Solubility chart

Summary

A solubility chart is a chart with a list of ions and how, when mixed with other ions, they can become precipitates or remain aqueous.

The following chart shows the solubility of multiple independent and various compounds, in water, at a pressure of 1 atm and at room temperature (approx. 25 °C (298.15 K)). Any box that reads "soluble" results in an aqueous product in which no precipitate has formed, while "slightly soluble" and "insoluble" markings mean that there is a precipitate that will form (usually, this is a solid); however, "slightly soluble" compounds such as calcium sulfate may require heat to form its precipitate. Boxes marked "other" can mean that many different states of products can result. For more detailed information of the exact solubility of the compounds, see the solubility table.

The chemicals have to be exposed to their boiling point to fully dissolve.

Note: All the dichromates are water-soluble. In a base, dichromates convert into chromates and some of the chromates are insoluble in water.

  Fluoride
F
Chloride
Cl
Bromide
Br
Iodide
I
Oxide
O2−
Sulfide
S2−
Selenide
Se2−
Nitride
N3−
Hydroxide
OH
Cyanide
CN
Thiocyanate
SCN
Nitrate
NO
3
Acetate
C
2
H
3
O
2
Carbonate
CO2−
3
Sulfate
SO2−
4
Oxalate
C
2
O2−
4
Phosphate
PO3−
4
Ammonium
NH+
4
[a]
S S S S S* S R[1] S S S S S S S S S S
Hydrogen
H+
S S S S S S sS S S S S S S S S S S
Lithium
Li+
sS S S S R R R R S S S S S S S S sS
Sodium
Na+
S S S S R R R R S S S S S S S S S
Potassium
K+
S S S S R R R R S S S S S S S S S
Rubidium
Rb+
S S S S R R R ? S S S S S S S I I
Caesium
Cs+
S S S S R R R ? S S S S S S S I S
Beryllium
Be2+
S S S R I R S R I S S S S I S I S
Magnesium
Mg2+
sS S S S I R R R I S S S S I S sS I
Calcium
Ca2+
I S S S R R R R sS S S S S I sS sS I
Strontium
Sr2+
sS S S S R sS I R S S S S S I I I sS
Barium
Ba2+
sS S S S R S R S S S S S S sS I I I[2]
Boron
B3+
R S R S S R R[3] I S S S X S ? S ? I
Aluminium
Al3+
S S S S (partial electrolysis) I R R I I R S S S R S I I
Gallium
Ga3+
sS S S R I S R I I S S S S R sS ? I
Manganese(II)
Mn2+
S S S S I I I I I S I S S I S I I
Iron(II)
Fe2+
S S S S I I I I I S S S S I S I I
Cobalt(II)
Co2+
S S S S I I I I I I S S S I S I I
Nickel(II)
Ni2+
S S S S I I I I I I S S S I S I I
Copper(II)
Cu2+
sS S S X I I I I I I I S S R S I I
Zinc
Zn2+
sS S S S I I I R I I S S S I S I I
Tin(II)
Sn2+
S S S S I I I I I S sS S R I S sS I
Mercury(II)
Hg2+
R S S I I I I R I S sS S S I R I I
Lead(II)
Pb2+
sS S sS sS I I I ? I sS sS S S I I sS I
Vanadium(III)
V3+
I S S S I I ? I ? ? S S ? ? S ? I
Chromium(III)
Cr3+
I sS sS S I I I I I S S S S I I ? I
Iron(III)
Fe3+
S[b] S S R I sS ? I I S S S S R[4] S sS I
Titanium(IV)
Ti4+
R R R R I I I ? I[5] ? ? S R ? R[5] I I
Silver
Ag+
S I I I I I I sS I I sS S S I sS I I
Gold
Au3+
I S sS I I I ? I I S ? S S I S ? ?
  Fluoride
F
Chloride
Cl
Bromide
Br
Iodide
I
Oxide
O2−
Sulfide
S2−
Selenide
Se2−
Nitride
N3−
Hydroxide
OH
Cyanide
CN
Thiocyanate
SCN
Nitrate
NO
3
[a]
Acetate
C
2
H
3
O
2
Carbonate
CO2−
3
[a]
Sulfate
SO2−
4
Oxalate
C
2
O2−
4
Phosphate
PO3−
4
  • Note: "Ammonium oxide" does not exist. However, its theoretical molecular formula (NH+
    4
    )2O2− accurately represents that of aqueous ammonia.
Key:
S soluble 0.01 ~ 100 mL (of water needed to dissolve 1 gram of solute)
sS slightly soluble 100 mL ~ 10 L
I insoluble 10 L and up
X other N/A
R reacts with water N/A
? unavailable N/A

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b c Compounds that include ammonium (NH+
    4
    ), chlorate (ClO
    3
    ), or nitrate (NO
    3
    ) are soluble without exceptions. Compounds that include carbonate (CO2−
    3
    ) are insoluble, unless the compound includes group 1 elements or ammonium.[6]
  2. ^ Anhydrous FeF3 is slightly soluble in water, FeF3·3H2O is much more soluble in water.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Ammonium Selenide", JACS, 1898-02-26
  2. ^ Hazen, Jeffery L.; Cleary, David A. (July 2, 2014). "Yielding Unexpected Results: Precipitation of Ba3(PO4)2 and Implications for Teaching Solubility Principles in the General Chemistry Curriculum". Journal of Chemical Education. 91 (8): 1261–1263. doi:10.1021/ed400741k.
  3. ^ "Boron Selenide". American Elements. January 5, 2021.
  4. ^ "Iron (III) Carbonate Formula": 1. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  5. ^ a b Frederick Pearson Treadwell (1916). Qualitative analysis. J.Wiley & sons, Incorporated. p. 538. Retrieved 26 March 2021.
  6. ^ "Solubility Table". intro.chem.okstate.edu.