Democratic Socialism". New Left Review. I (109).
Socialist Party of Great Britain (January 1958). "The Managerial Society Part Three — Fabian Version". Socialist Standard. Socialist Party of Great Britain (641). Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 7 March 2021.
Socialist Party of Great Britain (March 2002). "Reformism – or socialism?". Socialist Standard. Socialist Party of Great Britain (1171). Retrieved 31 January 2020.
Veggel, Noralv (November 2014). "The Nordic Model—Its Arrival and Decline". Global Journal of Management and Business Research: Administration and Management. 14 (9): 60–94. doi:10.13140/2.1.1557.9848.
Weisskopf, Thomas E. (1992). "Toward the Socialism of the Future, in the Wake of the Demise of the Socialism of the Past" (PDF). Review of Radical Political Economics. 24 (3–4): 1–28. doi:10.1177/048661349202400302. hdl:2027.42/68447. ISSN 0486-6134. S2CID 20456552.
Ackerman, Seth (19 June 2019). "Why Bernie Talks About the New Deal". Jacobin. Retrieved 15 November 2019.
Adler, David; Varoufakis, Yanis (1 December 2018). "We shouldn't rush to save the liberal order. We should remake it". The Guardian. Retrieved 2 December 2018.
Aduriz, Iñigo; Castro, Irene (7 January 2020). "PSOE y Unidas Podemos ultiman la estructura del Gobierno de coalición: cada partido gestionará áreas separadas". El Diario (in Spanish). Retrieved 14 April 2020.
Ames, Paul; Oliveira, Ivo (10 August 2019). "Socialists victorious in Portuguese election". Politico. Retrieved 14 April 2020.
Arnste, Håkon (3 October 2017). "Ap har mistet folket". Namdalsavisa (in Norwegian). Retrieved 20 October 2017.
"Democratic socialism hits the heartland: Ocasio-Cortez, Sanders to campaign in deep-red Kansas". NBC News. Associated Press. 20 July 2018. Retrieved 14 May 2019.
Aune, Oddvin; Myklebust, Bjørn (12 September 2018). "Splittelsen går tvers gjennom Ap" (in Norwegian). NRK. Retrieved 12 September 2018.
Azhar, Saeed; Chalmers, John (6 September 2015). "Singapore's rulers hope a nudge to the left will keep voters loyal". Reuters. Retrieved 29 April 2020.
Barbieri, Pierpaolo (25 April 2017). "The Death and Life of Social Democracy". Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 15 November 2019.
Barigazzi, Jacopo (5 September 2019). "Italy's Conte presents Cabinet list, with MEP Gualtieri as finance minister". Politico. Retrieved 14 April 2020.
Barrett, William, ed. (1 April 1978). "Capitalism, Socialism, and Democracy: A Symposium". Commentary. Retrieved 12 March 2020.
Barro, Josh (20 October 2015). "Bernie Sanders, Democratic Socialist Capitalist". The New York Times. Retrieved 26 March 2019.
BBC (22 February 2000). "Sacrifices in the scramble for power". BBC News. Retrieved 30 April 2020.
Benson, Thor (30 April 2015). "Stop Calling Bernie Sanders a Socialist". The New Republic. Retrieved 14 April 2020.
Berman, Sheri (15 January 2020). "Can Social Democrats Save the World (Again)?". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
Blanc, Eric (2 April 2019). "Why Kautsky Was Right (and Why You Should Care)". Jacobin. Retrieved 20 June 2019.
Boissoneault, Lorraine (14 July 2017). "Bismarck Tried to End Socialism's Grip—By Offering Government Healthcare". Smithsonian. Retrieved 30 January 2020.
Borshoff, Isabella (26 June 2019). "Social Democrats form government in Denmark". Politico. Retrieved 31 July 2019.
Brockell, Gillian (13 February 2020). "Socialists were winning U.S. elections long before Bernie Sanders and AOC". The Washington Post. Retrieved 14 February 2020.
Brown, Andrew (12 September 2014). "Who are Europe's happiest people – progressives or conservatives?". The Guardian. Retrieved 20 October 2014.
Brown, Craig (11 May 2009). "World's Happiest Countries? Social Democracies". Common Dreams. Retrieved 11 November 2021.
Bruenig, Matt (29 May 2019). "Bernie Wants Power in Workers' Hands". Jacobin. Retrieved 20 July 2019.
Buck, Tobias (17 October 2018). "How social democracy lost its way: a report from Germany". Financial Times. Retrieved 29 November 2019.
Carlock, Greg; McElwee, Sean (18 September 2018). "Why the Best New Deal Is a Green New Deal". The Nation. ISSN 0027-8378. Archived from the original on 13 November 2018. Retrieved 13 November 2018.
Carreño, Belén; Castro, Irene (20 February 2017). "Pedro Sánchez gira a la izquierda y elige al neoliberalismo como gran enemigo del PSOE". El Diario (in Spanish). Retrieved 14 January 2020.
Cassidy, John (2 February 2016). "Bernie Sanders Just Changed the Democratic Party". The New Yorker. Retrieved 25 November 2019.
Cassidy, John (18 June 2019). "Why Socialism Is Back". The New Yorker. Retrieved 14 April 2020.
Castro, Irene; Riveiro, Aitor (11 November 2019). "Sánchez e Iglesias firman un acuerdo para una coalición "rotundamente progresista de cuatro años". El Diario (in Spanish). Retrieved 14 April 2020.
Chartier, Gary (28 April 2018). "Getting Crony Capitalism Half Right". Reason. Reason Foundation. Retrieved 1 March 2020.
CNBC (14 September 2009). "The Financial Crisis: This Day—One Year Ago, Sept. 15, 2008". Retrieved 26 October 2021.
Cohen, Rachel M. (26 December 2018). "Could Expanding Employee Ownership Be the Next Big Economic Policy". The Intercept. Retrieved 20 July 2019.
Conley, Julia (20 March 2019). "Social Democratic Nations Rank Happiest on Global Index (Again). US Ranking Falls (Again)". Common Dreams. Retrieved 14 April 2020.
Cooper, Ryan (10 January 2018). "Bernie Sanders and the rise of American social democracy". The Week. Retrieved 26 March 2019.
Copenhagen, Richard Orange (11 May 2019). "Mette Frederiksen: the anti-immigration left leader set to win power in Denmark". The Guardian. Retrieved 8 June 2019.
Day, Meagan (14 May 2018). "A Line in the Sand". Jacobin. Retrieved 20 July 2019.
De Las Heras, Paula (22 May 2017). "Pedro Sánchez, el fénix camaleónico". Diario Sur (in Spanish). Retrieved 14 January 2020.
Dreier, Peter (11 April 2011). "La Follette's Wisconsin Idea". Dissent. Retrieved 15 November 2019.
Dudda, Ricardo (28 September 2016). "El PSOE y la fatiga democrática". Letras Libres (in Spanish). Retrieved 14 January 2020.
Dudda, Ricardo (12 November 2019). "Pedro Sánchez: De victoria en victoria hasta la derrota". Letras Libres (in Spanish). Retrieved 14 January 2020.
Eaton, George (10 August 2017). "Tony Blair isn't the only New Labour figure with a far-left past". New Statesman. Retrieved 23 February 2020.
Eaton, George (8 February 2018). "Germany's SPD may have signed its death warrant". New Statesman. Retrieved 23 February 2020.
The Economist (31 May 2010). "Social democracy – A plea for liberalism". The Economist. Retrieved 29 April 2020.
The Economist (9 April 2016). "Sewer socialism's heir". The Economist. Retrieved 15 November 2019.
The Economist (30 June 2018). "Why Labour is obsessed with Greek politics". The Economist. Retrieved 23 February 2020.
The Economist (21 January 2020). "Democracy Index 2019". The Economist. Economist Intelligence Unit. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
Elk, Mike (9 May 2018). "Bernie Sanders introduces Senate bill protecting employees fired for union organizing". The Guardian. Retrieved 20 July 2019.
Epstein, Kayla (8 April 2020). "Bernie Sanders vows to stay on upcoming ballots and continue to gather delegates so he can 'exert significant influence over the party platform'". Business Insider. Retrieved 14 April 2020.
Ember, Syndey (8 April 2020). "Bernie Sanders Is Dropping Out of 2020 Democratic Race for President". The New York Times. Retrieved 14 April 2020.
Estefanía, Joaquín (21 February 2019). "La ideología de Pedro Sánchez". El País (in Spanish). ISSN 1134-6582. Retrieved 14 January 2020.
Faiola, Anthony (11 February 2019). "In socialist Venezuela, a crisis of faith not in just their leader but their economic model". The Washington Post. Retrieved 23 February 2020.
Foran, Clare (11 February 2019). "How Bernie Sanders Explains Democratic Socialism". The Atlantic. Retrieved 14 April 2020.
Foster, John Bellamy; Tsakiroglou, Tassos (18 January 2014). "The Death of Social Democracy in the Age of Global Monopoly-Finance Capital": An Interview with John Bellamy Foster". Monthly Review. MR Online. Retrieved 29 April 2020.
Frizell, Sam (20 February 2019). "Here's How Bernie Sanders Explained Democratic Socialism". Time. Retrieved 1 March 2020.
Gage, Beverly (17 July 2018). "America Can Never Sort Out Whether 'Socialism' Is Marginal or Rising". The New York Times. Retrieved 17 February 2020.
Goffeng, Espen (12 September 2017). "En venstreside på villspor" (in Norwegian). NRK. Retrieved 20 October 2017.
Golshan, Tara (12 June 2019). "Bernie Sanders's definition of democratic socialism, explained". Vox. Retrieved 1 March 2020.
Goodner, David (6 March 2019). "Will 2020 Be the Year Presidential Candidates Actually Take Labor Issues Seriously?". Common Dreams. Retrieved 20 July 2019.
Goodrich, Matthew Miles (14 January 2018). "The Forgotten Socialist History of Martin Luther King Jr". In These Times. Retrieved 16 November 2019.
Gram, David (11 May 2015). "Bernie Sanders has had consistent message for 4 decades". The Seattle Times. Associated Press. ISSN 0745-9696. Retrieved 14 April 2020.
Gregoire, Carolyn (10 September 2013). "The Happiest Countries In The World". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 1 October 2013.
Gregory, Andy (7 November 2019). "More than a third of millennials approve of communism, YouGov poll indicates". The Independent. Retrieved 17 January 2020.
Grice, Andrew (7 January 2002). "Architect of 'Third Way' attacks New Labour's policy 'failures'". The Independent. Retrieved 13 June 2017.
Gruenberg, Mark (30 May 2019). "Bernie Sanders: Workers should control the means of production". People's World. Retrieved 20 July 2019.
Grumbach, Gary (13 April 2020). "Sanders' campaign raises over $2 million for coronavirus charities". NBC News. Retrieved 14 April 2020.
The Guardian (16 June 2006). "'Dear Michael, I'm Tony Blair'". The Guardian. Retrieved 15 March 2020.
Haltiwanger, John (11 February 2020). "Here's the difference between a 'socialist' and a 'democratic socialist'". Business Insider. Retrieved 23 February 2020.
Hendricks Jr., Obery M. (22 March 2014). "The Uncompromising Anti-Capitalism of Martin Luther King Jr". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 7 March 2020.
Hoel, Johannes Norman (5 October 2017). "Innvandring og fortielse". Drammens Tidende (in Norwegian). Retrieved 20 October 2017.
Huges, Laura (24 February 2016). "Tony Blair admits he can't understand the popularity of Jeremy Corbyn and Bernie Sanders". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 14 May 2019.
Hutton, Will (22 July 2018). "Progressives in Britain can still triumph if they look to Spain's success". The Guardian. Retrieved 4 August 2018.
Issenberg, Sasha (9 January 2010). "Sanders a growing force on the far, far left". Boston Globe. Retrieved 7 March 2020.
Isserman, Maurice (19 June 2009). "Michael Harrington: Warrior on poverty". The New York Times. Retrieved 15 November 2019.
Jackson, Samuel (6 January 2012). "The failure of American political speech". The Economist. Retrieved 15 June 2019.
Johnson, Jake (28 May 2019). "'Let's Expand Employee Ownership': Bernie Sanders Backs Plan to Give Workers Power Over Corporate Decisions". Common Dreams. Retrieved 20 July 2019.
Johnson, Miles (3 September 2019). "Giuseppe Conte seeks go-ahead to form Italy coalition government". Financial Times. Retrieved 14 April 2020.
Johnston, Laurie (28 December 1972). "Young Socialists defeat motion favoring recognition of Cuba" (PDF). The New York Times. p. 15. Retrieved 9 February 2020.
Jones, Colin (20 December 2007). "At the Heart of the Terror". The New York Review of Books. Retrieved 12 February 2020.
Jones, Owen (13 June 2017). "New Labour is dead. Jeremy Corbyn's shadow cabinet must stay as it is". The Guardian. Retrieved 17 May 2019.
Kaczynski, Andrew; McDermott, Nathan (14 March 2019). "Bernie Sanders in the 1970s urged nationalization of most major industries". CNN. Retrieved 20 July 2019.
Kameny, Fred (4 February 2019). "Is Venezuela Failing Because of Socialism?". The New York Times. Retrieved 23 February 2020.
Karnitschnig, Matthew (2 March 2018). "Who killed European social democracy?". Politico. Retrieved 29 November 2019.
Kaufman, Alexander C. (7 November 2018). "Democrats' Green New Deal Wing Takes Shape Amid Wave Of Progressive Climate Hawk Wins". The Huffington Post. Archived from the original on 13 November 2018. Retrieved 13 November 2018.
Kenworthy, Lane (1 January 2014). "America's Social Democratic Future: The Arc of Policy Is Long but Bends Toward Justice". Foreign Affairs (January/February 2014). Retrieved 29 April 2020.
Kinzel, Bob (19 February 2019). "He's In For 2020: Bernie Sanders Is Running For President Again". VPW News. Retrieved 25 November 2019.
Klar, Rebecca (10 June 2019). "Poll: Socialism gaining in popularity". The Hill. Retrieved 17 January 2020.
Kristof, Nicholas (27 October 2011). "Crony Capitalism Comes Home". The New York Times. Retrieved 1 March 2020.
Krugman, Paul (13 February 2020). "Bernie Sanders Isn't a Socialist". The New York Times. Retrieved 23 February 2020.
Kvitrud, Erlend (29 June 2019). "What the Right Gets Wrong About Socialism". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 14 April 2020.
Lawrence, Mathew (3 June 2019). "Bernie Sanders' plan to empower workers could revolutionise Britain's economy". The Guardian. Retrieved 20 July 2019.
Lawson, Neal (20 December 2018). "Averting the death of social democracy". Social Europe. Retrieved 29 November 2019.
Leibovich, Mark (21 January 2007). "The Socialist Senator". The New York Times. Retrieved 15 November 2019.
Lerer, Lisa (16 July 2009). "Where's the outrage over AIG bonuses?". Politico. Retrieved 7 March 2020.
Leong, Weng Kam (10 June 2016). "Ex-PAP man recounts 1957 'kelong meeting'". The Straits Times. Retrieved 29 April 2020.
Levitz, Eric (23 April 2019). "Bernie Sanders: 'Democratic Socialist' Is Just a Synonym for New Deal Liberal". New York. Retrieved 24 January 2020.
Levitz, Eric (29 May 2019). "In Appeal to Moderates, Sanders Calls for Worker-Ownership of Means of Production". New York. Retrieved 20 July 2019.
Linderborg, Åsa (28 February 2006). "Detta borde vara vårt arv". Aftonbladet (in Norwegian). Archived from the original on 10 March 2006. Retrieved 14 November 2019.
Lowen, Mark (5 April 2013). "How Greece's once-mighty Pasok party fell from grace". BBC News. Retrieved 23 February 2020.
Lozada, Carlos (11 March 2016). "The liberal war over the Obama legacy has already begun". The Washington Post. Retrieved 14 April 2020.
Ludwigshafen; Piraeus; Valletta (2 April 2016). "Rose thou art sick". The Economist. Retrieved 23 February 2020.
M., S. (1 February 2016). "How much of a socialist is Sanders?". The Economist. Retrieved 7 March 2020.
Marcetic, Branko (13 June 2019). "Bernie Sanders, Socialist New Dealer". Jacobin. Retrieved 15 November 2019.
Matthews, Dylan (20 November 2015). "A leading socialist explains what Bernie Sanders's socialism gets right — and wrong". Vox. Retrieved 14 April 2020.
Matthews, Dylan (29 May 2019). "Bernie Sanders's most socialist idea yet, explained". Vox. Retrieved 20 July 2019.
McCarthy, Michael (7 August 2018). "Democratic Socialism Isn't Social Democracy". Jacobin. Retrieved 26 October 2021.
McCarthy, Michael (30 May 2019). "Economic Democracy, If We Can Keep It". Jacobin. Retrieved 20 July 2019.
McArdle, Megan (13 June 2019). "Bernie Sanders's brand of socialism is hard to pin down". The Washington Post. Retrieved 14 April 2020.
McSheffrey, Elizabeth (21 October 2015). "Better luck next time, Mr. Mulcair". National Observer. Retrieved 8 February 2020.
Meyer, David (20 June 2019). "Bernie Sanders Wants Companies to Give Employees Ownership—a Trend That's Already Growing in the U.K." Fortune. Retrieved 20 July 2019.
Muldoon, James (5 January 2019). "Reclaiming the Best of Karl Kautsky". Jacobin. Retrieved 20 June 2019.
Murphy, Patricia (13 April 2017). "Real Socialists Think Bernie's a Sellout". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 14 April 2020.
Nagin, Rick (20 August 2018). "The difference between socialism and reformism". People's World. Retrieved 31 January 2020.
The New York Times (27 December 1972). "Young Socialists open parley; to weigh 'New Politics' split" (PDF). The New York Times. Retrieved 9 February 2020.
The New York Times (31 December 1972). "Socialist Party now the Social Democrats, U.S.A." The New York Times. Retrieved 9 February 2020.
The New York Times (1 January 1973). "'Firmness' urged on Communists: Social Democrats reach end of U.S. Convention here" (PDF). The New York Times. Retrieved 9 February 2020.
O'Leary, Naomi (6 September 2018). "Danish left veering right on immigration". Politico. Retrieved 13 September 2018.
Orange, Richard (11 May 2018). "Mette Frederiksen: the anti-migrant left leader set to win power in Denmark". The Guardian. Retrieved 12 May 2019.
Oshinsky, David (24 July 1988). "It Wasn't Easy Being a Leftist". The New York Times. Retrieved 15 November 2019.
Östberg, Kjell (25 August 2019). "Was Sweden Headed Toward Socialism in the 1970s?". Jacobin. Retrieved 18 November 2019.
O'Toole, Patricia (25 June 2006). "The War of 1912". Time. Archived from the original on 3 July 2006. Retrieved 6 January 2012.
Paul, Ari (19 November 2013). "Seattle's election of Kshama Sawant shows socialism can play in America". The Guardian. Retrieved 15 November 2019.
Powell, Michael (6 November 2006). "Exceedingly Social But Doesn't Like Parties". The Washington Post. Retrieved 7 March 2020.
Prokop, Andrew (12 October 2015). "Bernie Sanders 2016: a primer". Vox. Retrieved 1 March 2020.
Post, Charlie (9 March 2019). "The "Best" of Karl Kautsky Isn't Good Enough". Jacobin. Retrieved 20 June 2019.
Radcliff, Benjamin (25 September 2013). "Western nations with social safety net happier". CNN. Retrieved 20 October 2014.
"Spain's Socialists seen easily winning election, new poll shows". Reuters. Reuters. 2 August 2018. Retrieved 4 August 2018.
Reuters (26 June 2019). "Denmark becomes third Nordic country to form leftist government this year". The Japan Times. Reuters. Retrieved 31 July 2019.
Riddell, Peter (14 January 2002). "We believed you, Tony, but what comes next?". The Times.
Rizzo, Salvador (11 February 2019). "Fact Checker: What's actually in the 'Green New Deal' from Democrats?". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2 March 2019.
Rodriguez, Jesus (23 October 2018). "White House report hits Marx, the Soviet Union and 'Medicare for All'". Politico. Retrieved 24 January 2020.
Sacks, Adam J. (5 December 2019). "Why the Early German Socialists Opposed the World's First Modern Welfare State". Jacobin. Retrieved 10 September 2020.
Sanders, Bernie (26 July 2013). "What Can We Learn From Denmark?". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 7 March 2020.
Sanders, Bernie (1 December 2014). "An Economic Agenda for America: 12 Steps Forward". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 20 July 2019.
Savage, Luke (31 May 2019). "Bernie Sanders Wants to Democratize Your Workplace". Jacobin. Retrieved 20 July 2019.
Saxon, Wolfgang (1 April 1992). "Tom Kahn, leader in labor and rights movements, was 53". The New York Times. Retrieved 15 November 2019.
Schlesinger, Robert (26 January 2011). "The Myth of JFK as Supply Side Tax Cutter". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved 15 November 2019.
Schweizer Radio und Fernsehen (7 April 2010). "Überwindung des Kapitalismus bleibt SP-Fernziel" (in German). Schweizer Radio und Fernsehen. Retrieved 30 April 2020.
Schweizer Radio und Fernsehen (19 November 2016). "Positionspapier sorgt für rote Köpfe bei Genossen" (in German). Schweizer Radio und Fernsehen. Retrieved 30 April 2020.
Schweizer Radio und Fernsehen (3 December 2016). "SP will die "Überwindung des Kapitalismus" konkretisieren" (in German). Schweizer Radio und Fernsehen. Retrieved 30 April 2020.
Sitaraman, Ganesh (23 December 2019). "The Collapse of Neoliberalism". The New Republic. Retrieved 10 April 2020.
Spross, Jeff (24 April 2018). "Bernie Sanders has Conquered the Democratic Party". The Week. Retrieved 25 November 2019.
Stein, Jeff (28 May 2019). "Bernie Sanders backs 2 policies to dramatically shift corporate power to U.S. workers". The Washington Post. Retrieved 20 July 2019.
Stephens, Bret (25 January 2019). "Yes, Venezuela Is a Socialist Catastrophe". The New York Times. Retrieved 23 February 2020.
Stone, Jon (26 June 2019). "Denmark gets new left-wing government with plans to increase welfare spending and scrap anti-immigration measures". The Independent. Retrieved 31 July 2019.
Stossel, John (14 January 2010). "Let's Take the "Crony" Out of "Crony Capitalism". Reason. Reason Foundation. Retrieved 1 March 2020.
Sunkara, Bhaskar (15 January 2020). "The Long Shot of Democratic Socialism Is Our Only Shot". Jacobin. Retrieved 14 February 2020.
Tarnoff, Ben (12 July 2017). "How social media saved socialism". The Guardian. Retrieved 14 May 2019.
Tupy, Marian (1 March 2016). "Bernie Is Not a Socialist and America Is Not Capitalist". The Atlantic. Retrieved 26 March 2019.
Vyse, Graham (9 November 2018). "Democratic Socialists Rack Up Wins in States". Governing. Retrieved 17 May 2019.
Watson, Kathryn (7 March 2019). "Defining socialism: What it means and how it's shaping 2020". CBS News. Retrieved 26 October 2021.
Wegel, David (1 December 2018). "Bernie Sanders turns focus to the White House and the world". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2 December 2018.
Werner, Kjell (4 October 2017). "Ap ble for utydelig" (in Norwegian). Siste. Avisenes Nyhetsbyrå. Retrieved 20 October 2017.
Worstall, Tim (17 May 2016). "Bernie's Democratic Socialism Isn't Socialism, It's Social Democracy". Forbes. Retrieved 26 March 2019.
Younge, Gary (22 May 2017). "Jeremy Corbyn has defied his critics to become Labour's best hope of survival". The Guardian. Retrieved 23 February 2020.
Zimmerman, Klaus (19 February 2010). "Social Democracy in America?". The Atlantic. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
Zurcher, Anthony (20 June 2019). "Bernie Sanders: What's different this time around?". BBC News. Retrieved 25 November 2019.
Bismarck, Otto (15 March 1884). Reichstag Speech on the Law for Workers' Compensation (Speech). Berlin. Retrieved 23 February 2020.
Miliband, Ed (12 January 2013). One Nation Speech (Speech). Fabian Society New Year Conference 2013. London: Fabian Society. Retrieved 30 April 2020.
Palme, Olof (1982). Därför är jag demokratisk socialist [Why I am a Democratic Socialist] (Speech). 1982 Congress of the Swedish Social Democratic Party (in Swedish). Stockholm.
Roosevelt, Franklin D. (31 October 1936). Address at Madison Square Garden, New York City (Speech). New York. Retrieved 15 November 2019.
Roosevelt, Franklin D. (6 January 1941). 1941 State of the Union Address (The Four Freedoms) (Speech). Washington, D.C. Retrieved 15 November 2019.
Sanders, Bernie (19 November 2015). Democratic Socialism in the United States (Speech). Georgetown University, Washington, D.C. Retrieved 1 March 2020.
Sanders, Bernie (12 June 2019). My Vision for Democratic Socialism in America (Speech). George Washington University, Washington, D.C. Retrieved 1 March 2020.
Abramowitz, Michael J. (16 January 2018). "Freedom in the World 2018 — Democracy in Crisis". Freedom House. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
Abramowitz, Michael J. (5 February 2019). "Freedom in the World 2019 — Democracy in Retreat". Freedom House. Retrieved 12 March 2020.
Aghekyan, Elen; Bhatia, Rukmani; Dunham, Jennifer; O'Toole, Shannon; Puddington, Arch; Repucci, Sarah; Roylance, Tyler; Tucker, Vanessa (16 January 2018). "Table of Countries Score". Freedom House. Archived from the original on 19 February 2020. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
Amadeo, Kimberly (14 December 2019). "What Caused 2008 Global Financial Crisis". The Balance. Retrieved 14 April 2020.
Angier, Tom (8 February 2017). "What French philosophy can tell us about the EU, nationhood, and the decline of social democracy". LSE Research Online. Retrieved 20 October 2017.
Angel, Pierre Robert (2 January 2020). "Eduard Bernstein". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 29 February 2020.
Atkinson, Neill (30 March 2015). "John A Lee". New Zealand History. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 1 March 2020.
Astor, Maggie (12 June 2019). "What Is Democratic Socialism? Whose Version Are We Talking About?". The New York Times. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
Bacon Jr., Perry (7 April 2020). "Did Sanders Blow It For The Democratic Left? Or Was The Nomination Always Out Of Reach?". FiveThirtyEight. Retrieved 14 April 2020.
Bacon Jr., Perry (8 April 2020). "Why Bernie Sanders Lost". FiveThirtyEight. Retrieved 14 April 2020.
Conyers, John (21 January 2017). "115th United States Congress". Library of Congress. Retrieved 7 March 2020.
Democratic Socialists of America. "About DSA". Democratic Socialists of America. Retrieved 17 May 2019.
Dionne, E. J.; Galtson, William (13 May 2019). "Socialism: A Short Primer". Brookings Institution. Retrieved 14 April 2020.
Duignan, Brian; Kalsang Bhutia, Thinley; Mahajan, Deepti (21 January 2009). "Social democracy". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 29 February 2020.
Duignan, Brian; Kalsang Bhutia, Thinley; Mahajan, Deepti (17 June 2014). "Social democracy". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Archived from the original on 2 June 2016. Retrieved 29 February 2020.
Duignan, Brian; Kalsang Bhutia, Thinley; Mahajan, Deepti (20 December 2016). "Social democracy". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 29 February 2020.
Eldred, Sheila Mulrooney (12 November 2019). "When Harry Truman Pushed for Universal Health Care". History. Retrieved 15 November 2019.
Eskow, Richard (15 October 2014). "New Study Finds Big Government Makes People Happy, "Free Markets" Don't". Our Future. People's Action. Retrieved 20 October 2014.
Feinman, Ronald L. (6 February 2016). "Between Hillary and Bernie: Who's the Real Progressive?". History News Network. Retrieved 15 November 2019.
The Heritage Foundation (17 February 2017). "2017 Index of Economic Freedom: U.S. Score Declines Further as World Average Increases". The Heritage Foundation. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
House of Representatives (7 February 2019). "Resolution: Recognizing the duty of the Federal Government to create a Green New Deal" (PDF). U.S. House of Representatives. Retrieved 17 May 2019.
Jain, Parul; Rodriguez, Emily; Sampaolo, Marco (10 May 2017). "Eurocommunism". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 29 February 2020.
Kalsang Bhutia, Thinley; Veenu, Setia (13 October 2019). "Karl Kautsky". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 29 February 2020.
Kerr, Roger (9 December 1999). "Optimism for the New Millennium". Rotary Club of Wellington North. Archived from the original on 7 March 2006. Retrieved 10 May 2006.
Kim, Anthony B.; Miller, Terry (13 December 2016). "2017" (PDF). Index of Economic Freedom. The Heritage Foundation. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
Lipset, Seymour Martin; Marks, Gary (30 January 2001). "How FDR Saved Capitalism". Hoover Institution. Retrieved 15 November 2019.
McLean, Gavin (8 November 2017). "Michael Joseph Savage". New Zealand History. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 1 March 2020.
The National Archives. "Liberal Welfare Reforms 1906–11". Learning Curve. The National Archives. Archived from the original on 2 February 2012. Retrieved 24 January 2010.
New Democratic Party of Canada (April 2013). "Constitution of the New Democratic Party of Canada" (PDF). New Democratic Party of Canada. Retrieved 9 February 2020.
New Democratic Party of Canada (February 2018). "Constitution of the New Democratic Party of Canada" (PDF). New Democratic Party of Canada. Retrieved 9 February 2020.
Newport, Frank (13 August 2018). "Democrats More Positive About Socialism Than Capitalism". Gallup. Retrieved 26 April 2019.
New Zealand History (17 May 2017). "Rātana and Labour seal alliance – 22 April 1936". New Zealand History. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 1 March 2020.
Ocasio-Cortez, Alexandria (2 February 2019). "Resolution: Recognizing the duty of the Federal Government to create a Green New Deal". Library of Congress. Retrieved 7 March 2020.
Pruitt, Sarah (22 October 2019). "How Are Socialism and Communism Different?". History. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
Progressive International (30 November 2018). "An Open Call to All Progressive Forces". Progressive International. Retrieved 2 December 2018.
Qiu, Linda (26 August 2015). "Bernie Sanders — socialist or democratic socialist?". PolitiFact. Retrieved 26 March 2019.
Reporters Without Borders (18 April 2019). "2019 World Press Freedom Index". Reporters Without Borders. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
Reporters Without Borders (18 April 2019). "2019 World Press Freedom Index – A cycle of fear". Reporters Without Borders. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
Repucci, Sarah (4 March 2020). "Freedom in the World 2020 — A Leaderless Struggle for Democracy". Freedom House. Retrieved 12 March 2020.
Rhodes, Campbell (30 April 2013). "A perfect picture of the statesman: John Christian Watson". Museum of Australian Democracy. Retrieved 1 March 2020.
Riccio, Giacomo (25 July 2021). "Is Spain going to be the last test case for social democracy in the EU?". OpenDemocracy. Retrieved 4 August 2018.
Sanders, Bernie (25 July 2021). "Workplace Democracy Act". United States Senate. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
Sanders, Bernie (8 June 2018). "Sanders Promotes Employee-Ownership as Alternative to Greedy Corporations". United States Senate. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
Sanders, Bernie (28 May 2019). "Legislative Package Introduced to Encourage Employee-Owned Companies". Senator Bernie Sanders of Vermont. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
Silver, Nate (9 April 2020). "Sanders — And The Media — Learned The Wrong Lessons From Trump In 2016". FiveThirtyEight. Retrieved 14 April 2020.
Social Democrats USA. "Principles". Social Democrats USA. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
Socialist International (3 July 1951). "Aims and Tasks of Democratic Socialism: Declaration of the Socialist International". Socialist International. Archived from the original on 22 January 2019. Retrieved 22 January 2019.
Socialist International (22 June 1989). "Declaration of principles". Socialist International. Retrieved 14 May 2019.
Starke, Helmut Dietmar (11 January 2020). "Rosa Luxemburg". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 29 February 2020.
Terry, Brandon M. (23 August 2019). "Was Martin Luther King a Socialist?". Plough Publishing House. Retrieved 16 November 2019.
Transparency International (23 January 2020). "Corruption Perceptions Index 2019". Transparency International. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
Transparency International (23 January 2020). "2019 Corruption Perceptions Index shows anti-corruption efforts stagnating in G7 countries". Transparency International. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
Truman, Harry S. (10 October 1952). "Rear Platform and Other Informal Remarks in New York". Harry S. Truman Presidential Library and Museum. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
Vision of Humanity (June 2019). "Global Peace Index 2019" (PDF). Vision of Humanity. Institute for Economics & Peace. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 August 2019. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
Wisconsin Historical Society. "Socialism in Milwaukee". Dictionary of Wisconsin History. Wisconsin Historical Society. Archived from the original on 4 November 2012. Retrieved 20 December 2019.
Ypi, Lea (22 November 2018). "There is no left-wing case for Brexit: 21st century socialism requires transnational organization". British Politics and Policy. London School of Economics. Retrieved 26 October 2021.
Library resources about Social democracy
Resources in your library
Resources in other libraries
Cronin, James E.; Ross, George W.; Shoch, James, eds. (2011). What's Left of the Left: Democrats and Social Democrats in Challenging Times. Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press. ISBN 978-0-8223-5079-8.
Draper, Theodore (1966). "The Historic Left". The Roots of American Communism. Transaction Publishers. ISBN 978-1-4128-3880-1.
Evans, Bryan; Schmidt, Ingo, eds. (2012). Social Democracy After the Cold War. Edmonton, Alberta: Athabasca University Press. ISBN 978-1-926836-87-4.
Kenworthy, Lane (2014). Social Democratic America. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-932251-0.
Lavelle, Ashley (2008). The Death of Social Democracy: Political Consequences in the 21st Century. Aldershot, England: Ashgate. ISBN 978-0-7546-7014-8.
Martell, Luke (2011). "Conflicts in Cosmopolitanism and the Global Left". London: Policy Network. Archived from the original on 4 February 2018. Retrieved 3 August 2016.
Sachs, Jeffrey D. (2006). "The Social Welfare State, beyond Ideology". Scientific American. New York. 295 (5): 42. ISSN 0036-8733. Archived from the original on 12 October 2007. Retrieved 2 August 2016.
Thorsen, Dag Einar; Brandal, Nik; Bratberg, Øivind (2013). "Utopia Sustained: The Nordic Model of Social Democracy". London: Fabian Society. Retrieved 2 August 2016.
Social democracyat Wikipedia's sister projects
Definitions from Wiktionary
Media from Wikimedia Commons
Quotations from Wikiquote
Data from Wikidata
"Papers on the Future of Social Democracy in Canada". McGill Institute for the Study of Canada. Archived from the original on 12 April 2006. Retrieved 11 February 2020.
Shaw, Martin (1999). "Social democracy in the unfinished global revolution". University of Sussex. Retrieved 11 February 2020.