South African military ranks

Summary

The South African National Defence Force's rank system is largely based on the British system, with the Air Force (and later the Military Health Service) sharing the Army rank titles. Rank titles changed over time as did the insignia.

Evolution of rank titles

Army and Air Force ranks

General officers

  • Field marshal (1923–c1950)
  • General (1914– ) (called "commandant-general" 1956–68)
  • Lieutenant-general (1914– )
  • Major-general (1914– ) (called "combat general" 1960–68)
  • Brigadier-general (1912–40, 1998– )

Field officers

  • Brigadier (1937–98) (called "colonel-commandant" 1937–40)
  • Colonel (1912– )
  • Chief commandant (Used in the Commandos 1968–70)[1]
  • Lieutenant-colonel (1912– ) (called "commandant" 1950–94)

Company / junior officers

  • Major (1912– )
  • Captain (1912– )
  • Lieutenant (1912– ) (called "field cornet" 1960–68)
  • Second lieutenant (1918– ) (called "assistant field cornet" 1960–68)

Warrant officers

Warrant officer class 1 rank badge 1921–2002
Warrant officer class 1 rank badge 1921–57

In June 2008[2] a new series of warrant officer ranks were introduced.

  • Warrant officer 1st class (1921– )
  • Warrant officer 2nd class (1921– )
  • Warrant officer (1912–21)

Non-commissioned officers

  • Staff sergeant (1912– ) (Air Force equivalent "flight sergeant")
  • Sergeant (1912– ) (Air Force equivalent called "air sergeant" until 1970)
  • Corporal (1912– ) (Air Force equivalent called "air corporal" until 1970)
  • Lance-corporal (1912– ) (Air Force equivalent called "leading air mechanic" until 1970)

Rank and file

  • Private (1912– ) (Air Force equivalent called "air mechanic" 1920–70, "private" 1970–82 and "airman" 1982–)

Naval ranks

Flag officers

  • Admiral (1972– )
  • Vice-admiral (1965– )
  • Rear-admiral (1940– )
  • Rear-admiral junior grade (1998– )

Senior officers

  • Commodore (1946–98)
  • Captain (1941– )
  • Commander (1913– )
  • Lieutenant-commander (1913– )

Junior officers

  • Lieutenant (1913– )
  • Sub-lieutenant (1913– )
  • Ensign (1913– ) (called "acting sub-lieutenant" until 1965)
  • Warrant officer 1st class (1955– )
  • Warrant officer 2nd class (1955– )
  • Warrant officer (1913–55)

Petty officers

  • Chief petty officer (1913– )
  • Petty officer (1913– )
  • Leading seaman (1913– )
  • Able seaman (1913– )

Ratings

  • Seaman (1913– )

1928–1953 rank structure

Officers
Rank group General/flag officers Field/senior officers Junior officers Officer cadet
Union of South Africa Army
(1928–1953)
General Lieutenant-General Major-General Brigadier Colonel Lieutenant-Colonel Major Captain Lieutenant Second Lieutenant Officer Cadet
General
Generaal
Lieutenant general
Luitenant generaal
Major general
Generaal-majoor
Brigadier
Brigadier
Colonel
Kolonel
Lieutenant colonel
Luitenant kolonel
Major
Majoor
Captain
Kaptein
Lieutenant
Luitenant
Second lieutenant
Tweede luitenant
Officer candidate
Kandidaat offisier
Other ranks
Rank group Senior NCOs Junior NCOs Enlisted
Union of South Africa Army
(1928–1953)
British Army (1920-1953) OR-9a.svg British Army (1920-1953) OR-8.svg British Army (1920-1953) OR-6.svg British Army (1920-1953) OR-4.svg British Army (1920-1953) OR-3.svg British Army (1920-1953) OR-2.svg No insignia
Warrant officer class 1
Adjudant-Offisier Klas I
Warrant officer class 2
Adjudant-Offisier Klas II
Staff sergeant
Staf-Sersant
Sergeant
Sersant
Corporal
Korporaal
Lance corporal
Onderkorporaal
Private
Soldaat

1961–1994 rank structure

During the apartheid era, the South African Army's rank structure was shared between the Army, Air Force and SAMS with some small differences. In the Air Force a staff sergeant was a flight sergeant for example. The Air Force ranks had a blue background and the NCO stripes were blue. For SAMS the ranks had a maroon background.

Officers
Rank group General/flag officers Field/senior officers Junior officers Officer cadet
South African Army
(1961–1994)[3]
South Africa-Army-OF-9-1961.svg South Africa-Army-OF-8-1961.svg South Africa-Army-OF-7-1961.svg South Africa-Army-OF-6-1961.svg South Africa-Army-OF-5-1961.svg South Africa-Army-OF-4b-1968.svg South Africa-Army-OF-4-1961.svg South Africa-Army-OF-3-1961.svg South Africa-Army-OF-2-1961.svg South Africa-Army-OF-1b-1961.svg South Africa-Army-OF-1a-1961.svg South Africa-Army-OF-(D)-1961.svg
General
Generaal[note 1]
Lieutenant general
Luitenant generaal
Major general
Generaal-majoor[note 2]
Brigadier
Brigadier
Colonel
Kolonel
Chief Commandant
Hoofkommandant[note 3]
Commandant
Kommandant
Major
Majoor
Captain
Kaptein
Lieutenant
Luitenant[note 4]
Second lieutenant
Tweede luitenant[note 5]
Officer candidate
Kandidaat offisier


South African Air Force
(1961–1994)
South Africa-Air Force-OF-9-1961.svg South Africa-Air Force-OF-8-1961.svg South Africa-Air Force-OF-7-1961.svg South Africa-Air Force-OF-6-1961.svg South Africa-Air Force-OF-5-1961.svg South Africa-Air Force-OF-4-1961.svg South Africa-Air Force-OF-3-1961.svg South Africa-Air Force-OF-2-1961.svg South Africa-Air Force-OF-1b-1961.svg South Africa-Air Force-OF-1a-1961.svg
General
Generaal
Lieutenant general
Luitenant generaal
Major general
Generaal-majoor
Brigadier
Brigadier
Colonel
Kolonel
Commandant
Kommandant
Major
Majoor
Captain
Kaptein
Lieutenant
Luitenant
2nd lieutenant
Tweede luitenant


South African Navy
(1961–1994)
South Africa-Navy-OF-9-1961.svg South Africa-Navy-OF-8-1961.svg South Africa-Navy-OF-7-1961.svg South Africa-Navy-OF-6-1961.svg South Africa-Navy-OF-5-1961.svg South Africa-Navy-OF-4-1961.svg South Africa-Navy-OF-3-1961.svg South Africa-Navy-OF-2-1961.svg South Africa-Navy-OF-1b-1961.svg South Africa-Navy-OF-1a-1961.svg
Admiral
Admiral
Vice admiral
Vise admiral
Rear admiral
Skout admiral
Commodore
Kommodoor
Captain
Kaptein
Commander
Kommandeur
Lieutenant commander
Luitenant-Kommandeur
Lieutenant
Luitenant
Sub Lieutenant
Onderluitenant
Ensign
Vaandrig


South African Medical Service
(1961–1994)
South Africa-Military Health Service-OF-9-1961.svg South Africa-Military Health Service-OF-8-1961.svg South Africa-Military Health Service-OF-7-1961.svg South Africa-Military Health Service-OF-6-1961.svg South Africa-Military Health Service-OF-5-1961.svg South Africa-Military Health Service-OF-4-1961.svg South Africa-Military Health Service-OF-3-1961.svg South Africa-Military Health Service-OF-2-1961.svg South Africa-Military Health Service-OF-1b-1961.svg South Africa-Military Health Service-OF-1a-1961.svg
General
Generaal
Lieutenant general
Luitenant generaal
Major general
Generaal-majoor
Brigadier
Brigadier
Colonel
Kolonel
Commandant
Kommandant
Major
Majoor
Captain
Kaptein
Lieutenant
Luitenant
2nd lieutenant
Tweede luitenant


Rank group General/flag officers Field/senior officers Junior officers Officer cadet
Other ranks
Rank group Senior NCOs Junior NCOs Enlisted
South African Army
(1961–1994)[3]
Sersant-Majoor van die Leer (SADF).gif South Africa-Army-OR-9-1961.svg South Africa-Army-OR-8-1961 01.svg South Africa-Army-OR-7-1961.svg SAA-OR-6.svg SAA-OR-4.svg SAA-OR-3.svg No insignia
Sergeant Major of the Army
Sersant-Majoor van die Leer
Warrant officer class 1
Adjudant-Offisier Klas I
Warrant officer class 2
Adjudant-Offisier Klas II
Staff sergeant
Staf-Sersant
Sergeant
Sersant
Corporal
Korporaal
Lance corporal
Onderkorporaal
Private
Soldaat


South African Air Force
(1961–1994)
South African Army OR-9 (1951-2002).gif South African Army OR-8 (1951-2002).gif South African Air Force OR-6 (1994-2002).gif South African Air Force OR-4 (1994-2002).gif South African Air Force OR-3 (1994-2002).gif No insignia
Sergeant Major of the SA Air Force
Sersant-Majoor van die SA Lugmag
Warrant officer class 1
Adjudant-Offisier Klas I
Warrant officer class 2
Adjudant-Offisier Klas II
Flight sergeant
Vlug-Sersant
Sergeant
Sersant[note 6]
Corporal
Korporaal[note 7]
Lance corporal
Onderkorporaal[note 8]
Aircraftman
Vliegtuigman[note 9]


South African Navy
(1961–1994)
Sersant-Majoor van die SA Vloot (SADF).png South African Army OR-9 (1951-2002).gif South African Army OR-8 (1951-2002).gif South African Navy OR-7 (1961–2002).gif South African Navy OR-6 (1961–2002).gif South African Navy OR-4 (1961–2002).gif South African Navy OR-2 (1961–2002).gif
Master at Arms of
the South African Navy

Sersant-Majoor
van die SA Vloot
Warrant Officer Class 1
Adjudant-Offisier Klas I
Warrant Officer Class 2
Adjudant-Offisier Klas II
Chief petty officer
Eerste Bootsman
Petty officer
Bootsman
Leading seaman
Baasseeman
Able seaman
Bevare Seeman
Rank group Senior NCOs Junior NCOs Enlisted

Note: in the artillery and anti-aircraft corps, the corporal and lance-corporal are called "bombardier" (bombardeer) and "lance-bombardier" (onderbombardeer). The private is called a "gunner" in the artillery and anti-aircraft, a "rifleman" in the infantry, a "trooper" in the armoured corps, a "sapper" in the engineers, a "signalman" in the signals corps, and a "scout" in the intelligence corps.

Substantive warrant officer posts
A WO1 wearing RSM insignia

Any warrant officer class 1 could be posted to substantive posts, including

However they would retain the rank of WO1, while wearing unique rank insignia. To distinguish the posting different colour backgrounds were used; for example, red for regimental sergeant major and black for command sergeant major. The sergeant major of each arm of service wore insignia topped by the arms of their respective arm of service.

In 2008 the warrant officer ranks were expanded to make each substantive rank a formal rank.

Army

The SA Army was formed in 1912 as the Union Defence Force. It was given its present name in 1951. The rank system is derived from that of the British Army. The ranks of General Officers changed in September 2003 when the rank previously called Brigadier became known as Brigadier General.[4][5]

Officers
Rank group General/flag officers Field/senior officers Junior officers Officer cadet
South African Army
(1994-2002)[6]
South African Army OF-9 (1994-2002).gif South African Army OF-8 (1994-2002).gif South African Army OF-7 (1994-2002).gif South African Army OF-6 (1994-2002).gif South African Army OF-5 (1994-2002).gif South African Army OF-4 (1994-2002).gif South African Army OF-3 (1994-2002).gif South African Army OF-2 (1994-2002).gif South African Army OF-1b (1994-2002).gif South African Army OF-1a (1994-2002).gif
General
Generaal
Lieutenant general
Luitenant generaal
Major general
Generaal-majoor
Brigadier
Brigadier
Colonel
Kolonel
Commandant
Kommandant
Major
Majoor
Captain
Kaptein
Lieutenant
Luitenant
2nd lieutenant
Tweede luitenant


 South African Army[7]
SAA-OF-9.svg SAA-OF-8.svg SAA-OF-7.svg SAA-OF-6.svg SAA-OF-5.svg SAA-OF-4.svg SAA-OF-3.svg SAA-OF-2.svg SAA-OF-1b.svg SAA-OF-1a.svg SAA-OF-(D).svg
General Lieutenant general Major general Brigadier general Colonel Lieutenant colonel Major Captain Lieutenant 2nd lieutenant Candidate officer
Warrant officers
Equivalent
NATO rank
WO-5 WO-4 WO-3 WO-2 WO-1
 South African Army
SAA-WO-5.svg SAA-WO-4.svg SAA-WO-3.svg SAA-WO-2.svg SAA-WO-1.svg
Master chief warrant officer Senior chief warrant officer Chief warrant officer Master warrant officer Senior warrant officer
Other ranks
Rank group Senior NCOs Junior NCOs Enlisted
South African Army
(1994-2002)[6]
South African Army OR-9 (1951-2002).gif South African Army OR-8 (1951-2002).gif South African Army OR-7 (1994-2002).gif South African Army OR-6 (1994-2002).gif South African Army OR-4 (1994-2002).gif South African Army OR-3 (1994-2002).gif No insignia
Warrant officer class 1
Adjudant-Offisier Klas I
Warrant officer class 2
Adjudant-Offisier Klas II
Staff sergeant
Stafsersant
Sergeant
Sersant
Corporal
Korporaal
Lance corporal
Onderkorporaal
Private
(or equivalent)


 South African Army[7]
SAA-OR-9.svg SAA-OR-8.svg SAA-OR-7.svg SAA-OR-6.svg SAA-OR-4.svg SAA-OR-3.svg No insignia
Warrant officer class 1 Warrant officer class 2 Staff sergeant Sergeant Corporal Lance corporal Private
(or equivalent)
Adjudant-Offisier Klas I Adjudant-Offisier Klas I Stafsersant Sersant Korporaal Onderkorporaal

Air Force

The SA Air Force was formed in 1920. Unlike many other Commonwealth air forces, it had army style rank system. In 2002 the Air Force officer rank insignia structure was changed from one which was shared with the Army to a new pattern based on stripes. The Air Force stated that this was "in order to bring it more in line with international forms of rank".[8] The army-style rank titles were retained. Note: The Rank of General is only used when the Chief of the Air Force is also the Chief of the Defence Force which has occurred on occasion in the past. In 2005 the South African Air Force redesigned its insignia completely, while keeping the Army titles.

Officers
Rank group General/flag officers Field/senior officers Junior officers Officer cadet
South African Air Force
(1994-2002)[6]
South African Air Force OF-9 (1994-2002).gif South African Air Force OF-8 (1994-2002).gif South African Air Force OF-7 (1994-2002).gif South African Air Force OF-6 (1994-2002).gif South African Air Force OF-5 (1994-2002).gif South African Air Force OF-4 (1994-2002).gif South African Air Force OF-3 (1994-2002).gif South African Air Force OF-2 (1994-2002).gif South African Air Force OF-1b (1994-2002).gif South African Air Force OF-1a (1994-2002).gif
General
Generaal
Lieutenant general
Luitenant generaal
Major general
Generaal-majoor
Brigadier
Brigadier
Colonel
Kolonel
Commandant
Kommandant
Major
Majoor
Captain
Kaptein
Lieutenant
Luitenant
2nd lieutenant
Tweede luitenant


 South African Air Force[9]
SAAF-OF-9.svg SAAF-OF-8.svg SAAF-OF-7.svg SAAF-OF-6.svg SAAF-OF-5.svg SAAF-OF-4.svg SAAF-OF-3.svg SAAF-OF-2.svg SAAF-OF-1b.svg SAAF-OF-1a.svg SAAF-Candidate Offr.svg
General Lieutenant general Major general Brigadier general Colonel Lieutenant colonel Major Captain Lieutenant Second lieutenant Officer candidate
Warrant officers
Equivalent NATO rank WO-5 WO-4 WO-3 WO-2 WO-1
 South African Air Force
SAA-WO-5.svg SAA-WO-4.svg SAA-WO-3.svg SAA-WO-2.svg SAA-WO-1.svg
Master chief warrant officer Senior chief warrant officer Chief warrant officer Master warrant officer Senior warrant officer
Other ranks
Rank group Senior NCOs Junior NCOs Enlisted
South African Air Force
(1994-2002)[6]
South African Army OR-9 (1951-2002).gif South African Army OR-8 (1951-2002).gif South African Air Force OR-7 (1994-2002).gif South African Air Force OR-6 (1994-2002).gif South African Air Force OR-4 (1994-2002).gif South African Air Force OR-3 (1994-2002).gif No insignia
Warrant officer class 1
Adjudant-Offisier Klas I
Warrant officer class 2
Adjudant-Offisier Klas II
Flight sergeant
Vlug-Sersant
Sergeant
Sersant
Corporal
Korporaal
Lance corporal
Onderkorporaal
Aircraftman
Vliegtuigman


 South African Air Force[9]
SAA-OR-9.svg SAA-OR-8.svg SAAF-OR-7.svg SAAF-OR-6.svg SAAF-OR-4.svg SAAF-OR-3.svg No insignia
Warrant officer class 1 Warrant officer class 2 Flight sergeant Sergeant Corporal Lance corporal Aircraftman

Navy

The SA Navy was originally two separate organisations, namely the South African Division of the Royal Navy Volunteer Reserve (formed in 1913) and the South African Naval Service (formed in 1922 and renamed the "Seaward Defence Force" in 1939). They amalgamated in 1942 to form the SA Naval Forces, which were renamed "SA Navy" in 1951. The rank system is based on that of the (British) Royal Navy.[10]

The ranks of Flag Officers changed in 1997 when the rank previously called Commodore became known as Rear Admiral (Junior Grade).[11]

Officers
Rank group General/flag officers Field/senior officers Junior officers Officer cadet
South African Navy
(1994-2002)[6]
South African Navy OF-9 collected (1961-2002).gif South African Navy OF-8 collected (1961-2002).gif South African Navy OF-7 collected (1961-2002).gif South African Navy OF-6 collected (1961-2002).gif South Africa-Navy-OF-5-1961.svg South Africa-Navy-OF-4-1961.svg South Africa-Navy-OF-3-1961.svg South Africa-Navy-OF-2-1961.svg South Africa-Navy-OF-1b-1961.svg South Africa-Navy-OF-1a-1961.svg 07.RNO-MIDN.svg
Admiral
Admiral
Vice admiral
Vise admiral
Rear admiral
Skout admiral
Commodore
Kommodoor
Captain
Kaptein
Commander
Kommandeur
Lieutenant commander
Luitenant-Kommandeur
Lieutenant
Luitenant
Sub Lieutenant
Onderluitenant
Ensign
Vaandrig
Midshipman


 South Africa Navy[12]
SA-Navy-OF-9.svgBritish Royal Navy (sleeves) OF-9.svg SA-Navy-OF-8.svgBritish Royal Navy (sleeves) OF-8.svg SA-Navy-OF-7.svgBritish Royal Navy (sleeves) OF-7.svg SA-Navy-OF-6.svgSA-Navy-OF-6-Sleeve.svg British Royal Navy (sleeves) OF-5.svg British Royal Navy (sleeves) OF-4.svg British Royal Navy (sleeves) OF-3.svg British Royal Navy (sleeves) OF-2.svg British Royal Navy (sleeves) OF-1b.svg Turkey-Navy-OF-1a.svg 07.RNO-MIDN.svg
Admiral Vice admiral Rear admiral Rear admiral
(junior grade)
Captain Commander Lieutenant
commander
Lieutenant Sub lieutenant Ensign Midshipman

Warrant Officers

Equivalent
NATO rank
WO-5 WO-4 WO-3 WO-2 WO-1
 South Africa Navy
SAA-WO-5.svg SAA-WO-4.svg SAA-WO-3.svg SAA-WO-2.svg SAA-WO-1.svg
Master chief warrant officer Senior chief warrant officer Chief warrant officer Master warrant officer Senior warrant officer
Enlisted
Rank group Senior NCOs Junior NCOs Enlisted
South African Navy
(1994-2002)[6]
South African Army OR-9 (1951-2002).gif South African Army OR-8 (1951-2002).gif South African Navy OR-7 (1961–2002).gif South African Navy OR-6 (1961–2002).gif South African Navy OR-4 (1961–2002).gif South African Navy OR-2 (1961–2002).gif
Warrant Officer Class 1
Adjudant-Offisier Klas I
Warrant Officer Class 2
Adjudant-Offisier Klas II
Chief petty officer
Eerste Bootsman
Petty officer
Bootsman
Leading seaman
Baasseeman
Able seaman
Bevare Seeman


 South Africa Navy[12]
SAA-OR-9.svg SAA-OR-8.svg SAN-Navy-OR-7.svg SAN-Navy-OR-6.svg British Royal Navy OR-4.svg Trinidad and Tobago-Navy-OR-2.svg Blank.svg
Warrant officer class 1 Warrant officer class 2 Chief petty officer Petty officer Leading seaman Able seaman Seaman

Military Health Service

The South African Military Health Service uses the Army rank system. There is a differentiation in that the rank insignia is displayed on a red background as opposed to the army, which is displayed on an olive background.

Officers
Rank group General/flag officers Field/senior officers Junior officers Officer cadet
South African
Military Health Service

SAMHS-OF-5.svg SAMHS-OF-4.svg SAMHS-OF-3.svg SAMHS-OF-2.svg SAMHS-OF-1b.svg SAMHS-OF-1a.svg
General Lieutenant general Major general Brigadier general Colonel Lieutenant colonel Major Captain Lieutenant 2nd lieutenant Candidate officer
Enlisted
Rank group Senior NCOs Junior NCOs Enlisted
South African
Military Health Service

SAA-OR-9.svg SAA-OR-8.svg SAMHS-OR-7.svg SAMHS-OR-6.svg SAMHS-OR-4.svg SAMHS-OR-3.svg No insignia
Warrant Officer Class 1 Warrant Officer Class 2 Staff Sergeant Sergeant Corporal Lance Corporal Private
(or equivalent)

Master Chief and Senior Chief Warrant Officers

The highest ranking South African non-commissioned officer is the Warrant Officer of the South African National Defence Force. They are the sole holder of the rank of Master Chief Warrant Officer (NATO equivalent WO-5).[13] As of October 2012 the incumbent MCWO is Mothusi Kgaladi[14]

The rank of Senior Chief Warrant Officer (NATO equivalent WO-4) is only held by the Master at Arms of the Navy, the Sergeant Major of the Army, the Sergeant Major of the Air Force, and the Sergeant Major of the Military Health Service.[13]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Called Commandant general (Kommandant-generaal) from 1956 to 1968
  2. ^ Called Combat general (Bestry generaal) from 1960 to 1968
  3. ^ Only in the Commandos from 1968 to 1970
  4. ^ Called Field cornet (Veldkornet) from 1960 to 1968
  5. ^ Called Assistant field cornet (Assistent veldkornet) from 1960 to 1968
  6. ^ Called Air sergeant (Lugsersant) from 1960 to 1968
  7. ^ Called Air corporal (Lugkorporaal) from 1960 to 1968
  8. ^ Called Leading air mechanic (Leiend lugwerktuigkundige) until 1970
  9. ^ Called Air mechanic (Lugwerktuigkundige) from 1920 to 1970
    Called Private (Soldaat) from 1970 to 1982

References

  1. ^ Radburn, Arthur (1990). "South African Army Ranks and Insignia". South African Journal of Military Studies. 20 (2): 2.
  2. ^ Pale, Frans (Lt Col). "DOD News Sep 2008" (pdf). SA Department of Defence.
  3. ^ a b Radburn, A. (22 February 2012). "SOUTH AFRICAN ARMY RANKS AND INSIGNIA". Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies. 20 (2): 1–4. Retrieved 3 June 2021.
  4. ^ "Airforce Rank Structure". Unofficial SA Airforce website.
  5. ^ "Uniform: rank insignia". army.mil.za. Archived from the original on 20 October 2020. Retrieved 11 February 2021.
  6. ^ a b c d e f Smaldone, Joseph P. (1997). "National Security". In Byrnes, Rita M. (ed.). South Africa: a country study. Area Handbook (3rd ed.). Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress. pp. 378–379. LCCN 96048983. Retrieved 20 October 2021.
  7. ^ a b "Uniform: Rank insignia". army.mil.za. Department of Defence (South Africa). Archived from the original on 20 October 2020. Retrieved 29 May 2021.
  8. ^ SAAF Rank Insignia
  9. ^ a b "Rank Insignia". af.mil.za. Department of Defence (South Africa). Archived from the original on 1 January 2019. Retrieved 29 May 2021.
  10. ^ "Rank insignia of the South African Navy". navy.mil.za. Archived from the original on 18 May 2019. Retrieved 11 February 2021.
  11. ^ Bennett, C. H.; Söderlund, A. G. (2008). South Africa's navy : a navy of the people and for the people. p. 185. ISBN 978-0-620-41446-3.
  12. ^ a b "Rank Insignia". navy.mil.za. Department of Defence (South Africa). Archived from the original on 18 May 2019. Retrieved 29 May 2021.
  13. ^ a b "Fact file: Comparative military and civil service grades". DefenceWeb.
  14. ^ "Mothusi Victor Kgaladi new WO SANDF". DefenceWeb.