Soyuz TM-20


Soyuz TM-20 was the twentieth expedition to the Russian Space Station Mir. It launched Russian cosmonauts Aleksandr Viktorenko, Yelena Kondakova, and German cosmonaut Ulf Merbold.

Soyuz TM-20
Mission typeMir crew transport
COSPAR ID1994-063A Edit this at Wikidata
SATCAT no.23288
Mission duration169 days, 5 hours, 21 minutes, 35 seconds
Orbits completed~2,760
Spacecraft properties
SpacecraftSoyuz 7K-STM No.69[1]
Spacecraft typeSoyuz-TM
ManufacturerRKK Energia
Launch mass7,170 kilograms (15,810 lb)
Crew size3
MembersAleksandr Viktorenko
Yelena Kondakova
LaunchingUlf Merbold
LandingValeri Polyakov
CallsignВи́тязь (Vityaz' – Knight)
Start of mission
Launch dateOctober 3, 1994, 22:42:30 (1994-10-03UTC22:42:30Z) UTC[1]
Launch siteBaikonur 1/5
End of mission
Landing dateMarch 22, 1995, 04:04:05 (1995-03-22UTC04:04:06Z) UTC
Landing site50°31′N 67°21′E / 50.52°N 67.35°E / 50.52; 67.35
Orbital parameters
Reference systemGeocentric
RegimeLow Earth
Perigee altitude392 kilometres (244 mi)
Apogee altitude394 kilometres (245 mi)
Inclination51.6 degrees
Period92.42 minutes
Epoch3 November 1994[2]
Docking with Mir
Docking portCore forward
Docking date6 October 1994, 00:28:15 UTC
Undocking date22 March 1995, 00:43:08 UTC
Soyuz TM-20 patch.png
Soyuz programme
(Crewed missions)
Mir as seen from Space Shuttle Discovery during STS-63, with Soyuz TM-20 seen at the top


Position Launching crew Landing crew
Commander   Aleksandr Viktorenko
Fourth and last spaceflight
Flight Engineer   Yelena Kondakova
First spaceflight
Research Cosmonaut   Ulf Merbold
Third and last spaceflight
  Valeri Polyakov
Second and last spaceflight

Mission highlightsEdit

The flight carried 10 kg of equipment for use by Merbold in ESA's month-long Euromir 94 experiment program. During automatic approach to Mir's front port, the spacecraft yawed unexpectedly. Viktorenko completed a manual docking without additional incident.

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ a b McDowell, Jonathan. "Launch Log". Jonathan's Space Page. Retrieved 9 November 2013.
  2. ^ McDowell, Jonathan. "Satellite Catalog". Jonathan's Space Page. Retrieved 9 November 2013.

External linksEdit

  • Spaceflight Mission Report