Artist's concept of SOHO
|Mission type||Solar observation|
|Operator||ESA / NASA|
|Mission duration||2 years planned|
23 years, 8 months and 20 days elapsed
|Manufacturer||Matra Marconi Space|
|Launch mass||1,850 kg (4,080 lb)|
|Payload mass||610 kg (1,340 lb)|
|Dimensions||4.3 m × 2.7 m × 3.7 m (14.1 ft × 8.9 ft × 12.1 ft)|
|Start of mission|
|Launch date||December 2, 1995 (UTC)|
|Rocket||Atlas IIAS AC-121|
|Launch site||Cape Canaveral LC-36B|
|Reference system||Sun–Earth L1|
|Periapsis altitude||206,448 km (128,281 mi)|
|Apoapsis altitude||668,672 km (415,494 mi)|
ESA solar system insignia for SOHO
The Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) is a spacecraft built by a European industrial consortium led by Matra Marconi Space (now Airbus Defence and Space) that was launched on a Lockheed Martin Atlas II AS launch vehicle on December 2, 1995 to study the Sun. SOHO has also discovered over 3,000 comets. It began normal operations in May 1996. It is a joint project of international cooperation between the European Space Agency (ESA) and NASA. Originally planned as a two-year mission, SOHO continues to operate after over 20 years in space: the mission is extended until the end of 2020 with a likely extension until 2022. As of 2019, only the LASCO coronagraph is still routinely producing data, with the other instruments all having been switched off.
In addition to its scientific mission, it is a main source of near-real-time solar data for space weather prediction. Along with Wind, ACE and DSCOVR, SOHO is one of four spacecraft in the vicinity of the Earth–Sun L1 point, a point of gravitational balance located approximately 0.99 astronomical unit (AU)s from the Sun and 0.01 AU from the Earth. In addition to its scientific contributions, SOHO is distinguished by being the first three-axis-stabilized spacecraft to use its reaction wheels as a kind of virtual gyroscope; the technique was adopted after an on-board emergency in 1998 that nearly resulted in the loss of the spacecraft.
The three main scientific objectives of SOHO are:
- Investigation of the outer layer of the Sun, which consists of the chromosphere, transition region, and the corona. CDS, EIT, LASCO, SUMER, SWAN, and UVCS are used for this solar atmosphere remote sensing.
- Making observations of solar wind and associated phenomena in the vicinity of L1. CELIAS and COSTEP are used for "in situ" solar wind observations.
- Probing the interior structure of the Sun. GOLF, MDI, and VIRGO are used for helioseismology.
The SOHO spacecraft is in a halo orbit around the Sun–Earth L1 point, the point between the Earth and the Sun where the balance of the (larger) Sun's gravity and the (smaller) Earth's gravity is equal to the centripetal force needed for an object to have the same orbital period in its orbit around the Sun as the Earth, with the result that the object will stay in that relative position.
Although sometimes described as being at L1, the SOHO spacecraft is not exactly at L1 as this would make communication difficult due to radio interference generated by the Sun, and because this would not be a stable orbit. Rather it lies in the (constantly moving) plane which passes through L1 and is perpendicular to the line connecting the Sun and the Earth. It stays in this plane, tracing out an elliptical lissajous orbit centered about L1. It orbits L1 once every six months, while L1 itself orbits the Sun every 12 months as it is coupled with the motion of the Earth. This keeps SOHO at a good position for communication with Earth at all times.
Communication with Earth
In normal operation the spacecraft transmits a continuous 200 kbit/s data stream of photographs and other measurements via the NASA Deep Space Network of ground stations. SOHO's data about solar activity are used to predict coronal mass ejection (CME) arrival times at earth, so electrical grids and satellites can be protected from their damaging effects. CMEs directed toward the earth may produce geomagnetic storms, which in turn produce geomagnetically induced currents, in the most extreme cases creating black-outs, etc.
In 2003 ESA reported the failure of the antenna Y-axis stepper motor, necessary for pointing the high-gain antenna and allowing the downlink of high-rate data. At the time, it was thought that the antenna anomaly might cause two- to three-week data-blackouts every three months. However, ESA and NASA engineers managed to use SOHO's low-gain antennas together with the larger 34 and 70 meter DSN ground stations and judicious use of SOHO's Solid State Recorder (SSR) to prevent total data loss, with only a slightly reduced data flow every three months.
Near loss of SOHO
The SOHO Mission Interruption sequence of events began on June 24, 1998, while the SOHO Team was conducting a series of spacecraft gyroscope calibrations and maneuvers. Operations proceeded until 23:16 UTC when SOHO lost lock on the Sun, and entered an emergency attitude control mode called Emergency Sun Reacquisition (ESR). The SOHO Team attempted to recover the observatory, but SOHO entered the emergency mode again on June 25 02:35 UTC. Recovery efforts continued, but SOHO entered the emergency mode for the last time at 04:38 UTC. All contact with SOHO was lost at 4:43 UTC, and the mission interruption had begun. SOHO was spinning, losing electrical power, and no longer pointing at the Sun.
Expert ESA personnel were immediately dispatched from Europe to the United States to direct operations. Days passed without contact from SOHO. On July 23, the Arecibo Observatory and Goldstone Solar System Radar combined to locate SOHO with radar, and to determine its location and attitude. SOHO was close to its predicted position, oriented with its side versus the usual front Optical Surface Reflector panel pointing toward the Sun, and was rotating at one revolutions every 53 seconds. Once SOHO was located, plans for contacting SOHO were formed. On August 3 a carrier was detected from SOHO, the first signal since June 25. After days of charging the battery, a successful attempt was made to modulate the carrier and downlink telemetry on August 8. After instrument temperatures were downlinked on August 9, data analysis was performed, and planning for the SOHO recovery began in earnest.
The Recovery Team began by allocating the limited electrical power. After this, SOHO's anomalous orientation in space was determined. Thawing the frozen hydrazine fuel tank using SOHO's thermal control heaters began on August 12. Thawing pipes and the thrusters was next, and SOHO was re-oriented towards the Sun on September 16. After nearly a week of spacecraft bus recovery activities and an orbital correction maneuver, the SOHO spacecraft (bus) returned to normal mode on September 25 at 19:52 UTC. Recovery of the instruments began on October 5 with SUMER, and ended on October 24, 1998 with CELIAS.
Only one gyro remained operational after this recovery, and on December 21 that gyro failed. Attitude control was accomplished with manual thruster firings that consumed 7 kg of fuel weekly, while the ESA developed a new gyroless operations mode that was successfully implemented on February 1, 1999.
The SOHO Payload Module (PLM) consists of twelve instruments, each capable of independent or coordinated observation of the Sun or parts of the Sun, and some spacecraft components. The instruments are:
- Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer (CDS) which measures density, temperature and flows in the corona.
- Charge Element and Isotope Analysis System (CELIAS) which studies the ion composition of the solar wind.
- Comprehensive SupraThermal and Energetic Particle analyser collaboration (COSTEP) which studies the ion and electron composition of the solar wind. COSTEP and ERNE are sometimes referred to together as the COSTEP-ERNE Particle Analyzer Collaboration (CEPAC).
- Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT) which studies the low coronal structure and activity.
- Energetic and Relativistic Nuclei and Electron experiment (ERNE) which studies the ion and electron composition of the solar wind. (See note above in COSTEP entry.)
- Global Oscillations at Low Frequencies (GOLF) which measures velocity variations of the whole solar disk to explore the core of the Sun.
- Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) which studies the structure and evolution of the corona by creating an artificial solar eclipse.
- Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) which measures velocity and magnetic fields in the photosphere to learn about the convection zone which forms the outer layer of the interior of the Sun and about the magnetic fields which control the structure of the corona. The MDI was the biggest producer of data on SOHO. Two of SOHO's virtual channels are named for MDI; VC2 (MDI-M) carries MDI magnetogram data, and VC3 (MDI-H) carries MDI Helioseismology data. MDI has not been used for scientific observation since 2011 when it was superseded by the Solar Dynamics Observatory's Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager.
- Solar Ultraviolet Measurement of Emitted Radiation (SUMER) which measures plasma flows, temperature and density in the corona.
- Solar Wind Anisotropies (SWAN) which uses telescopes sensitive to a characteristic wavelength of hydrogen to measure the solar wind mass flux, map the density of the heliosphere, and observe the large-scale structure of the solar wind streams.
- UltraViolet Coronagraph Spectrometer (UVCS) which measures density and temperature in the corona.
- Variability of solar IRradiance and Gravity Oscillations (VIRGO) which measures oscillations and solar constant both of the whole solar disk and at low resolution, again exploring the core of the Sun.
Public availability of images
Observations from some of the instruments can be formatted as images, most of which are also readily available on the internet for either public or research use (see the official website). Others such as spectra and measurements of particles in the solar wind do not lend themselves so readily to this. These images range in wavelength or frequency from optical (Hα) to extreme ultraviolet (UV). Images taken partly or exclusively with non-visible wavelengths are shown on the SOHO page and elsewhere in false color.
Unlike many space-based and ground telescopes, there is no time formally allocated by the SOHO program for observing proposals on individual instruments: interested parties can contact the instrument teams directly via e-mail and the SOHO web site to request time via that instrument team's internal processes (some of which are quite informal, provided that the ongoing reference observations are not disturbed). A formal process (the "JOP" program) does exist for using multiple SOHO instruments collaboratively on a single observation. JOP proposals are reviewed at the quarterly Science Working Team ("SWT") meetings, and JOP time is allocated at monthly meetings of the Science Planning Working Group. First results have been presented in Solar Physics, volumes 170 and 175 (1997), edited by B. Fleck and Z. Švestka.
As a consequence of its observing the Sun, SOHO (specifically the LASCO instrument) has inadvertently allowed the discovery of comets by blocking out the Sun's glare. Approximately one-half of all known comets have been spotted by SOHO, discovered over the last 15 years by over 70 people representing 18 different countries searching through the publicly available SOHO images online. Michał Kusiak of the Polish Jagiellonian University (Uniwersytet Jagielloński) discovered SOHO's 1999th and 2000th comets on 26 December 2010. SOHO has discovered over 2700 comets April 2014, with an average discovery rate of every 2.59 days. In September 2015, SOHO discovered its 3000th comet.
Amateur astronomer Mike Oates' discovery of over 140 comets in the SOHO data resulted in the minor planet "68948 Mikeoates" being named after him; this was used by lexicographer Erin McKean in her TED talk as an example of how Internet users can contribute to collections.
SOHO 2198 is a sungrazing comet discovered by Indian amateur astronomer Salil Mulye and Polish astronomer Szymon Liwo by analyzing data from the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory. Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph aboard SOHO is used to capture digital images of the Sun. One such sungrazing comet, SOHO 2198, was discovered using LASCO images. This sungrazer belongs to a family called Kreutz Sungrazers which usually disintegrate after discovery. With this discovery on 13 December 2011, Mulye became the second Indian to discover a sungrazing comet.
The Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research contributed to SUMER, LASCO and CELIAS instruments. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory built the UVCS instrument. The Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory (LMSAL) built the MDI instrument in collaboration with the solar group at Stanford University. The Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale is the principal investigator of GOLF and EIT, with a strong contribution to SUMER. A complete list of all the instruments, with links to their home institutions, is available at the SOHO Website.
- Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE), launched 1998, decommissioned 2010.
- STEREO (Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory), launched 2006, still operational.
- Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), launched 2010, still operational.
- High Resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C), launched 2012, sub-orbital telescope.
- Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR), launched 2015, orbiting in L1
- "SOHO (Solar and Heliospheric Observatory)". ESA eoPortal. Retrieved 2016-04-12.
- Green light for continued operations of ESA science missions
- "Antenna anomaly may affect SOHO scientific data transmission". ESA news. Retrieved 14 March 2005.[permanent dead link]
- "SOHO's antenna anomaly: things are much better than expected". ESA news. Retrieved 14 March 2005.
- SOHO "Mission Interruption Joint NASA/ESA Investigation Board Final Report." NASA. Retrieved: 12 March 2018.
- David, Leonard (May 1999). "Saving SOHO" (PDF). Aerospace America.
- "SOHO's Recovery: An Unprecedented Success Story" (PDF). European Space Agency. Retrieved 12 March 2018.
- Domingo, V., Fleck, B., Poland, A. I., Solar Physics 162, 1--37 (1995)
- Fleck B (1997). "First Results from SOHO". Rev Modern Astron. 10: 273–96. Bibcode:1997RvMA...10..273F.
- "MDI Web Page". soi.stanford.edu. Retrieved 2019-01-16.
- Karl Battams [@SungrazerComets] (16 April 2014). "These are SOHO discovery counts in the past few years: 2013: 213, 2012: 222, 2011: 216, 2010: 209 ... consistent!" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- Karl Battams [@SungrazerComets] (2 January 2013). "The SOHO comet discovery rate has been remarkably consistent over past 3yrs: 2010: 222 comets, 2011: 213, 2012: 219" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- SOHO's 2000th Comet Spotted By Student, SOHO Hotshots, 28 December 2010
- Karl Battams [@SungrazerComets] (21 April 2014). "As of Apr 21, 2014, the @ESA/@NASA SOHO satellite comet discovery count stands at 2,703! #Sungrazers" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- Karl Battams [@SungrazerComets] (19 October 2012). "Since the @ESA/@NASA SOHO mission launched in 1995, it has discovered a new comet every 2.59-days on average!" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- Mike well, space.com (16 September 2015). "Whoa! Sun-Watching Spacecraft Finds 3,000th Comet". Retrieved 2015-09-16.
- Mike's SOHO Comet Hunt
- http://www.ted.com/talks/erin_mckean_redefines_the_dictionary.html video time 12:36-13:06
- "SOHO Comets 2011".
- "Spacecraft Discovers Thousands of Doomed Comets - NASA Science". science.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2015-10-26.
- . "Salil Mulye : 2nd Indian Discoverer of SOHO comet". Khagol Mandal.
- "SOHO's Recovery – An Unprecedented Success Story" (PDF). Retrieved 2006-03-11. -PDF
- "SOHO Mission Interruption Preliminary Status and Background Report – July 15, 1998". Retrieved 2006-03-11.
- "SOHO Mission Interruption Joint NASA/ESA Investigation Board Final Report – August 31, 1998". Retrieved 2006-03-11.
- "SOHO Recovery Team". Retrieved 2006-03-11. Image
- "The SOHO Mission L1 Halo Orbit Recovery From the Attitude Control Anomalies of 1998" (PDF). Retrieved 2007-07-25.
- Weiss, K. A.; Leveson, N.; Lundqvist, K.; Farid, N.; Stringfellow, M. (2001). "An analysis of causation in aerospace accidents". Digital Avionics Systems, 2001. DASC. 20th Conference. 1: 4A3/1–4A3/12. doi:10.1109/DASC.2001.963364. ISBN 978-0-7803-7034-0.
- Leveson, N. G. (July 2004). "The Role of Software in Spacecraft Accidents". AIAA Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets. 41 (4): 564–575. Bibcode:2004JSpRo..41..564L. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.202.8334. doi:10.2514/1.11950.
- Neumann, Peter G. (January 1999). "Risks to the Public in Computers and Related Systems". Software Engineering Notes. 24 (1): 31–35. doi:10.1145/308769.308773.
- ESA SOHO webpage
- SOHO Homepage
- "A Description of the SOHO Mission". NASA's SOHO website. Retrieved 24 October 2005.
- "Latest SOHO Images". NASA's SOHO website. Retrieved 24 October 2005., free to use for educational and non-commercial purposes.
- SOHO Mission Profile by NASA's Solar System Exploration
- "Space Weather Now". National Weather Service – Space Environment Center. Archived from the original on 2005-10-23. Retrieved 24 October 2005.
- "The SOHO Mission L1 Halo Orbit Recovery From the Attitude Control Anomalies of 1998" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 October 2005. Retrieved 24 October 2005. - PDF
- Sun trek website A useful resource about the Sun and its effect on the Earth
- "Coordinating with SOHO". doi:10.1016/j.asr.2004.12.021.
- SOHO Spots 2000th Comet
- Transits of Objects through the LASCO/C3 field of view (FOV) in 2013 (Giuseppe Pappa)
- Notable objects in LASCO C3 and LASCO Star Maps (identify objects in the field of view for any day of the year)
- You can discover the next comet...from your couch! (science for citizens 18 Oct 2011)
- Ceres in LASCO C2 (17 August 2013)
- Sunspot Database based on SOHO satellite observations from 1996 to 2011. ()