Spoken language

Summary

A spoken language is a language produced by articulate sounds, as opposed to a written language. An oral language or vocal language is a language produced with the vocal tract, as opposed to a sign language, which is produced with the hands and face.

DefinitionEdit

The term "spoken language" is sometimes used to mean only vocal languages, especially by linguists, excluding sign languages and making the terms 'spoken', 'oral', 'vocal language' synonymous. Others refer to sign language as "spoken", especially in contrast to written transcriptions of signs.[1][2][3]

ContextEdit

In spoken language, much of a speaker's meaning is determined by the context. That contrasts with written language in which more of the meaning is provided directly by the text. In spoken language, the truth of a proposition is determined by common-sense reference to experience, but in written language, a greater emphasis is placed on logical and coherent argument. Similarly, the spoken language tends to convey subjective information, including the relationship between the speaker and the audience. (Conversation, in formal or informal settings is an example.) Written language, on the other hand, is the common mode used to convey objective information.[4]

Both vocal and sign languages are composed of words. In vocal languages, words are made up from a limited set of vowels and consonants, and often tone. In sign languages, words are made up from a limited set of shapes, orientations, locations movements of the hands, and often facial expressions; in both cases, the building blocks are called phonemes. In both vocal and sign languages, words are grammatically and prosodically linked into phrases, clauses, and larger units of discourse.

Relation between spoken and written languageEdit

The relationship between spoken language and written language is complex. Within the fields of linguistics, the current consensus is that speech is an innate human capability, and written language is a cultural invention.[5] However some linguists, such as those of the Prague school, argue that written and spoken language possess distinct qualities which would argue against written language being dependent on spoken language for its existence.[6]

Acquiring spoken languageEdit

Hearing children acquire as their first language the language that is used around them, whether vocal, cued (if they are sighted), or signed. Deaf children can do the same with Cued Speech or sign language if either visual communication system is used around them. Vocal language are traditionally taught to them in the same way that written language must be taught to hearing children. (See oralism.)[7][8] Teachers give particular emphasis on spoken language with children who speak a different primary language outside of the school. For the child it is considered important, socially and educationally, to have the opportunity to understand multiple languages.[9]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Groce, Nora Ellen (1985). Everyone Here Spoke Sign Language: Hereditary Deafness on Martha's Vineyard. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. ISBN 9780674270411.
  2. ^ Hoemann, Harry W. (1986). Introduction to American sign language. Bowling Green, Ohio: Bowling Green Press. ISBN 0961462108.
  3. ^ Brooks, Patricia; Kempe, Vera (2012). Language Development. Chichester, West Sussex: Wiley. ISBN 9781444331462.
  4. ^ Tannen, Deborah (1982). Spoken and written language: exploring orality and literacy. Norwood, N.J.: ABLEX Pub. Corp.
  5. ^ Pinker, Steven; Bloom, Paul (December 1990). "Natural Language and Natural Selection". Behavioral and Brain Sciences. 13 (4): 707–727. doi:10.1017/S0140525X00081061. S2CID 6167614.
  6. ^ Aaron, P. G.; Joshi, R. Malatesha (September 2006). "Written Language Is as Natural as Spoken language: A Biolinguistic Perspective". Reading Psychology. 27 (4): 263–311. doi:10.1080/02702710600846803. S2CID 143184400.
  7. ^ Rickerson, E.M. "What's the difference between dialect and language?". The Five Minute Linguist. College of Charleston. Archived from the original on December 19, 2010. Retrieved October 23, 2016.
  8. ^ "Languages Facts". Archived from the original on October 24, 2016. Retrieved October 23, 2016.
  9. ^ Clay, Marie M. (30 April 2015). Record of oral language: observing changes in the acquisition of language structures: a guide for teaching. Auckland, New Zealand: Global Education Systems. ISBN 978-0-325-07457-3. OCLC 989724897.